Does Naprelan (naproxen) cause side effects?
Naprelan (naproxen) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat mild to moderate pain, inflammation, and fever. Naproxen is common and available over-the-counter (OTC) and as a generic or under different brand names like Aleve, Anaprox, and Naprosyn.
Common side effects of naproxen include rash, ringing in the ears, headaches, dizziness, drowsiness, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, heartburn, fluid retention, and shortness of breath.
NSAIDs such as naproxen may cause a fetal birth defect called ductus arteriosus (early closure of two major blood vessels of the heart and lung) in the third trimester of pregnancy. NSAIDs should be avoided during this last part of pregnancy.
What are the important side effects of Naprelan (naproxen)?
The most common side effects from naproxen are:
- ringing in the ears,
- drowsiness, abdominal pain, nausea,
- fluid retention, and
- shortness of breath.
Other important side effects include:
Naprelan (naproxen) side effects list for medical professionals
The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
- GI Bleeding, Ulceration and Perforation
- Heart Failure and Edema
- Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia
- Anaphylactic Reactions
- Serious Skin Reactions
- Hematologic Toxicity
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
As with all drugs in this class, the frequency and severity of adverse events depends on several factors: the dose of the drug and duration of treatment; the age, the sex, physical condition of the patient; any concurrent medical diagnoses or individual risk factors. The following adverse reactions are divided into three parts based on frequency and whether or not the possibility exists of a causal relationship between drug usage and these adverse events.
In those reactions listed as “Probable Causal Relationship” there is at least one case for each adverse reaction where there is evidence to suggest that there is a causal relationship between drug usage and the reported event. The adverse reactions reported were based on the results from two double-blind controlled clinical trials of three months duration with an additional nine month open-label extension. A total of 542 patients received Naprelan Tablets either in the double-blind period or in the nine month open-label extension.
Of these 542 patients, 232 received Naprelan Tablets, 167 were initially treated with Naprosyn® and 143 were initially treated with placebo. Adverse reactions reported by patients who received Naprelan Tablets are shown by body system. Those adverse reactions observed with naproxen but not reported in controlled trials with Naprelan Tablets are italicized.
The most frequent adverse events from the double-blind and open-label clinical trials were headache (15%), followed by dyspepsia (14%), and flu syndrome (10%). The incidence of other adverse events occurring in 3% to 9% of the patients are marked with an asterisk.
Those reactions occurring in less than 3% of the patients are unmarked.
Incidence greater Than 1% (Probable Causal Relationship)
Hematologic - Anemia, ecchymosis.
Dermatologic - Skin rash*, skin eruptions*, ecchymoses*, purpura.
Cardiovascular - Hypertension, edema*, dyspnea*, palpitations.
General - Thirst.
Incidence Less Than 1% (Probable Causal Relationship)
Gastrointestinal - Anorexia, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, eructation, GI hemorrhage, rectal hemorrhage, stomatitis aphthous, stomatitis ulcer, ulcer mouth, ulcer stomach, periodontal abscess, cardiospasm, colitis, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, GI disorder, rectal disorder, tooth disorder, hepatosplenomegaly, liver function abnormality, melena, ulcer esophagus, hematemesis, jaundice, pancreatitis, necrosis.
Renal - Dysmenorrhea, dysuria, kidney function abnormality, nocturia, prostate disorder, pyelonephritis, carcinoma breast, urinary incontinence, kidney calculus, kidney failure, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, neoplasm breast, nephrosclerosis, hematuria, pain kidney, pyuria, urine abnormal, urinary frequency, urinary retention, uterine spasm, vaginitis, glomerular nephritis, hyperkalemia, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, renal disease, renal failure, renal papillary necrosis.
Hematologic - Leukopenia, bleeding time increased, eosinophilia, abnormal RBC, abnormal WBC, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, granulocytopenia.
Central Nervous System - Depression, anxiety, hypertonia, nervousness, neuralgia, neuritis, vertigo, amnesia, confusion, co-ordination, abnormal diplopia, emotional lability, hematoma subdural, paralysis, dream abnormalities, inability to concentrate, muscle weakness.
Dermatologic: Angiodermatitis, herpes simplex, dry skin, sweating, ulcer skin, acne, alopecia, dermatitis contact, eczema, herpes zoster, nail disorder, skin necrosis, subcutaneous nodule, pruritus, urticaria, neoplasm skin, photosensitive dermatitis, photosensitivity reactions resembling porphyria cutaneous tarda, epidermolysis bullosa.
