Nightmares are dreams that cause high anxiety or terror. Nightmares may be a part of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and they usually occur during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. There are several different treatment options for nightmares, including cognitive-behavioral therapy and medications. Read more: Nightmares Article
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Related Disease Conditions
Tonsillitis is a contagious infection with symptoms of bad breath, snoring, congestion, headache, hoarseness, laryngitis, and coughing up blood. Tonsillitis can be caused by acute infection of the tonsils, and several types of bacteria or viruses (for example, strep throat or mononucleosis). There are two types of tonsillitis, acute and chronic. Acute tonsillitis lasts from 1-2 weeks while chronic tonsillitis can last from months to years. Treatment of tonsillitis and adenoids include antibiotics, over-the-counter medications, and home remedies to relieve pain and inflammation, for example, saltwater gargle, slippery elm throat lozenges, sipping warm beverages and eating frozen foods (ice cream, popsicles), serrapeptase, papain, and andrographism Some people with chronic tonsillitis may need surgery (tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy).
Grief and Mourning
Grief is the feeling one experiences after a loss (of a friendship, death of a loved one, job). Complicated grief refers to grief that lasts for more than a year. Mourning describes the customs and rituals that help bereaved individuals make sense of their loss.
Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension and fear characterized by symptoms such as trouble concentrating, headaches, sleep problems, and irritability. Anxiety disorders are serious medical illnesses that affect approximately 19 million American adults. Treatment for anxiety may incorporate medications and psychotherapy.
Panic attacks are sudden feelings of terror that strike without warning. These episodes can occur at any time, even during sleep. A person experiencing a panic attack may believe that he or she is having a heart attack or that death is imminent. The fear and terror that a person experiences during a panic attack are not in proportion to the true situation and may be unrelated to what is happening around them. Most people with panic attacks experience several of the following symptoms: racing heartbeat, faintness, dizziness, numbness or tingling in the hands and fingers, chills, chest pains, difficulty breathing, and a feeling of loss or control. There are several treatments for panic attacks.
Sleep Disorders (How to Get a Good Night's Sleep)
A number of vital tasks carried out during sleep help maintain good health and enable people to function at their best. Sleep needs vary from individual to individual and change throughout your life. The National Institutes of Health recommend about 7-9 hours of sleep each night for older, school-aged children, teens, and most average adults; 10-12 for preschool-aged children; and 16-18 hours for newborns. There are two stages of sleep; 1) REM sleep (rapid-eye movement), and 2) NREM sleep (non-rapid-eye movement). The side effects of lack of sleep or insomnia include: Irritability Tiredness Feeling sleepy during the day Concentration or memory problems Lack of sleep and insomnia can be caused by medical conditions or diseases, medications, stress, or pain. The treatment for lack of sleep and insomnia depends upon the cause.
Mental Illness in Children
About 5 million children and adolescents in the U.S. suffer from a serious mental illness such as eating disorders, anxiety disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, pervasive development disorders, elimination disorders, learning disorders, schizophrenia, tic disorders, and mood disorders. Symptoms of mental illness include frequent outbursts of anger, hyperactivity, fear of gaining weight, excessive worrying, frequent temper tantrums, and hearing voices that aren't there. Treatment may involve medication, psychotherapy, and creative therapies.
Sleep apnea is defined as a reduction or cessation of breathing during sleep. The three types of sleep apnea are central apnea, obstructive apnea (OSA), and a mixture of central and obstructive apnea. Central sleep apnea is caused by a failure of the brain to activate the muscles of breathing during sleep. OSA is caused by the collapse of the airway during sleep. OSA is diagnosed and evaluated through patient history, physical examination and polysomnography. There are many complications related to obstructive sleep apnea. Treatments are surgical and non-surgical.
Insomnia is the perception or complaint of inadequate or poor-quality sleep because of difficulty falling asleep; waking up frequently during the night with difficulty returning to sleep; waking up too early in the morning; or unrefreshing sleep. Secondary insomnia is the most common type of insomnia. Treatment for insomnia include lifestyle changes, cognitive behavioral therapy, and medication.
Children's health is focused on the well-being of children from conception through adolescence. There are many aspects of children's health, including growth and development, illnesses, injuries, behavior, mental illness, family health, and community health.
Mental health is an optimal way of thinking, relating to others, and feeling. All of the diagnosable mental disorders fall under the umbrella of mental illness. Depression, anxiety, and substance-abuse disorders are common types of mental illness. Symptoms and signs of mental illness include irritability, moodiness, insomnia, headaches, and sadness. Treatment may involve psychotherapy and medication.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a psychiatric condition, can develop after any catastrophic life event. Symptoms include nightmares, flashbacks, sweating, rapid heart rate, detachment, amnesia, sleep problems, irritability, and exaggerated startle response. Treatment may involve psychotherapy, group support, and medication.
Why Do People Sleepwalk (Somnambulism)?
Sleepwalking is a condition in which an individual walks or does other activities while asleep. Factors associated with sleepwalking include genetic, environmental, and physiological. Episodes of sleepwalking may include quiet walking to agitated running. Conditions that may have similar symptoms of sleepwalking, but are not include night terrors, confusional arousals, and nocturnal seizures. Treatment of sleepwalking generally include preventative measures. Medication may be prescribed if necessary.
Separation anxiety disorder is a common childhood anxiety disorder that has many causes. Infants, children, older kids and adults can suffer from symptoms of separation anxiety disorder. Common separation anxiety treatment methods include therapy and medications. Factors that contribute to how quickly or successfully a child moves past separation anxiety by preschool age include how well the parent and child reunite, the skills the child and adult have at coping with the separation, and how well the adult responds to the infant's separation issues. For example, children of anxious parents tend to be anxious children.
There are many forms of sexual assault, including rape, attempted rape, child molestation, sexual intercourse that you say no to, inappropriate touching, and vaginal, anal, or oral penetration. Sexual assault can also be anything that forces someone to join in unwanted sexual contact or attention, such as voyeurism, exhibitionism, incest, and sexual harassment.
Sleep Disorders in Children and Teenagers
Sleep needs in children and teenagers depend on the age of the child. Sleep disorders in children such as: sleep apnea, parasomnias, confusional arousals, night terrors, nightmares, narcolepsy, and sleepwalking which can affect a child's or teen's sleep. Healthy sleep habits and good sleep hygiene can help your infant, toddler, preschooler, tween, or teenager get a good night's sleep.
11 Reasons for Nightmares and How to Deal With Them
The most common underlying reason for frequent or recurring nightmares is pre-existing emotional distress.
Sleep Related Breathing Disorders
Sleep-related breathing disorders are characterized by disruptions of normal breathing patterns that only occur during sleep. Snoring and sleep apnea are the most common sleep-related breathing disorders.
Local ResourcesFind a local Psychiatrist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
- How to Choose a Doctor
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Doctor: Getting the Most from Your Doctor's Appointment
- Sleep Solutions: Michael Breus, PhD
- Sleep and Health for Older Americans -- Sonia Ancoli-Israel, PhD
- Sleep Disorders in Adults
- Sleep Disorders with Kids
- Sleep Disorders
- Sleep: Your Child's Sleep Habits and You
Medications & Supplements
Prevention & Wellness
- Health Tip: Home Remedies for Nightmares
- Health Tip: Help Your Child Deal With Night Terrors
- Nightmares Common Among U.S. Troops, But Seldom Reported
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- Can a Digital Doctor Help You Sleep?
- Poor Sleep May Worsen Suicidal Thoughts
- Teen Boys Treated for Assault Often Want Mental Health Care, Too
- Prince Harry's Journey Shows Grief Can Be a Long Road
- A 'Brainwave' to Help Fight PTSD
- Violent Media Often Give Rise to Nightmares
- Parents Often Miss Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Kids
- Be Alert for PTSD After Pregnancy Loss
- Health Tip: Avoid These 5 Pre-Bedtime Don'ts
- Fallout From 9/11 May Include Early Dementia
- PTSD May Stiffen Veterans' Arteries, Boosting Heart Risks
- Wearable Electric Patch May Ease PTSD
- Health Tip: These Triggers May be a Nightmare
- Mindfulness Therapy Might Help Ease PTSD
- Trauma, PTSD May Raise Women's Odds of Heart Attack, Stroke: Study
- Depression, Insomnia, Fatigue Are the Stuff of Nightmares
- Mini-Strokes May Lead to PTSD, Study Finds
- PTSD Link to Food Addiction Seen in Report
- Health Tip: If Your Child is Having Nightmares
- Suicides More Likely After Midnight, Study Finds
- ICU Patients at Much Greater Risk for PTSD: Study
- Nightmares May Haunt Bullied Kids
- Could Childhood Nightmares Foreshadow Mental Ills as Teen?
- College Drinking May Aggravate PTSD Symptoms
- No Rise of PTSD Seen in Children With Cancer
- Health Tip: Is Your Blood Sugar Low at Night?
- New Test Spots Risk for PTSD in Injured Kids
- Most Childhood Sleep Problems Are Preventable: Exper
- Sleep Apnea Treatment Eases Nightmares in Vets With PTSD: Study
- Health Tip: What's Keeping Your Child Awake?
- Health Tip: Help Ease Night Terrors
- Cartoons May Ease Anxiety for Kids Facing Surgery
- Taking Terror Out of Nightmares: Tips for Parents
- Complementary Medicine May Help Soldiers With PTSD: Study
- Vets' Readjustment Issues May Spur PTSD Treatment
- Sleep Problems Linked to More Special Ed
- Health Tip: Is Anxiety Affecting Your Child?
- Violent TV Shows Keep Young Kids Awake: Study
- Improve Care for Veterans With PTSD: Report
- Health Tip: If Your Child Has a Nightmare
- PTSD Unrecognized Risk Among Heart Attack Patients
- Violence Takes a Toll on Children's Sleep
- Health Tip: Minimize Nightmares
- 'Cyberstalking': Worse Than in-Person Harassment?