Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is cancer of the lymphatic system, a vital part of the body's immune system. Symptoms and signs include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, coughing, weakness, chest pain, unexplained weight loss, and abdominal pain. Treatment depends on which type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma one has, the stage of the cancer, one's age, how fast the cancer is growing, and whether one has other health problems. Read more: Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Article
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Related Disease Conditions
Swollen Lymph Nodes (Glands)
Lymph nodes help the body's immune system fight infections. Causes of swollen lymph nodes (glands) may include infection (viral, bacterial, fungal, parasites). Symptoms of swollen lymph nodes vary greatly, but may include fever, night sweats, toothache, sore throat, or weight loss. Causes of swollen lymph nodes also vary, but may include cancer, the common cold, mono, chickenox, HIV, and herpes. The treatment of swollen lymph nodes depends upon the cause.
Abdominal Pain (Causes, Remedies, Treatment)
Abdominal pain can have many causes that range from mild to severe. Some of these causes include bloating, gas, colitis, endometriosis, food poisoning, GERD, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), ovarian cysts, abdominal adhesions, diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, gallbladder disease, liver disease, and cancers. Signs and symptoms of the more serious causes include dehydration, bloody or black tarry stools, severe abdominal pain, pain with no urination or painful urination. Treatment for abdominal pain depends upon the cause.
H. pylori (Helicobacter Pylori) Infection
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacteria that causes chronic inflammation (gastritis) of the inner lining of the stomach, and also is the most common cause of ulcers worldwide. About 50% of people in the world carries or is infected with H. pylori. Common symptoms of H. pylori infection are occasional abdominal discomfort, bloating, belching or burping, and nausea and vomiting. H. pylori infection is difficult to eradicate, and treatment is with two or more antibiotics.
Cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and is not contagious. Cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, a treatment of drugs that destroy cancer cells.
Night sweats are severe hot flashes that occur at night and result in a drenching sweat. The causes of night sweats in most people are not serious, like menopause in women, sleep apnea, medications, alcohol withdrawal, and thyroid problems. However, more serious diseases like cancer and HIV also can cause night sweats. Your doctor will treat your night sweats depending upon the cause. You may experience other signs and symptoms that are associated with night sweats, which depend upon the cause, but may include, shaking, and chills with a fever caused by an infection like the flu or pneumonia; unexplained weight loss due to lymphoma; women in perimenopause or menopause may also have vaginal dryness, mood swings, and hot flashes during the day; and low blood sugar in people with diabetes. Other causes of night sweats include medications like NSAIDs (aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), antidepressants, sildenafil (Viagra), and abuse of prescription or illegal drugs and drug withdrawal; hormone disorders like pheochromocytoma and carcinoid syndrome; idiopathic hyperhidrosis; infections like endocarditis, AIDs, and abscesses; alcoholism and alcohol withdrawal; drug abuse, addiction, and withdrawal; and stroke. A doctor or other health care professional can treat your night sweats after the cause has been diagnosed.
Fever in Adults and Children
Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37 C), in practice, a person is usually not considered to have a significant fever until the temperature is above 100.4 F (38 C). Fever is part of the body's own disease-fighting arsenal; rising body temperatures apparently are capable of killing off many disease-producing organisms.
Itch (Itching or Pruritus)
Itching can be a common problem. Itches can be localized or generalized. There are many causes of itching to include: infection (jock itch, vaginal itch), disease (hyperthyroidism, liver or kidney), reactions to drugs, and skin infestations (pubic or body lice). Treatment for itching varies depending on the cause of the itch.
Ascites, the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity is most commonly caused by cirrhosis of the liver. Some of the other causes of ascites include portal hypertension, congestive heart failure, blood clots, and pancreatitis. The most common symptoms include increased abdominal girth and size, abdominal bloating, and abdominal pain. Treatment depends on the cause of ascites.
Enlarged Spleen (Splenomegaly) Symptoms, Signs, Causes,Treatment
An enlarged spleen or splenomegaly, is generally caused by other diseases or conditions such as infections, cancers, blood disorders, or decreased blood flow. Symptoms of an enlarged spleen are often unnoticed. A feeling of fullness after eating a small amount of food and not being able to eat large meals may be a symptom of an enlarged spleen. Treatment for an enlarged spleen depends upon the cause.