Cardiovascular - Angina pectoris, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, deep thrombophlebitis, vasodilation, vascular anomaly, arrhythmia, bundle branch block, abnormal ECG, heart failure right, hemorrhage, migraine, aortic stenosis, syncope, tachycardia, congestive heart failure.
Metabolic and Nutrition - Creatinine increase, glucosuria, hypercholesteremia, albuminuria, alkalosis, BUN increased, dehydration, edema, glucose tolerance decrease, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, SGOT increase, SGPT increase, weight decrease.
Incidence Less Than 1% (Causal Relationship Unknown)
Other adverse reactions listed in the naproxen package label, but not reported by those who received Naprelan Tablets are shown in italics. These observations are being listed as alerting information to the physician.
Hematologic - Aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia.
Central Nervous System - Aseptic meningitis, cognitive dysfunction.
Dermatologic - Epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
Gastrointestinal - Non-peptic GI ulceration, ulcerative stomatitis.
Cardiovascular - Vasculitis.
What drugs interact with Naprelan (naproxen)?
See Table 1 for clinically significant drug interactions with naproxen.
Table 1: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with
|Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients with concomitant use of Naprelan with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for signs of bleeding.|
|Clinical Impact:||Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone.|
|Intervention:||Concomitant use of Naprelan and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding. Naprelan is not a substitute for low dose aspirin for cardiovascular protection.|
|ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-Blockers|
|Clinical Impact:||Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of Naprelan with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects.|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of naproxen with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of Naprelan and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.|
|Clinical Impact:||NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of Naprelan and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction).|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of Naprelan and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of Naprelan and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of Naprelan and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.|
|NSAIDs and Salicylates|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of naproxen with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy.|
|Intervention:||The concomitant use of naproxen with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of Naprelan and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of Naprelan and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity. NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed. In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration.|
|Antacids and Sucralfate|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant administration of some antacids (magnesium oxide or aluminum hydroxide) and sucralfate can delay the absorption of naproxen.|
|Intervention:||Concomitant administration of antacids such as magnesium oxide or aluminum hydroxide, and sucralfate with Naprelan is not recommended.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant administration of cholestyramine can delay the absorption of naproxen.|
|Intervention:||Concomitant administration of cholestyramine with Naprelan is not recommended.|
|Clinical Impact:||Probenecid given concurrently increases naproxen anion plasma levels and extends its plasma half-life significantly.|
|Intervention:||Patients simultaneously receiving Naprelan and probenecid should be observed for adjustment of dose if required.|
|Other albumin-bound drugs|
|Clinical Impact:||Naproxen is highly bound to plasma albumin; it thus has a theoretical potential for interaction with other albumin-bound drugs such as coumarin-type anticoagulants, sulphonylureas, hydantoins, other NSAIDs, and aspirin.|
|Intervention:||Patients simultaneously receiving Naprelan and a hydantoin, sulphonamide or sulphonylurea should be observed for adjustment of dose if required.|
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
|Clinical Impact:||Naproxen may decrease platelet aggregation and prolong bleeding time.|
|Intervention:||This effect should be kept in mind when bleeding times are determined.|
|Clinical Impact:||The administration of naproxen may result in increased urinary values for 17-ketogenic steroids because of an interaction between the drug and/or its metabolites with m-di-nitrobenzene used in this assay.|
|Intervention:||Although 17-hydroxy-corticosteroid measurements (Porter-Silber test) do not appear to be artifactually altered, it is suggested that therapy with Naprelan be temporarily discontinued 72 hours before adrenal function tests are performed if the Porter-Silber test is to be used.|
|Urinary assays of 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid (5HIAA)|
|Clinical Impact:||Naproxen may interfere with some urinary assays of 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid (5HIAA).|
|Intervention:||This effect should be kept in mind when urinary 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid are|
Naprelan (naproxen) is a common nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat mild to moderate pain, inflammation, and fever. Naproxen is available over-the-counter (OTC), as a generic, or under different brand names like Aleve, Anaprox, and Naprosyn. Common side effects of naproxen include rash, ringing in the ears, headaches, dizziness, drowsiness, and others. Serious side effects of naproxen include fluid retention, blood clots, heart attacks, high blood pressure, and heart failure.
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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.