Multiple Myeloma Quiz

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Multiple Myeloma
Multiple Myeloma FAQs
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What is multiple myeloma?

Multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells. Plasma cells develop from a type of white blood cell made in the bone marrow and produce large amounts of a specific antibody (immunoglobulin) that helps the immune system work. When healthy plasma cells turn into malignant myeloma cells, they produce a type of abnormal antibody called an M protein, which is not something the body can use. These M proteins increase and crowd out healthy functioning antibodies and lead to symptoms seen with multiple myeloma.

Cancer of the bone marrow Cancer of the plasma cells Cancer of the blood Cancer of the lymphatic system

What are common signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma?

Common signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma include anemia (decreased red blood cells) and bone pain. Other signs of multiple myeloma may include high levels of calcium in the blood (symptoms include thirst, increased urination, dehydration, constipation, abdominal pain, loss of appetite), back pain, numbness, weakness, confusion, dizziness, kidney problems, and infections. Hair loss is not a symptom of multiple myeloma but it may be a side effect of treatment for the disease.

Bone pain Anemia Hair loss Both A & B

What are risk factors for multiple myeloma?

The diagnosis of multiple myeloma is usually based on the results of several diagnostic tests. In addition to a patient history and physical examination, blood and urine tests and a bone marrow biopsy are the first steps in making a diagnosis. Other tests that may be used to confirm a diagnosis of multiple myeloma include X-rays, MRIs, CT scans, and PET scans.

Race Gender Age All of the above

How is multiple myeloma diagnosed?

The diagnosis of multiple myeloma is usually based on the results of several diagnostic tests. In addition to a patient history and physical examination, blood and urine tests and a bone marrow biopsy are the first steps in making a diagnosis. Other tests that may be used to confirm a diagnosis of multiple myeloma include X-rays, MRIs, CT scans, and PET scans.

Blood test Patient symptoms Bone marrow biopsy Multiple tests

What are popular treatments for multiple myeloma?

There are many different treatment options for multiple myeloma which may include chemotherapy, drugs, and stem cell transplants.

Other treatment options for multiple myeloma include steroids and targeted agents such as lenalidomide (Revlimid), thalidomide (Thalomid), and bortezomib (Velcade).

Patients may also be eligible for clinical trials of new treatment options.

Chemotherapy Drugs Stem cell transplants All of the above

True or false: Multiple myeloma is a rare disease.

Multiple myeloma is a rare disease. Fewer than 1% of adults in the U.S. are diagnosed with multiple myeloma in their lifetime. The National Cancer Institute estimates about 118,539 cases of multiple myeloma in the U.S. in 2014. It is more common in men and people of African-American descent.

True False

What is most dangerous to a patient diagnosed with multiple myeloma?

Infection is a danger to patients with multiple myeloma. Healthy plasma cells make antibodies that fight infection. In multiple myeloma, these cells are abnormal and grow out-of-control, and the body(s immune system becomes unable to fight off infection. People who have multiple myeloma get bacterial and viral infections at a rate 7 times higher than people who do not have the disease.

Abnormal bleeding Infection Broken bones Diabetes

Multiple myeloma progresses through how many stages?

Multiple myeloma has traditionally been staged using the Durie-Salmon system, which notes 3 stages of the disease. However, there are limitations to this staging because newer diagnostic methods have been developed. The International Staging System for Multiple Myeloma also divides myeloma into 3 stages based only on the serum beta-2 microglobulin and serum albumin levels.

2 3 4 5

How is the prognosis determined for a patient with multiple myeloma?

Several factors determine the prognosis for patients with multiple myeloma:
- Stage of the disease
- Age of patient
- Health condition of patient at the time of diagnosis
- Kidney function
- How fast the cancer cells are growing
- Certain chromosome changes

Stage of disease Age of patient Condition of patient All of the above

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