Trending Neurology Topics
A brain tumor can be benign or malignant, primary, or secondary. Causes and risk factors include age, gender, family history, and exposure to chemicals. Symptoms range from headaches, leg and feet numbness to seizures. Treatment is dependant upon the type and location of the brain tumor.
Watch this slideshow on strokes and learn about symptoms like sudden numbness or weakness in the face, arms, or legs, confusion, vision problems, problems with walking or coordination, or severe headache.
Find your Autism Spectrum Disorder IQ with this online quiz featuring answers to causes, symptoms, treatments, medications, and clues about ASD and Asperger syndrome.
Related Disease Conditions
Brain Aneurysm Warning Signs
Brain aneurysms may rarely cause any warning symptoms before they rupture. Symptoms may occur if the aneurysm is large or if it...
Early Warning Signs and Symptoms of Stroke (FAST)
Stroke is a serious medical condition. If you think you or someone you know is having a stroke call 911 immediately. There...
Abdominal Migraines in Children and Adults
Abdominal migraine in adults and children is a variant of migraine headaches. Abdominal migraine in children generally occurs in...
Abdominal Migraines in Children and Adults
MS (Multiple Sclerosis) vs. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) Differences and Similarities
ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Lou Gehrig's disease) and MS (multiple sclerosis) are both diseases of the nervous system...
Alternative Treatment for MS (CAM for MS)
The term alternative therapy, in general, is used to describe any medical treatment or intervention that has not been...
ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) Symptoms, Causes, Life Expectancy
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease) is a neurological disease that progresses rapidly. The disease attacks...
Aphasia is a condition that is the result of damage to portions of the brain. It can be caused by stroke, head injury, brain...
Arachnoiditis is a painful condition that is caused by the inflammation of the arachnoid, a membrane that protects the nerves of...
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a congenital disorder of blood vessels in the brain, brainstem, or spinal cord that is...
Ataxia is a lack of muscle coordination when a voluntary movement is attempted. There are many different types of ataxia...
Autism Spectrum Disorder (In Children and Adults)
Autism in children and adults is a developmental disorder, characterized by impaired development in communication, social...
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) FAQs
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are developmental disorders that do not appear to be linked to vaccines. More people than ever...
Brain aneurysm (cerebral aneurysm) is caused by microscopic damage to artery walls, infections of the artery walls, tumors,...
Concussion is a short-lived loss of brain function that is due to head trauma. There are two types of concussion, simple and...
Brain Damage: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment
Brain damage causes destruction or deterioration of brain cells. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and acquired brain injury (ABI) are...
A brain hemorrhage is a type of stroke caused when an artery bursts in the brain, causing localized bleeding in the surrounding...
Brain Lesions (Lesions on the Brain)
A brain lesion is defined as an area of damaged brain. Brain lesions (lesions on the brain) are caused by trauma, inflammation, ...
Brain Tumor: Warning Symptoms, Types, Causes, Treatments, and Cure
A brain tumor can be either non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant), primary, or secondary. Common symptoms of a primary...
Can Peripheral Artery Disease Affect the Heart?
Peripheral artery disease is a condition in which extremities (usually the legs) do not receive sufficient blood flow due to the...
Can the Vagus Nerve Cause Seizures?
The vagus nerve is an important pathway to the brain in addition to helping to control seizures. Stimulation of the vagus nerve...
Can You Be a Little Autistic?
No, there is no such thing as being a little autistic. Many people may show some characteristics of autism from time to time....
Can You Fully Recover From Guillain-Barré Syndrome?
Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) may last between 14 and 30 days and you may slowly recuperate from it. Usually, recovery takes 6...
Canavan disease is an inherited genetic disorder that typically causes death before 10 years of age. Signs and symptoms of the...
Cauda Equina Syndrome
Cauda equina syndrome is a medical emergency condition that is caused by the uncommon compression of the nerves at the end of the...
Cerebral palsy (CP) is an abnormality of motor function and postural tone acquired at an early age (even before birth). Cerebral...
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is one of the most common inherited neurological disorders. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease affects the...
Coma is the inability to waken or react to the surrounding environment. The Glasgow Coma Scale is frequently used to measure the...
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic pain condition in which high levels of nerve impulses are sent to an affected site is...
Neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome) is a disease of the CNS that affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. People with...
Dizziness is a symptom that often applies to a variety of sensations including lightheadedness and vertigo. Causes of dizziness...
Do Balance Disorders Go Away?
Generally, balance disorders last for a couple of days and the patient recovers slowly over 1 to 3 weeks. However, some patients...