Leukemia is a type of cancer of the blood cells in which the growth and development of the blood cells are abnormal. Strictly speaking, leukemia should refer only to cancer of the white blood cells (the leukocytes) but in practice it can apply to malignancy of any cellular element in the blood or bone marrow, as in red cell leukemia (erythroleukemia).
Fatigue can be described in various ways. Sometimes fatigue is described as feeling a lack of energy and motivation (both mental and physical). The causes of fatigue are generally related to a variety of conditions or diseases, for example, anemia, mono, medications, sleep problems, cancer, anxiety, heart disease, and drug abuse.Treatment of fatigue is generally directed toward the condition or disease that is causing the fatigue.
Eye floaters are deposits or condensation that forms in the eye's vitreous humor. These deposits cast shadows on the retina, and as the eye moves, the deposits shift position, making it appear as though the shadows are moving or floating.
Thrombocytopenia (Low Platelet Count)
Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) refers to a decreased number of platelets in the blood. Symptoms of thrombocytopenia include: Increased bruising Spontaneous bleeding Small, purple spots under the skin called purpura There are many causes of thrombocytopenia such as decreased platelet production (viral infections for example rubella, mumps, chickenpox, hepatitis C, and HIV); increased platelet destruction or consumption (for example sulfonamide antibiotics, heparin, blood transfusions, and lupus); or increased splenic sequestration (enlarged spleen due to conditions for example liver disease, blood cancers, and more). Treatment of thrombocytopenia depends on the cause.
Chronic cough is a cough that does not go away and is generally a symptom of another disorder such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, sinus infection, cigarette smoking, GERD, postnasal drip, bronchitis, pneumonia, medications, and less frequently tumors or other lung disease. Chronic cough treatment is based on the cause, but may be soothed natural and home remedies.
Chest pain is a common complaint by a patient in the ER. Causes of chest pain include broken or bruised ribs, pleurisy, pneumothorax, shingles, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, angina, heart attack, costochondritis, pericarditis, aorta or aortic dissection, and reflux esophagitis. Diagnosis and treatment of chest pain depends upon the cause and clinical presentation of the patient's chest pain.
Bone cancer is a rare type of cancer that occurs in cells that make up the bones. Primary bone cancer that arises in bone cells is different than metastatic bone cancer, which is cancer that arises in another part of the body and then spreads to the bones. Hereditary and environmental factors likely contribute to the risk of bone cancer. Signs and symptoms of bone cancer may include pain, the presence of a mass or lump, and bone fractures. There are different types of bone cancer (osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, pleomorphic sarcoma, fibrosarcoma). Treatment for bone cancer may include surgical removal of the tumor, chemotherapy, radiation, and/or a stem cell transplant. The prognosis for bone cancer depends on the type of cancer and the extent of spread.
SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth)
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) refers to a condition in which abnormally large numbers of bacteria (at least 100,000 bacteria per ml of fluid) are present in the small intestine, but they are more like the bacteria that are found in the colon. There are many conditions associated with SIBO, including: Diabetes Scleroderma Crohn's disease Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) It has been theorized that SIBO may be responsible for the symptoms of at least some patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Symptoms of SIBO include: Excess gas Abdominal bloating Abdominal pain Treatment for SIBO can include: Antibiotics Probiotics Low FODMAP Diet
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Hepatitis C (HCV, Hep C)
Hepatitis C is an inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is usually spread by blood transfusion, hemodialysis, and needle sticks, especially with intravenous drug abuse. Symptoms of chronic hepatitis include fatigue, fever, muscle aches, loss of appetite, and fever. Chronic hepatitis C may be cured in most individuals with drugs that target specific genomes of hepatitis C.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection left untreated causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Still incurable, AIDS describes immune system collapse that opens the way for opportunistic infections and cancers to kill the patient. Early symptoms and signs of HIV infection include flu-like symptoms and fungal infections, but some people may not show any symptoms for years. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the standard treatment for HIV infection. These combination drug regimens have made HIV much less deadly, but a cure or vaccine for the pandemic remains out of reach. HIV is usually transmitted through sexual contact or sharing IV drug needles, but can also infect someone through contact with infected blood. Sexual abstinence, safe sex practices, quitting IV drugs (or at least using clean needles), and proper safety equipment by clinicians and first responders can drastically reduce transmission rates for HIV/AIDS.
