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What is NephrAmine and how does it work?
5.4% NephrAmine (essential amino acid) Injection is amino acids used in conjunction with other measures, to provide nutritional support for patients with uremia (irreversible damage to the kidneys caused by kidney disease), particularly when oral nutrition is infeasible or impractical.
What are the side effects of NephrAmine?
Common side effects of 5.4% NephrAmine include:
Protect from light until use.
What is the dosage for NephrAmine?
- The objective of nutritional management of renal decompensation is the provision of sufficient amino acid and caloric support for protein synthesis without greatly exceeding the renal capacity to excrete metabolic wastes.
- Three grams of nitrogen per day provided as essential amino acids with adequate calories produce nitrogen equilibrium in many stable patients with chronic uremia.
- Although nitrogen requirements may be higher in stressed or acutely uremic patients, or those on dialysis, provision of additional nitrogen may not be possible due to fluid intake limits or glucose intolerance.
- The usual methods of determining individual patient requirements for amino acids such as nitrogen balance or daily body weight are difficult to perform or interpret in the uremic patient.
- Therefore, dosage is guided by the patient's fluid intake limits and glucose and nitrogen tolerances, as well as metabolic and clinical response.
- Rate of rise of blood urea nitrogen generally diminishes with infusion of essential amino acids.
- However, excessive intake of dietary protein or increased protein catabolism may alter this response.
- Generally, 250 to 500 mL of 5.4% NephrAmine (Essential Amino Acid Injection), containing approximately 1.6 to 3.2 grams of nitrogen (in 13.4 to 26.8 grams of essential amino acids), are given daily.
- Adequate calories should be provided simultaneously.
- Each 250 mL of NephrAmine is typically mixed aseptically with 500 mL of 70% dextrose to yield a solution of 1.8% NephrAmine in 47% dextrose.
- This mixture provides a calorie-to-nitrogen ratio of 744:1.
- Solution administrated by peripheral vein should not exceed twice normal serum osmolarity (718 mOsmol/L).
- Initial total daily dose should be low and increased slowly.
- As the dose is increased, frequent laboratory and clinical monitoring is strongly recommended, especially in very young patients, to avoid clinically significant elevations of serum ammonia and plasma amino acid levels.
- Dosage of NephrAmine above one gram of essential amino acids per kg of body weight per day is not recommended.
- In pediatric patients, the final solution should not exceed twice normal serum osmolarity (718 mOsmol/L).
- Use of 5.4% NephrAmine in pediatric patients is governed by the same considerations that affect the use of any amino acid solution in pediatrics. The amount administered is dosed on the basis of grams of amino acids/kg of body weight/day.
- Fat emulsion coadministration should be considered when prolonged (more than 5 days) parenteral nutrition is required in order to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency (E.F.A.D.). Serum lipids should be monitored for evidence of E.F.A.D. in patients maintained on fat free TPN.
- Electrolyte supplementation may be required. Undiluted NephrAmine (Essential Amino Acid Injection) contains 5 mEq/liter of sodium. Elevated serum potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels generally decrease during treatment with NephrAmine. Although these effects are beneficial, especially in acute renal failure, in some instances the reduction may be so great that supplementation of these electrolytes is required, especially in the presence of cardiac arrhythmias or digitalis toxicity. During periods of anuria or oliguria, electrolyte supplementation should be done with caution, even if serum levels are in the low normal range.
- Compatibility of electrolyte additives to the 5.4% NephrAmine/hypertonic dextrose mixture must be considered, and potentially incompatible ions such as calcium and phosphate may be added to alternate infusion bottles to avoid precipitation.
- In patients with hyperchloremic or other metabolic acidosis, sodium and potassium may be added as acetate or lactate salts to provide bicarbonate precursor.
- The electrolyte content of NephrAmine must be considered when calculating daily electrolyte intake.
- Serum electrolytes, including magnesium and phosphorus, should be monitored frequently.
- If a patient's nutritional intake is primarily parenteral, vitamins, especially the water soluble vitamins, should also be provided.
- Hypertonic mixtures of essential amino acids and dextrose may be safely administered by continuous infusion through a central venous catheter with the tip located in the superior vena cava.