Dystonia disorders cause involuntary movements and prolonged muscle contraction, resulting in twisting body motions, tremor, and...
Autism: Early Signs and Symptoms
Autism is known as a condition that falls under the category of the "autism spectrum disorders" because there is wide variation...
Encephalopathy means brain disease, damage, or malfunction. Causes of encephalopathy are varied and numerous. The main symptom of...
Encephalopathy vs Encephalitis: Differences
Encephalopathy is a clinical syndrome (a group of disorders) that damages the brain resulting in brain dysfunction....
Endovascular coiling is a procedure that is used to treat brain aneurysms. The procedure is an alternative to surgical clipping....
Epilepsy and Seizures: How to Treat?
A seizure is a sudden, uncontrolled electrical disturbance in the brain. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder where brain...
Face Blindness (Prosopagnosia)
Face blindness (prosopagnosia) is a condition that causes the inability to recognize faces. Face blindness may be caused by...
Bell's Palsy (Facial Nerve Problems) Paralysis Causes and Treatments
Bell's palsy is one type of facial nerve paralysis. The 7th cranial nerve controls the muscles of the face, and although...
What Were Your First Signs and Symptoms of a Brain Tumor?
The symptoms of a tumor depend on how big it is and where it is in the brain. Some slow-growing tumors may not cause any symptoms...
Guillain-Barré Syndrome is an autoimmune disease of the nervous system due to damage to the myelin sheath around nerves....
Head Injury (Brain Injury)
In the United States, head injuries are one of the most common causes of death and disability. Head injuries due to bleeding are...
Hematoma Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
A hematoma is a collection of blood that is outside a blood vessel. There are different areas where hematomas occur including;...
How Long Can You Live With ALS?
On average, a person with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) may live for about two to five years from the time of diagnosis....
Huntington's disease is the result of degeneration of neurons in areas of the brain. Huntington's disease is an inherited...
Hydrocephalus is an abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain. The fluid is often under...
Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM)
Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is a progressive muscle disorder characterized by muscle inflammation, weakness, and atrophy...
Is Dystonia a Form of Parkinson's?
Dystonia can be one of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD is a long-term neurological movement disorder with various...
Is MS Contagious? (Multiple Sclerosis)
Multiple sclerosis, or MS, is a degenerative disease of the covering around the nerves in the central nervous system (CNS)....
Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are the main sources of exposure for lead in U.S. children. Lead-based paints were...
Left Brain vs. Right Brain (Characteristics, Differences, and Functions)
Are left brain vs. right brain theories myth or fact? They actually are a little of both! Scientists and researchers have tried...
Lewy Body Dementia (Dementia with Lewy Bodies)
Lewy body dementia (LBD or dementia with Lewy bodies) is one the most common causes of dementia. There are two types of LBD: 1)...
What Is the Life Expectancy of a Child With Dravet Syndrome?
Dravet syndrome is a rare, severe, and lifelong form of epilepsy (seizure disorder). Most people affected by this condition have...
Locked-in syndrome is a condition that causes paralysis and the inability to speak or move the face. A hemorrhage and blood clot...
MELAS syndrome, a rare form of dementia, stands for Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes....
Meralgia paresthetica is an entrapment or "pinching" of the nerve (lateral femoral cutaneous nerve) that supplies sensation to...
Mercury is a naturally occurring element found in water, soil, and the air. Mercury also is contained in some fish, some of the...
Migraines and Seizures (Symptoms, Auras, Medication)
Migraines are a type of headache and seizures are the main symptom of epilepsy. Migraine headaches and seizures are two...
Migraine and Stroke
Migraine headache is a type of headache in which the exact cause is not known; however, they may be inherited, and certain...
Migraine vs. Headache: Differences and Similarities
Headaches are the most common reason why a person goes to the doctor or other healthcare professional for treatment. There are...
Learn about mitochondrial disease, genetic disease in which include a group of neuromuscular diseases that are caused by damage...
Motion sickness is a feeling of unwellness caused by the inner ear and balance systems. Motion sickness can include sea sickness,...
Moyamoya disease is an inherited (genetic) progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused by arteries that are blocked at the base...
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms vary from person to person, and can last for days to months without periods of remission....
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Life Expectancy
Multiple sclerosis or MS is an autoimmune disorder in which brain and spinal cord nerve cells become demyelinated. This damage...
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Pregnancy
Multiple sclerosis or MS is a central nervous system disease in which the immune system attacks the myelin sheath (the protective...
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Early Warning Signs and Types
Multiple sclerosis (MS) can be thought of as an immune-mediated inflammatory process involving different areas of the central...
