How to treat nausea and vomiting
If you experience nausea, you can control it by the following methods:
- Drink clear or ice-cold drinks
- Avoid brushing your teeth after eating
- Eat light, bland foods such as crackers or plain bread (BRAT food)
- Do not mix hot and cold foods
- Avoid fried, greasy, or sweet foods
- Eat slowly, smaller, more frequent meals
- Drink beverages slowly
- Avoid activity after eating
- Avoid milk products for the first 24-48 hours
- Choose foods from all the food groups to get essential nutrients
- Divert yourself with soft music, TV program, or by talking with someone
- Avoid low-fat foods
If you experience vomiting, you can control it by the following methods:
- Temporarily discontinuing medications that may irritate the stomach and make vomiting worse
- Avoiding solid food until the vomiting episode has passed
- Drinking a large amount of clear water, sip by sip
If vomiting and diarrhea persist for more than 24 hours, you should take oral rehydration salt (ORS) to prevent dehydration.
There are many over-the-counter medications or prescription medications to treat vomiting. Vomiting linked with surgery, radiation therapy, anticancer drugs, alcohol, and morphine needs another type of drug therapy for its treatment.
Medications commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting (antiemetic) includes:
- Serotonin antagonists: Ondansetron, Granisetron, and Dolasetron
- NK-1 receptor antagonists: Aprepitant, Rolapitant, and Fosaprepitant
- Dopamine antagonists: Prochlorperazine and Metoclopramide
- Anti-anxiety drugs: Lorazepam and Alprazolam
- Cannabinoids: Dronabinol and Nabilone
How to prevent nausea and vomiting
Prevention methods for nausea include:
- Eating slowly
- Avoiding hard-to-digest foods
- Eating small meals throughout the day instead of three large meals
- Consuming foods at room temperature
- Avoiding obnoxious odors that would instigate nausea
- Drinking water between the meals rather than during the meals
- Drinking at least six- to eight-ounce glasses of water a day
- Avoiding stuffing yourself and trying to eat less when you feel nauseated
- Resting with your head elevated 12 inches above your feet after having a meal
- Avoiding skipping meals or snacks
- Using butter, oils, syrups, sauces, and milk in foods to increase calories
Prevention methods of vomiting include:
- Consuming small amounts of clear, sweetened liquids, such as fruit juices or soda pop
- Avoiding orange or grapefruit juices because they are extremely acidic
- Resting either in a sitting or proper sleeping position
- Avoiding allowing kids to eat and play at the same time
You should consume certain foods and avoid certain foods while feeling nauseated, which is shown in the food chart.
Type of foods
Foods to eat
Foods to avoid
Bread, cereals, rice, and pasta
Fruits and vegetables
Drinks, desserts, and other foods
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ammonium chlorideAmmonium chloride is an acidifying agent administered intravenously to treat metabolic alkalosis and low chloride levels (hypochloremia). Do not take ammonium chloride if you have impaired liver or kidney function. Common side effects of ammonium chloride include metabolic acidosis, ammonia toxicity symptoms, rapid breathing (hyperventilation), EEG abnormalities, involuntary muscle contractions due to electrolyte imbalance (calcium-deficient tetany), seizure, mental confusion, drowsiness, injection site reactions, rash, low blood potassium levels (hypokalemia), high blood chloride levels (hyperchloremia), abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Consult your doctor if pregnant or breastfeeding.
Common Medical Abbreviations & Terms
Doctors, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals use abbreviations, acronyms, and other terminology for instructions and information in regard to a patient's health condition, prescription drugs they are to take, or medical procedures that have been ordered. There is no approved this list of common medical abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology used by doctors and other health- care professionals. You can use this list of medical abbreviations and acronyms written by our doctors the next time you can't understand what is on your prescription package, blood test results, or medical procedure orders. Examples include:
- ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease.
- ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure
- cap: Capsule.
- CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. A treatment for sleep apnea.
- DJD: Degenerative joint disease. Another term for osteoarthritis.
- DM: Diabetes mellitus. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
- HA: Headache
- IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
- JT: Joint
- N/V: Nausea or vomiting.
- p.o.: By mouth. From the Latin terminology per os.
- q.i.d.: Four times daily. As in taking a medicine four times daily.
- RA: Rheumatoid arthritis
- SOB: Shortness of breath.
- T: Temperature. Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
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