What is nateglinide, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Nateglinide is an oral drug used to lower blood sugar (glucose) levels in type 2 diabetes. It is in a class of drugs called meglitinides which also includes repaglinide (Prandin). Approximately 90% of patients with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in adults and is associated with obesity and a strong family history of diabetes. Insulin is an important hormone that controls the blood level of glucose.
Type 2 diabetics have an inability to control blood glucose levels. This is caused by reduced secretion of insulin from the pancreas after meals and resistance of the body's cells to the effect of insulin which is to stimulate the cells to remove glucose from the blood. This leads to high levels of blood glucose. Nateglinide stimulates cells in the pancreas to produce insulin in a manner similar to the class of drugs called sulfonylureas, for example, glyburide (Diabeta, Glynase and Micronase), which also are used in type 2 diabetes. However, nateglinide appears to have a faster onset and a shorter duration of action than sulfonylureas. The benefit of this faster, shorter effect may be to prevent the rapid, transient rise in blood glucose that occurs in diabetics immediately following a meal.
- The brand name for netaglinide is Starlix.
- Starlix is available in generic form.
- You need a prescription for netaglinide.
- Nateglinide was approved by the FDA in December 2000.
What are the side effects of nateglinide?
The most common side effects of nateglinide therapy are:
- Runny nose,
- upper respiratory infections,
- back pain,
- flu-like symptoms,
- dizziness, and
- joint pain are the most common side
Another important side effect of nateglinide therapy is hypoglycemia (low blood glucose levels with or without symptoms) can occur.
Some symptoms of hypoglycemia include:
- heart palpitations,
- numbness around the mouth,
- tingling in the fingers,
- muscle weakness,
- blurred vision,
- cold temperature,
- excessive yawning,
- confusion, or
- loss of consciousness.
What is the dosage for nateglinide?
- The recommended dose of nateglinide alone or in combination with metformin or thiazolidinediones is 120 mg three times daily with meals. T
- he 60 mg dose is used for patients who are close to their goal HbA1c when treatment is started.
- Nateglinide should be taken 30 minutes or less before a meal but should not be taken if a meal is skipped.
- Nateglinide is available in tablets of 60 and 120 mg.
- Nateglinide should be stored at room temperature, 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F), in an air-tight container.
Which drugs or supplements interact with nateglinide?
Starting or stopping the following drugs may increase the response to nateglinide and may require the dose of nateglinide to be lowered: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Motrin, etc.), aspirin and aspirin-like compounds, monoamine oxidase inhibitors like phenelzine (Nardil), and beta-blocking drugs like propranolol (Inderal). Starting or stopping the following drugs may decrease the response to nateglinide and may require the dose of nateglinide to be increased: thiazide diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide, steroids such as prednisone, thyroid hormone like levothyroxine, and drugs used in emergencies to regulate the heartbeat or restore breathing when airways are blocked. Examples of these latter drugs are epinephrine and albuterol (Ventolin).
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Is nateglinide safe to take if you are pregnant or breastfeeding?
- No safety and efficacy studies have been conducted in pregnant women taking nateglinide. Nateglinide should not be used during pregnancy.
- No safety and efficacy studies have been conducted in pregnant women taking nateglinide. Since many drugs are excreted in breast milk, the manufacturer recommends that nateglinide not be administered to nursing mothers.
Nateglinide (Starlix) is a medication prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Related Disease Conditions
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that may be reversible with diet and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, and an unusual odor to your urine. Most people don't know they have type 2 diabetes until they have a routine blood test. Treatment options include medications, a type 2 diabetes diet, and other lifestyle changes.
Diabetes Treatment: Medication, Diet, and Insulin
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with: insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with: weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by: Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.) Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!) Lack of activity Exercise Stress Genetics While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include: Increased urination Increased hunger Increased thirst Unexplained weight loss. However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
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