Myasthenia gravis, a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease. Varying degrees of weakness of the voluntary muscles of the body...
Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that leads to ongoing pain symptoms. Patients can be predisposed to developing...
Occipital Neuralgia (Headache)
Occipital neuralgia is a type of headache that involves inflammation or irritation of occipital nerves. Signs and symptoms...
Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressive neurological disease characterized by a fixed inexpressive face, a tremor at rest,...
Parkinson's Disease Clinical Trials
Before participating in a clinical trial for Parkinson's disease consider the risks and the benefits. You should know about who...
Parkinson's Disease: Eating Right
Eating a well-balanced and nutritional diet is very beneficial to people with Parkinson's disease. With a proper diet, our...
Parry-Romberg syndrome is a rare disorder that is characterized by a slow progressive atrophy of the skin and soft tissues of...
Periodic Paralysis Syndrome (Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Diet)
Periodic paralysis syndrome comprises several types of rare muscle diseases in which a person experiences temporary muscle...
Peripheral neuropathy is a problem with the functioning of the nerves outside of the spinal cord. Symptoms may include numbness,...
Frontotemporal Dementia (Pick's Disease and Semantic Dementia)
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a syndrome that is associated with shrinking of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain....
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a group of signs and symptoms that show up two to four decades after the initial polio infection....
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
Progressive supranuclear palsy, or PSP, is a rare neurodegenerative disease that is often misdiagnosed as Parkinson's disease...
Pseudotumor Cerebri (Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension)
Pseudotumor Cerebri (intracranial hypertension) is a condition where there is an increase in pressure of fluid surrounding the...
Ramsay Hunt Syndrome
Ramsay Hunt syndrome is an infection of a facial nerve that causes a red painful rash with blisters and facial paralysis. Other...
Restless Leg Syndrome
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common cause for painful legs that typically eases with motion, and becomes worse and more...
Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which the person has seizures. There are two kinds of seizures, focal and generalized. There are...
Seizure vs. Seizure Disorders (Differences and Similarities)
The differences between a seizure, epilepsy, and seizure disorders are confusing to many people. What makes it more confusing, is...
Seizures Symptoms and Types
Seizures are divided into two categories: generalized and partial. Generalized seizures are produced by electrical impulses from...
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited (genetic) disease that attacks motor neurons (nerve cells) in the spinal cord. As...
Stiff-Person syndrome is a neurological disorder associated with features of an autoimmune disease. Signs and symptoms of...
Stroke vs. Mini-Stroke (TIA) Differences
A stroke or "brain attack" occurs when a blood clot or artery ruptures within the brain. The rupture or clot causes...
Tardive dyskinesia occurs after exposure to certain types of medication. The most common medications that can lead to tardive...
Tourette syndrome is disorder, which symptoms include involuntary facial tics, motor tics, and vocal tics. The cause of Tourette...
How Do You Get Rid of Restless Leg Syndrome?
Restless Leg Syndrome is an often uncontrollable urge to twitch and move your legs – especially when sitting or lying down. It...
How Do I Get My Sciatic Nerve to Stop Hurting?
Sciatica or sciatic nerve pain is centered on the lower back, and the cause is usually from a ruptured disc in the spinal column...
Tremor is the involuntary movements of one or more parts of the body. Causes of tremor include neurological disorders,...
Pain that originates in the face is referred to as trigeminal neuralgia. This pain may be caused by: an injury, an infection...
Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or rocking, even when someone is at rest. Vertigo may be caused by a problem in the brain or...
Balance is a state of body equilibrium or stability. We often take for granted how dependent we are on a healthy balance system....
What Are the Very First Signs of Multiple Sclerosis?
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord of...
What Are the Four Types of Diabetic Neuropathy?
Diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy can be extremely painful. It can...
What Causes Neuropathy?
Neuropathy is the damage or dysfunction of the nerves. Nerves are the fibers that transmit sensations to the brain or spinal...
What Causes Peripheral Neuropathy?
The nervous system has two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The brain and...
What Is a Person with Bipolar Disorder Like?
Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by changes in mood, energy, and the ability to function. People with...
What Are the Early Signs of Multiple Sclerosis?
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the central nervous system (spinal cord and brain)...
What Is the Function of Endocannabinoids?
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a complex nerve cell signaling system that modulates the central nervous system’s function...
What Is Usually the First Sign of ALS?
The earliest signs of neuromuscular disorder ankylosing spondylitis (ALS) usually include muscle weakness or stiffness...
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Autism Quiz: Test Your IQ of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Take the Autism Spectrum Disorder Quiz related to the causes, reasons, symptoms, treatment, diagnosis, and therapies for this...