Cancer Risk Factors
Though it's difficult to say why some people develop cancer while others don't, research shows that certain risk factors increase a person's odds of developing cancer. These risk factors include growing older, family history of cancer, diet, alcohol and tobacco use, and exposure to sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals, and some viruses and bacteria.
Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is not known what causes MCL. MCL signs and symptoms include fever, enlarged spleen and liver, fatigue, and weight loss. Treatment of MCL incorporates radiotherapy and chemotherapy. MCL has a poor prognosis as it typically is diagnosed in a late stage.
Eosinophilic Fasciitis (Shulman's Syndrome)
Eosinophilic fasciitis is a skin disease that causes thickening and inflammation of the skin and fascia. Symptoms include redness, warmth, and hardening of the skin, as well as occasional tissue and joint pain. Treatment for eosinophilic fasciitis aims to eliminate inflammation through the use of aspirin, NSAIDs, and cortisone. Aggressive forms of eosinophilic fasciitis may require the use of immune-suppression medications.
Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Differences and Similarities
Both Hodgkin's disease (sometimes referred to as Hodgkin's lymphoma) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are cancers that originate in a type of white blood cell known as a lymphocyte, an important component of the body's immune system.
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Superior vena cava syndrome is compression of the superior vena cava vein located in the upper chest. Causes of superior vena cava include lung cancer, lymphoma, other cancers in the chest, blood clots in the superior vena cava, or infection. Symptoms of the syndrome include shortness of breath. Superior vena cava syndrome is diagnosed by ultrasound, chest x-ray, CT scan, and in some cases biopsy. Treatment depends upon the cause of the syndrome.
Burkitt lymphomas are types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that affect the bone marrow and central nervous system. There are multiple types of Burkitt lymphoma. Gene mutations, malaria, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may increase the risk of these cancers. Symptoms of Burkitt lymphoma may include nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, enlarged lymph nodes, and many other symptoms. Diagnosis involves lab testing, imaging studies, patient history, and cytogenic evaluation. There are multiple staging systems used to stage Burkitt lymphoma. Treatment consists of chemotherapy. The prognosis of the cancer tends to be more favorable in children than in adults.
Cancer fatigue is a lack of energy that is caused by cancer or cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, radiation, biological therapy, or bone marrow transplantation. Strategies to combat cancer fatigue include scheduling rest, pacing oneself, planning ahead and prioritizing work and activities, eating the right foods, exercising, and practicing proper body mechanics.
Castleman Disease is a group of related conditions. It is a rare disease with an unknown prevalence. Signs and symptoms of Castleman disease include: Weight loss Cough Rash Nausea Vomiting Night sweats Fever Fatigue Castleman disease is caused by an abnormal growth of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. There are two types of Castleman disease; 1) unicentric, and 2) multicentric. Castleman disease is diagnosed by biopsy of the suspected lymph nodes. Castleman disease is treated with medications (for example, corticosteroids, chemotherapy drugs, immunodilating drugs, interferon-alfa, and anti-viral medications), surgery, and radiation therapy. The life expectancy for a person with Castleman disease is difficult to determine because the condition is rare and takes different forms.
Hodgkin's disease is a cancer of the lymphatic system with symptoms that include unexplained, recurring fevers, unexplained weight loss, itchy skin, and painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, and groin. Treatment for adult Hodgkin's disease depends on the staging of the disease, the size of the lymph nodes, and the health of the patient.
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is common in older individuals and happens when too much antidiuretic hormone releases and causes water retention and a low sodium level. There are several causes of SIADH. Symptoms include seizures, irritability, elevated systolic blood pressure, and hyponatremia, among others. Treatment involves restricting fluids, treating the underlying cause, and taking medications to decrease the antidiuretic hormone's effect on the kidneys.
Most often, caregivers take care of other adults who are ill or disabled. Less often, caregivers are grandparents raising their grandchildren. The majority of caregivers are middle-aged women. Caregiving can be very stressful, so it's important to recognize when it's putting to much strain on you and to take steps to prevent/relieve stress.
What Is the Main Cause of Primary Lymphoma of Bone?