- Initial infusion rates should be slow, generally 20-30 mL/hour. Increases by increments of 10 mL/hour each 24 hours are recommended to a maximum of 60-100 mL/hour.
- If administration rate should fall behind schedule, no attempt to “catch up” to planned intake should be made.
- Administration rate is governed by the patient's nitrogen, fluid, and glucose tolerance.
- Uremic patients are frequently glucose intolerant, especially in association with peritoneal dialysis, and may require the administration of exogenous insulin to prevent hyperglycemia.
- Blood glucose levels must be determined frequently.
- To prevent rebound hypoglycemia, a solution containing 5% dextrose should be administered when hypertonic dextrose infusions are abruptly discontinued.
- Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
- Care must be taken to avoid incompatible admixtures. Consult with pharmacist.
What drugs interact with NephrAmine ?
- Some additives may be incompatible. Consult with pharmacist.
- When introducing additives, use aseptic techniques.
- Mix thoroughly. Do not store.
Is NephrAmine safe to take when pregnant or breastfeeding?
- It is also not known whether NephrAmine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity.
- NephrAmine should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when NephrAmine is administered to a nursing woman.
5.4% NephrAmine (essential amino acid) Injection is amino acids used in conjunction with other measures, to provide nutritional support for uremic patients, particularly when oral nutrition is infeasible or impractical.
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Kidney Stones (nephrolithiasis)
Kidney stones are solid masses of crystalline material that form in the kidneys. Symptoms of kidney stones can include pain, nausea, vomiting, and even fever and chills. Kidney stones are diagnosed via CT scans and specialized X-rays. Treatment of kidney stones involves drinking lots of fluids and taking over-the-counter pain medications to medical intervention including prescription medications, lithotripsy, and sometimes even surgery.
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is characterized by numerous cysts in the kidneys. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder. There are two major inherited forms of PKD, autosomal dominant PKD, and autosomal recessive PKD. Symptoms include headaches, urinary tract infections, blood in the urine, liver and pancreatic cysts, abnormal heart valves, high blood pressure, kidney stones, aneurysms, and diverticulosis. Diagnosis of PKD is generally with ultrasound, CT or MRI scan. There is no cure for PKD, so treatment of symptoms is usually the general protocol.
Kidney (Renal) Failure
Kidney failure can occur from an acute event or a chronic condition or disease. Prerenal kidney failure is caused by blood loss, dehydration, or medication. Some of the renal causes of kidney failure include sepsis, medications, rhabdomyolysis, multiple myeloma, and acute glomerulonephritis. Post renal causes of kidney failure include bladder obstruction, prostate problems, tumors, or kidney stones.Treatment options included diet, medications, or dialysis.
Hypertensive Kidney Disease
High blood pressure can damage the kidneys and is one of the leading causes of kidney failure (end-stage renal kidney disease). Kidney damage, like hypertension, can be unnoticeable and detected only through medical tests. If you have kidney disease, you should control your blood pressure. Other treatment options include prescription medications.
Diabetes and Kidney Disease
In the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose increase the risk that a person with diabetes will eventually progress to kidney failure. Kidney disease in people with diabetes develops over the course of many years. albumin and eGFR are two key markers for kidney disease in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood pressure, blood pressure medications, a moderate protein diet, and compliant management of blood glucose can slow the progression of kidney disease. For those patients who's kidneys eventually fail, dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only option.
Kidney Pain Symptoms, Treatment, and Cure
Kidney pain has a variety of causes and symptoms. Infection, injury, trauma, bleeding disorders, kidney stones, and less common conditions may lead to kidney pain. Symptoms associated with kidney pain may include fever, vomiting, nausea, flank pain, and painful urination. Treatment of kidney pain depends on the cause of the pain.
Kidney Pain vs. Back Pain
The signs and symptoms of kidney pain and back pain depend upon the underlying cause. Doctors may use blood tests, X-rays, CT, and/or MRI to diagnose kidney pain and back pain. Treatment may include rest, ice, stretching, muscle strengthening, and pain-relieving medications.
What Are the Signs That Something Is Wrong With My Kidneys?
Most of the signs of kidney diseases are unnoticed, ignored, or appear very late in the disease. Over 37 million American adults have kidney diseases, and most are not aware of it.
Treatment & Diagnosis
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