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- What is mupirocin? How does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What are the uses for mupirocin?
- What are the side effects of mupirocin?
- What is the dosage for mupirocin?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with mupirocin?
- Is mupirocin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about mupirocin?
What is mupirocin? How does it work (mechanism of action)?
Mupirocin is an antibiotic that is used topically (on the skin) for the treatment of impetigo, a bacterial disease of the skin caused by Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic streptococcus and Streptococcus pyogenes. It also is used intranasally (inside the nose) by patients and some people who work in healthcare centers to eliminate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that have colonized the inside of the nose.
Unlike most other antibiotics that act on either bacterial DNA or the walls of bacteria, mupirocin blocks the activity of an enzyme called isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase within the bacteria. This enzyme is necessary in order for the bacteria to make proteins. Without the ability to make proteins, the bacteria die. Because of its unique mechanism of action, there is little chance that bacteria will have become resistant to mupirocin because of exposure to other antibiotics.
Mupirocin topical cream was approved by the FDA in December, 1987. The intranasal form was approved in October 1995.
What are the uses for mupirocin?
- Mupirocin is a drug used for the treatment of impetigo and infections of the skin caused by Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic streptococcus, or Streptococcus pyogenes.
- Mupirocin is not recommended for use on the skin in serious burns because more of the inactive ingredient used for the ointment, polyethylene glycol (Miralax), may be absorbed and can damage the kidneys.
- The nasal ointment is used for the elimination of multi-drug resistant nasal Staphylococcus aureus infection in people who are colonized by Staphylococcus aureus. Mupirocin also may be used for secondary infections as determined by your doctor.
What are the side effects of mupirocin?
Side effects are uncommon and mild with mupirocin. The most frequent side effects are:
Other side effects caused by the intranasal use of mupirocin include:
What is the dosage for mupirocin?
For the treatment of impetigo, a small amount of the ointment is applied to the affected area, usually three times daily (every 8 hours). The area may be covered with a sterile gauze dressing. If there is no improvement in 3-5 days the doctor should be contacted to re-examine the infected area.
For other skin infections, the cream is applied to the affected area 3 times a day for 10 days, and the doctor should be contacted as well if there is no improvement after 3-5 days.
When mupirocin is used for treating intranasal Staphylococcus aureus that are resistant to other antibiotics, patients who are age 12 years and older require the application of about half of the ointment from a single-use tube of ointment into one nostril and the other half into the other nostril. This treatment is repeated twice daily for 5 days. Currently, there is not enough information to recommend use of mupirocin for the treatment of intranasal Staphylococcus aureus in children younger than 12 years of age.
Which drugs or supplements interact with mupirocin?
Is mupirocin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- There are no adequate studies of mupirocin in pregnant women; however, studies in animals suggest no important effects on the fetus. Mupirocin, therefore, can be used in pregnancy if the physician feels that it is necessary.
- There is no information on the safety of mupirocin in nursing infants. It is unknown if any of the small amount of mupirocin that is absorbed from the skin into the blood of the mother concentrates in breast milk. It is advisable, therefore, not to nurse while using mupirocin.
What else should I know about mupirocin?
- Mupirocin is available as:
- Topical Ointment: 2% (20 mg/g).
- Topical Cream: 2% (20 mg/g).
- Nasal ointment: 2% (20 mg/g).
- Mupirocin tablets should be stored at room temperature, 15 C-30 C (59 F-86 F).
- Mupriocin is available in generic form.
- You need to get a prescription from your doctor to obtain it.
- Brand names for mupirocin available in the US are Bactroban Nasal and Centany. Bactroban has been discontinued in the US.
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Mupirocin (generic) Bactroban Nasal, Centany (brands) is an antibiotic that is used topically for the treatment of impetigo, MRSA, and staph infections. The nasal spray may be prescribed for individuals that come into contact with patients infected with MRSA, or other infectious diseases. Drug interactions and side effects should be reviewed prior to taking mupirocin. Bactroban has been discontinued in the U.S.
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Related Disease Conditions
The word "rash" means an outbreak of red bumps on the body. The way people use this term, "a rash" can refer to many different skin conditions. The most common of these are scaly patches of skin and red, itchy bumps or patches all over the place.
Boils (Skin Abscesses)
A boil is a skin abscess, a collection of pus localized deep in the skin. There are several different types of boils. Among them are the following: furuncle or carbuncle, cystic acne, hidradenitis suppurativa, and pilonidal cyst.
Staph (Staphylococcus) Infection
Staphylococcus or staph is a group of bacteria that can cause a multitude of diseases. Staph infections can cause illness directly by infection or indirectly by the toxins they produce. Symptoms and signs of a staph infection include redness, swelling, pain, and drainage of pus. Minor skin infections are treated with an antibiotic ointment, while more serious infections are treated with intravenous antibiotics.
Impetigo is a contagious skin infection caused by staph and strep bacteria. There are two types of impetigo: nonbullous and bullous. Symptoms of nonbullous impetigo include small blisters on the nose, face, arms, or legs and possibly swollen glands. Bullous impetigo signs include blisters in various areas, particularly in the buttocks area. Treatment involves gentle cleansing, removing the crusts of popped blisters, and the application of prescription-strength mupirocin antibiotic ointment.
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria causes skin infections with the following signs and symptoms: cellulitis, abscesses, carbuncles, impetigo, styes, and boils. Normal skin tissue doesn't usually allow MRSA infection to develop. Individuals with depressed immune systems and people with cuts, abrasions, or chronic skin disease are more susceptible to MRSA infection.
Eczema is a general term for many types dermatitis (skin inflammation). Atopic dermatitis is the most common of the many types of eczema. Other types of eczema include: contact eczema, allergic contact eczema, seborrheic eczema, nummular eczema, stasis dermatitis, and dyshidrotic eczema.
Cystic acne is distinguised by painful nodules on the chest, face, neck, and back. This form of acne is known to scar. Treatment may incorporate the use of hormonal therapies, oral antibiotics, and prescription medications.
Group A streptococcal infections are caused by group A Streptococcus, a bacteria that causes a variety of health problems, including strep throat, impetigo, cellulitis, erysipelas, and scarlet fever. There are more than 10 million group A strep infections each year.
Antibiotic Resistance (Drug Resistance, Antimicrobial Resistance)
Antibiotics are medications used to kill or slow the growth of bacteria and some fungi. The definition of antibiotic resistance is the ability of bacteria to change (mutate) and grow in the presence of a drug (an antibiotic) that would normally slow its growth or kill it. These antibiotic-resistant bacteria and fungi become harder to treat. Antibiotic-resistant infections can lead to longer hospital stays, higher treatment costs, and more deaths.
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