Balance Disorders: Vertigo, Motion Sickness, Labyrinthitis, and More
What is vertigo? What causes dizziness? Understand different balance disorders and symptoms such as vertigo, motion sickness,...
Brain and Nervous System: Left-Handed vs. Right-Handed People
Right- and left-handed people can differ in very noticeable ways. Find out how and why....
Concussions & Brain Injuries: Symptoms, Tests, Treatment
Concussions are a common type of traumatic brain injury. Read more about symptoms of a concussion, how to treat head injuries,...
Epilepsy & Seizures Quiz: What Causes Seizures?
Do you know the difference between seizures and epilepsy? What are the types of seizures? Take the Epilepsy & Seizures Quiz to...
Epilepsy: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment
Learn about epilepsy stages, symptoms and treatment for this disorder of the brain's electrical system. Epileptic seizures cause...
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Multiple Sclerosis is a debilitating neurological condition. Take the MS Quiz to test your knowledge of the causes, symptoms,...
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Symptoms and Treatment
Learn about multiple sclerosis (MS) causes, symptoms, and treatment for this autoimmune disease that attacks the nerves of the...
What You Should Know About Multiple Sclerosis
Learn about celebrities, such as Montel Williams and Jack Osbourne, who are living with multiple sclerosis....
Picture of Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms
Symptoms of multiple sclerosis may be single or multiple and may range from mild to severe in intensity and short to long in...
Picture of Nerve Fibers and Myelin Attack in MS
In multiple sclerosis, an agent such as a virus or foreign antigen, in theory, may alter or interact with the immune system so...
Parkinson's Disease: Symptoms, Causes, Stages, Treatment
Discover the symptoms, causes, stages, and treatment options for Parkinson's disease. Learn more about the stages of Parkinson's...
Parkinson's Disease Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Parkinson's disease is common among neurodegenerative disorders. Do you know how it works? The causes? The symptoms? Take the...
Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Restless leg syndrome (RLS), an annoying, sometimes painful disorder that keeps millions of people awake at night. What are the...
Restless Legs Syndrome: 16 Natural Remedies and Treatment for RLS
Restless legs syndrome treatment includes natural remedies that you can implement at home. Use exercise, sleep hygiene, and...
Vertigo and Balance Disorders Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Take the quiz and find out the causes, symptoms, treatments, and ways to prevent the confusing balance disorder called vertigo....
Weird Body Quirks in Pictures: Brain Freezes, Hiccupping, & More
Ice cream brain freeze, hiccups, charley horses, vertigo--what's behind these weird body quirks anyway? Our experts explain...
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Baclofen Pump (Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis)
- Botox to Treat Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
- Electromyogram (EMG)
- Epilepsy Treatment
- Extratemporal Cortical Resection
- First Aid for Seizures
- How Long Does an Ulnar Nerve Block Last?
- How Painful is a Lumbar Puncture?
- Is Craniotomy a Serious Surgery?
- Multiple Subpial Transection
- What Do Nerve Conduction Studies and Electromyography Diagnose?
- Nerve Conduction Velocity Test
- What Is the Recovery Time for Trigeminal Neuralgia Surgery?
- What are the Risks and Complications of an Amygdalohippocampectomy?
- What Are the Side Effects of Stereotactic Radiosurgery?
- Surgical Options for Epilepsy
- Temporal Lobe Resection
- Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) for Seizures
- What Are Muscle Biopsy and Clinical and Laboratory Features of Neuromuscular Disease?
- What Does an MS Attack Feel Like?
- What Happens During A Video EEG Test?
- What Is a Sural Nerve Block?
- What Is a Video EEG Test?
- What Is Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring?
- What Is the Recovery Time for a Discectomy?
- What Is Ventriculoatrial Shunt Placement?
- Who Is at High Risk for Multiple Sclerosis?
- Altered Mental Status
- Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)
- Cluster Headache
- Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
- Frontotemporal Dementia
- Guillain-Barre Syndrome
- Huntington's Disease
- Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
- Myasthenia Gravis
- Occipital Neuralgia
- Parkinson's Disease
- Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
- Pseudotumor Cerebri
- Shaking Hands (Hand Tremors)
- Spinal Headache
- Stiff-Person Syndrome
- Tension Headache
- Vocal Outbursts
- 8 Tips for Parents of Kids with Asperger's Syndrome
- What Are the Different Types of Epilepsy?
- Bell's Palsy Symptoms
- Candle Wicks Containing Lead
- Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)
- Concussion Symptoms and Testing
- 21 Concussions Symptoms
- Does the weather affect neuritis?
- Guillain-Barre Syndrome Symptoms
- Head Injury Symptoms, Types, and Severity
- How Does Multiple Sclerosis Affect the Body?
- How Serious Is Multiple Sclerosis?
- Is MS passed on genetically?
- Migraine Headache Treatment
- Multiple Sclerosis Treatment
- Nodding Syndrome Symptoms (Nodding Disease)
- Robin Williams and Lewy Body Dementia
- Seizure Symptoms: How to Assist the Victim
- Signs of Cerebral Palsy
- Sports and Concussions: What Are the Recommendations?
- Stroke Symptoms - Typical
- Surviving a Gunshot Wound to the Head
- Surviving a Stroke
- The Worst Headache of Your Life: Brain Hemorrhage Symptoms
- Motion Sickness: 10 Prevention Tips
- Vertigo Causes
- Vertigo Treatment
- What Are the Symptoms of Chorea?
- What Is a Cerebral Infarction?
- What Is the Treatment for Dravet Syndrome?
Medications & Supplements
- alemtuzumab (Campath)
- ambenonium - oral, Mytelase
- Aubagio (teriflunomide)
- Austedo (deutetrabenazine)
- baclofen (Gablofen, Lioresal)
- benztropine (Cogentin)
- betahistine (oral)
- onabotulinumtoxinA, Botox, Botox Cosmetic
- butalbital/acetaminophen/caffeine (Esgic, Fioricet)
- carbamazepine, Tegretol, Tegretol XR , Equetro, Carbatrol, Epitol, Teril
- Cholinesterase Inhibitors (Side Effects, Uses, Interactions)
- Cogentin (benztropine) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Copaxone (glatiramer acetate)
- daclizumab (Zinbryta)
- dalfampridine, Ampyra
- Depakote (valproic acid) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera)
- Epidiolex (cannabidiol)
- fingolimod (Gilenya)
- gabapentin (Neurontin)
- gabapentin enacarbil (Horizant, Gralise, Neurontin)
- glatiramer (Copaxone, Glatopa)
- Ingrezza (valbenazine)
- Avonex (interferon beta 1a injection)
- interferon beta-1a (Rebif)
- lamotrigine, Lamictal, Lamictal CD, Lamictal ODT, Lamictal XR
- Lemtrada (alemtuzumab)
- levetiracetam (Keppra)
- levodopa-carbidopa, Sinemet, Sinemet CR, Parcopa
- lidocaine injection (Xylocaine)
- Cladribine Oral Tablets (10mg) for Multiple Sclerosis
- Mayzent (siponimod)
- meclizine, Antivert, Bonine, Meni-D, Antrizine
- Neurontin (gabapentin) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- nimodipine - oral, Nymalize
- peginterferon beta-1a (Plegridy)
- phenytoin (Dilantin)
- pramipexole (Mirapex, Mirapex ER)
- Primidone (Mysoline) Side Effects, Dosage, and Uses
- pyridostigmine (Mestinon)
- rasagiline (Azilect)
- ropinirole (Requip)
- Sabril (vigabatrin)
- levetiracetam (Keppra) Side Effects
- Side Effects of Aubagio (teriflunomide)
- Side Effects of Azilect (rasagiline)
- Side Effects of Dilantin (phenytoin)
- Side Effects of Rebif (interferon beta-1a)
- Side Effects of Lamictal (lamotrigine)
- Side Effects of Keppra (levetiracetam)
- Side Effects of Sinemet (carbidopa-levodopa)
- Side Effects of Lidoderm (lidocaine)
- Side Effects of Antivert (meclizine)
- Side Effects of Mestinon (pyridostigmine)
- Side Effects of Mirapex (pramipexole)
- Side Effects of Mysoline (primidone)
- Side Effects of Plegridy (peginterferon beta-1a)
- Side Effects of Requip (ropinorole)
- Side Effects of Zanaflex (tizanidine)
- Side Effects of Zonegran (zonisamide)
- succimer - oral, Chemet
- Tecfidera (dimethyl fumarate)
- teriflunomide (Aubagio)
- tizanidine (Zanaflex)
- topiramate, Topamax, Qudexy XR, Topamax Sprinkle, Topiragen, Trokendi XR
- valproic acid, divalproex, Depakote, Depakote Sprinkle, Depakote ER, Depakene, Depacon, Stavzor
- vigabatrin - oral
- Vigadrone (vigabatrin)
- What Are the Side Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs?
- Who Is A Candidate for Thrombolytic Therapy?
- Xcopri (cenobamate)
- zonisamide (Zonegran)