Primary lymphoma of bone (PLB) is a rare type of cancer that starts in the bone instead of the lymph nodes. PLB accounts for less than 5% of all bone tumors. PLB is also known as reticulum cell sarcoma, malignant lymphoma of bone or osteolymphoma, and it is a type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Pain is the most common symptom of PLB.
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Treatment & Diagnosis
- Complete Blood Count (CBC)
- CT Scan vs. MRI
- MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scan)
- Lumbar Puncture (LP or Spinal Tap)
- Chest X-Ray
- Bone Marrow Transplant Risks and Survival Rate
- CT Scan (Computerized Tomography)
- Radiation Therapy
- Screening Tests for Cancer
- Capsule Endoscopy
- Biological Therapy
- Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy
- Questions To Ask Before Surgery
- What Conditions Are Extracorporeal Photopheresis Used For?
- What Conditions Do You Need a Bone Marrow Transplant for?
- Why Is an Endobronchial Ultrasound Performed?
- Abdominal Pain
- Weight Loss
- Fatigue, Tiredness, and Lethargy
- Swollen Lymph Nodes (Lymphadenopathy)
- Chest Pain
- Pale Skin
- Chronic Cough
- Proteinuria (Protein in the Urine)
- How to Choose a Doctor
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Doctor: Getting the Most from Your Doctor's Appointment
- Advance Medical Directives
Medications & Supplements
Prevention & Wellness
- For Some, Follicular Lymphoma May Be Curable
- New Study Finds a Family Risk for Blood Cancer
- Breast Implants Tied to Rare Cancer Recalled
- Chemoimmunotherapy Regimen Approved to Treat DLBCL
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- Breast Implants Linked to Cancer Can Still be Sold in U.S.: FDA
- California Man Awarded $80 Million in Roundup Lawsuit
- Roundup Cancer Lawsuit Could Be 'Bellweather' Case
- Truxima Approved as First Biosimilar to Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Drug
- Microsoft Co-Founder Paul Allen Dead at Age 65
- Blood Test Gives Quick Prognosis for Lymphoma Treatment: Study
- New Treatment for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Approved
- New Cancer Immunotherapy Technique Could be 'Game Changer'
- Lawsuits Alleging Roundup Causes Cancer Can Move Forward: Judge
- 'Dance Moms' Star Abby Lee Miller Paralyzed by Spinal Infection
- Adcetris Approval Expanded to Include Later-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma
- Get Active, Beat Lymphoma?
- Gene Therapy Approved for B-Cell Lymphoma
- Newer Drug May Prolong Lymphoma Remission
- Adding Drug to Standard Care May Prolong Lymphoma Survival
- Aliqopa Approved for Follicular Lymphoma
- Immune Therapy Makes Headway Against a Lymphoma
- Radiologists Don't Face Higher Risk of Radiation-Related Death: Study
- Second, Unrelated Cancers Strike 1 in 12 Cancer Patients
- Stem Cell Transplant Can Help HIV Patients Battling Lymphoma: Study
- Head and Neck Cancers May Be Linked to Hepatitis C
- Young Black, Hispanic Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Face Worse Outcomes: Study
- Lymphoma Survivors May Not Get All Recommended Follow-Up Care
- Kids Born to Older Dads May Face Risk of Blood Cancers
- Fitness May Help Lower Odds for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
- Health Tip: Why Is My Skin Peeling?
- Screening Test Approved for Viruses That Cause Blood Cancer
- Mutations Linked to Blood Cancers Rise With Age, Study Shows
- Lymphoma Treatment May Harm, Halt Men's Sperm Production
- Early Stem Cell Transplant May Benefit Some Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients
- Survival Picture No Better for Patients With HIV-Related Lymphoma: Study
- Mapping Link Between Blood Cancer, Industrial Pollutant in Georgia
- New Strategy Helps Young Lymphoma Patients Avoid Radiation Treatment
- Children of Older Parents With Cancer May Be at Risk, Too
- Melanoma Odds Doubled for Transplant, Lymphoma Patients: Study
- Limited Radiation May Help Some Kids With Lymphoma
- 'Rediscovered' Lymphoma Drug Helps Double Survival: Study
- More Aggressive Chemo May Help Younger Lymphoma Patients: Study
- Cancer Drug May Also Treat Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- Children of Older Dads at Higher Risk of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
- Lifestyle Affects Survival in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma