MRI (or magnetic resonance imaging) scan is a radiology technique which uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer to produce images of body structures. MRI scanning is painless and does not involve X-ray radiation. Patients with heart pacemakers, metal implants, or metal chips or clips in or around the eyes cannot be scanned with MRI because of the effect of the magnet. Read more: MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scan) Article
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
What Is Multiple Sclerosis? MS Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis
MS is an autoimmune disease that attacks the nerves of the central nervous system. Learn about multiple sclerosis (MS) causes,...
Signs of Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, PSA Test, Treatments
What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Learn the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer, along...
Signs of Cancer in Women: Symptoms You Can't Ignore
Colon and stomach cancer symptoms can surprise women but can be treated if detected early. Learn about breast cancer signs and...
What's Causing Your Abdominal Pain?
In general, abdominal pain, which may be in the lower left or right of your abdomen, is a symptom of many possible conditions...
What Happens After a Stroke? Signs, Symptoms, Types
What is a stroke? Learn about the different types of stroke, as well as many symptoms like sudden numbness or weakness,...
ADHD/ADD in Adults: Symptoms & Treatments in Pictures
Most people don't associate adults with the term ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) but it is a common disorder in...
Pelvic Pain: What's Causing Your Pelvic Pain?
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Head and Neck Cancers: Symptoms and Treatments
Head and neck cancers include cancers of the throat, lips, nose, mouth, larynx, and salivary glands. They are more likely to...
What Is Epilepsy? Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments
Learn about epilepsy symptoms and treatment for this seizure condition. Discover the definition of epilepsy, how epilepsy is...
Pain Management: Surprising Causes of Pain
What's causing your pain? Learn the common causes of lower back pain, as well as pain in the knee, stomach, kidney, shoulder,...
Common Causes of Foot Pain
Learn about common causes of foot pain such as bunions, corns, athlete's foot, plantar warts and more. Get the latest information...
Abdominal Pain: Common Causes of Stomach Pain in Children
Abdominal pain in children can be more than just a tummy ache. What are the common causes of abdominal pain in children? Learn...
Lower Back Pain: Symptoms, Stretches, Exercise for Pain Relief
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Bladder Cancer Symptoms, Stages, Treatments
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Nerve Pain: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment Options
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Pain Management: 15 Easy Ways to Reduce Chronic Pain
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What Is Spinal Stenosis? Causes of Lumbar & Cervical Spine Stenosis
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What Are the Symptoms of ADHD in Kids? Tests, Medication
What is ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)? Learn to recognize ADHD symptoms in children.
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Pain: Why Does My Head Ache?
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Celebrities With Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
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Neck Pain: Causes of Stiffness, Muscle Spasms, Treatment, and Relief
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Childhood ADHD Quiz: Test, Symptoms & Medication
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Headaches Quiz: Learn About Headache Pain
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Related Disease Conditions
A hematoma is a collection of blood that is outside a blood vessel. There are different areas where hematomas occur including; inside the skull, on the scalp, ears, septum, bones, finger nails, toenails, and intra-abdominal.
Liver disease can be cause by a variety of things including infection (hepatitis), diseases, for example, gallstones, high cholesterol or triglycerides, blood flow obstruction to the liver, and toxins (medications and chemicals). Symptoms of liver disease depends upon the cause and may include nausea, vomiting, upper right abdominal pain, and jaundice. Treatment depends upon the cause of the liver disease.
Cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and is not contagious. Cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, a treatment of drugs that destroy cancer cells.
Gallbladder pain (often misspelled "gall bladder") is generally produced by of five problems, biliary colic, cholecystitis, gallstones, and pancreatitis. Causes of gallbladder pain include intermittent blockage of ducts by gallstones or gallstone inflammation and/or sludge that also may involve irritation or infection of surrounding tissues, or when a bile duct is completely blocked. Treatment of gallbladder depends on the cause, which may include surgery.
Cirrhosis of the liver refers to a disease in which normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue caused by alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C. This disease leads to abnormalities in the liver's ability to handle toxins and blood flow, causing internal bleeding, kidney failure, mental confusion, coma, body fluid accumulation, and frequent infections. Symptoms include yellowing of the skin (jaundice), itching, and fatigue. The prognosis is good for some people with cirrhosis of the liver, and the survival can be up to 12 years; however the life expectancy is about 6 months to 2 years for people with severe cirrhosis with major complications.
Sinus Infection (Sinusitis)
Sinus infection (sinusitis) is caused by allergies, infection, and chemicals or other irritants of sinuses. Signs and symptoms include headache, fever, and facial tenderness, pressure, or pain. Treatments of sinus infections are generally with antibiotics and at times, home remedies.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Irritable bowel syndrome or IBS is a GI disorder with symptoms of constipation, abdominal pain, bloating, and gas. IBS treatment includes medications, dietary changes, and lifestyle changes.
Knee injuries, especially meniscus tears, are common in contact sports. Symptoms and signs of a torn meniscus include knee pain, swelling, a popping sound, and difficulty bending the leg. Treatment may involve resting, icing, compressing, and elevating the knee, in addition to wearing a knee brace, taking anti-inflammatory medications, and stretching the knee.
Kidney pain has a variety of causes and symptoms. Infection, injury, trauma, bleeding disorders, kidney stones, and less common conditions may lead to kidney pain. Symptoms associated with kidney pain may include fever, vomiting, nausea, flank pain, and painful urination. Treatment of kidney pain depends on the cause of the pain.
Cysts are sac-like structures that may be filled with gas, liquid, or solid materials. Cysts may produce symptoms and signs depending on their location. Treatment of a cyst depends upon what caused the cyst in the first place.
Falls or blows are the most common cause of gluteal injuries. Symptoms and signs of a gluteal injury include swelling, inflammation, bleeding, and redness. Treatment options may incorporate ice application, elevation, rest, physical therapy, and on occasion, surgery.
Abdominal pain can have many causes that range from mild to severe. Some of these causes include bloating, gas, colitis, endometriosis, food poisoning, GERD, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), ovarian cysts, abdominal adhesions, diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, gallbladder disease, liver disease, and cancers. Signs and symptoms of the more serious causes include dehydration, bloody or black tarry stools, severe abdominal pain, pain with no urination or painful urination. Treatment for abdominal pain depends upon the cause.
Acute injuries, medical conditions, and chronic use conditions are causes of knee pain. Symptoms and signs that accompany knee pain include redness, swelling, difficulty walking, and locking of the knee. To diagnose knee pain, a physician will perform a physical exam and also may order X-rays, arthrocentesis, blood tests, or a CT scan or MRI. Treatment of knee pain depends upon the cause of the pain.
A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding (hemorrhagic). Symptoms of a stroke may include weakness, numbness, double vision or vision loss, confusion, vertigo, difficulty speaking, or understanding speech. A physical exam, imaging tests, neurological exam, and blood tests may be used to diagnose a stroke. Treatment may include administration of clot-busting drugs, supportive care, and in some instances, neurosurgery. The risk of stroke can be reduced by controlling high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and stopping smoking.
A brain hemorrhage is a type of stroke caused when an artery bursts in the brain, causing localized bleeding in the surrounding tissue. Causes of brain hemorrhage include aneurysm, liver disease, brain tumor, head trauma, high blood pressure, and blood vessel abnormalities. Symptoms and signs include sudden severe headache, nausea, vomiting, loss of balance, tingling, numbness, vision changes, loss of consciousness, and loss of fine motor skills. Treatment depends upon the cause, location, and size of the brain hemorrhage.
Placenta previa is a pregnancy condition that occurs when the placenta lies low and either partly or completely blocks the uterus. Learn about symptoms, types, causes, and treatment.
Enlarged Spleen (Splenomegaly) Symptoms, Signs, Causes,Treatment
An enlarged spleen or splenomegaly is generally caused by other diseases or conditions such as infections, cancers, blood disorders, or decreased blood flow. Symptoms of an enlarged spleen are often unnoticed. A feeling of fullness after eating a small amount of food and not being able to eat large meals may be a symptom of an enlarged spleen. Treatment for an enlarged spleen depends upon the cause.
Lower Back Pain (Lumbar Spine Pain)
There are many causes of back pain. Pain in the low back can relate to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis, and abdomen, and the skin covering the lumbar area.
Headaches can be divided into two categories: primary headaches and secondary headaches. Migraine headaches, tension headaches, and cluster headaches are considered primary headaches. Secondary headaches are caused by disease. Headache symptoms vary with the headache type. Over-the-counter pain relievers provide short-term relief for most headaches.
Indigestion (Dyspepsia, Upset Stomach Pain)
Indigestion (dyspepsia, upset stomach) can be caused by problems related to, or not related to the gastrointestinal tract. Signs and symptoms are upper abdominal pain, belching, nausea, vomiting, abdominal bloating, and abdominal distention. Treatment depends upon the cause.
Intestinal Gas and Gas Pain
Intestinal gas and painful bloating are common. Learn about what causes gas pain and how eliminating certain foods from your diet can help relieve symptoms.
Most people with diverticulosis have few if any symptoms at all. When people do experience signs and symptoms of diverticulosis (diverticular disease) they may include abdominal pain, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating. Diverticulitis is a condition in which diverticula in the colon rupture. The rupture results in infection in the tissues that surround the colon. Treatment methods for diverticulitis include prescription medications, and in some cases, diverticulitis surgery.
Dizziness is a symptom that often applies to a variety of sensations including lightheadedness and vertigo. Causes of dizziness include low blood pressure, heart problems, anemia, dehydration, and other medical conditions. Treatment of dizziness depends on the cause.
Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome (TMJ)
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome is a disorder that causes symptoms like pain, clicking, and popping of the jaw. TMJ is caused by injury to the temporomandibular joint. Stress, poor posture, jaw trauma, genetic predisposition, and inflammatory disorders are risk factors for the condition. A variety of self-care measures (application of ice, use of over-the-counter pain medication, massage, relaxation techniques) and medical treatment options (dental splint, Botox, prescription medications, surgery) are available to manage TMJ. The prognosis of TMJ is good with proper treatment.
A brain tumor can be either non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant), primary, or secondary. Common symptoms of a primary brain tumor are headaches, seizures, memory problems, personality changes, and nausea and vomiting. Causes and risk factors include age, gender, family history, and exposure to chemicals. Treatment is depends upon the tumor type, grade, and location.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints, as well as other organs in the body. Early RA signs and symptoms include anemia, both sides of the body affected (symmetric), depression, fatigue, fever, joint deformity, joint pain, joint redness, joint stiffness, joint swelling, joint tenderness, joint warmth, limping, loss of joint function, loss of joint range of motion, and polyarthritis.
Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled, sac-like structures within an ovary. Symptoms of an ovarian cysts may be: Pain in the belly or pelvis A feeling for the need to have a bowel movement Urgency to urinate Pain during intercourse. There are a variety of causes and types of ovarian cysts, and treatment depends upon type of cyst.
Head lice infection is called pediculosis. Lice are parasites that feed on blood and can be found on the scalp and hair of infected people. Signs and symptoms of head lice infestation include a tickling sensation, itching, and sores on the head. Head lice may be eliminated with various over-the-counter shampoos and washing all clothing and bed linens in the hot water cycle. Combs and brushes should be disinfected, and the floor and furniture should be vacuumed.
Sciatica pain, caused by irritation of the sciatic nerve, typically radiates from the low back to behind the thigh to below the knee. Disc herniation is usually the cause of sciatica. Medication to alleviate pain, physical therapy, and bed rest are treatments for sciatica.
Sacroiliac (SI) Joint Pain
Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a general term to reflect pain in the SI joints. Causes of SI joint pain include osteoarthritis, abnormal walking pattern, and disorders that can cause SI joint inflammation including gout, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Treatment includes oral medications, cortisone injections, and surgery.
Prostatitis (Inflammation of the Prostate Gland)
Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland. Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include painful or difficulty urinating; fever; chills; body aches; blood in the urine; pain in the rectum, groin, abdomen, or low back; and painful ejaculation or sexual dysfunction. Causes of prostatitis include STDs, bacteria from urinary tract infections, or E. coli. Treatment for prostatitis depends on if it is a bacterial infection or chronic inflammation of the prostate gland.
Tailbone Pain (Coccydynia)
Coccydynia is an inflammation of the bony area (tailbone or coccyx) located between the buttocks. Coccydynia is associated with pain and tenderness at the tip of the tailbone between the buttocks. Pain is often worsened by sitting. There are many causes of tailbone pain that can mimic coccydynia including fracture, pilonidal cysts, infection, and sciatica. Treatment methods include medication and rest.
Shoulder and Neck Pain
Shoulder and neck pain may be caused by bursitis, a pinched nerve, whiplash, tendinitis, a herniated disc, or a rotator cuff injury. Symptoms also include weakness, numbness, coolness, color changes, swelling, and deformity. Treatment at home may incorporate resting, icing, and elevating the injury. A doctor may prescribe pain medications and immobilize the injury.
Hamstring injuries may range from minor strains to major ruptures. A hamstring injury causes spasm, tightness, and tenderness. More severe injuries may cause swelling and bruising. While most hamstring injuries heal without surgery, a complete rupture would require surgery.
Brain Lesions (Lesions on the Brain)
A brain lesion is defined as an area of damaged brain. Brain lesions (lesions on the brain) are caused by trauma, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, cancers, other diseases, stroke, bleeding, pituitary adenomas, and cerebral palsy. Symptoms of brain lesions include headache, nausea, fever, neck pain and stiffness, affected vision and speech, and weakness or paralysis to one side of the body. Diagnosis of brain lesions is generally accomplished with imaging studies like CT or MRI scans. Treatment and prognosis of brain lesions depends on the cause of the lesion.
Liver cancer is cancer of the liver cells (hepatocellular carcinoma) or of the ducts in the liver (cholangiocarcinoma). Liver cancer often arises due to liver damage, cirrhosis (scarring) caused by alcohol use/abuse, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. Liver cancer may not cause any symptoms. Liver cancer is diagnosed with blood tests, imaging tests, and a liver biopsy. Treatment for liver cancer may include surgery, ablation, embolization, radiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.
Symptoms of 12 Serious Diseases and Health Problems
Learn how to recognize early warning signs and symptoms of serious diseases and health problems, for example, chronic cough, headache, chest pain, nausea, stool color or consistency changes, heartburn, skin moles, anxiety, nightmares, suicidal thoughts, hallucinations, delusions, lightheadedness, night sweats, eye problems, confusion, depression, severe pelvic or abdominal pain, unusual vaginal discharge, and nipple changes. The symptoms and signs of serious health problems can be caused by strokes, heart attacks, cancers, reproductive problems in females (for example, cancers, fibroids, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, and sexually transmitted diseases or STDs), breast problems (for example, breast cancer and non-cancer related diseases), lung diseases (for example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, lung cancer, emphysema, and asthma), stomach or digestive diseases (for example, cancers, gallbladder, liver, and pancreatic diseases, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn's disease), bladder problems (for example, urinary incontinence, and kidney infections), skin cancer, muscle and joint problems, emotional problems or mental illness (for example, postpartum depression, major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mania, and schizophrenia), and headache disorders (for example, migraines, or "the worst headache of your life), and eating disorders and weight problems (for example, anorexia or bulimia).
What Can Trigger Vertigo?
Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or rocking, even when someone is at rest. Vertigo may be caused by a problem in the brain or spinal cord or a problem within in the inner ear. Head injuries, certain medications, and female gender are associated with a higher risk of vertigo. Medical history, a physical exam, and sometimes an MRI or CT scan are required to diagnose vertigo. The treatment of vertigo may include medication, special exercises to reposition loose crystals in the inner ear, or exercises designed to help the patient re-establish a sense of equilibrium. Controlling risk factors for stroke (blood pressure, weight, cholesterol, and blood glucose) may decrease the risk of developing vertigo.
A brain aneurysm (cerebral aneurysm) is caused by microscopic damage to artery walls, infections of the artery walls, tumors, trauma, and drug abuse. Symptoms include headache, numbness of the face, dilated pupils, changes in vision, the "worst headache of your life," or a painful stiff neck. Immediate treatment for a brain aneurysm is crucial for patient survival.
Dislocated Ankle (Ankle Dislocation)
Symptoms and signs of a dislocated ankle include pain, swelling, bruising, ankle deformity, and possible numbness and tingling in the foot. Treatment of an ankle dislocation involves putting the ankle bones back in their normal positions, possibly using gentle traction. The blood and nerve supply to the foot will be evaluated and the ankle will be checked for any related fractures. The ankle will be fitted with a splint or a cast.
Foot pain may be caused by injuries (sprains, strains, bruises, and fractures), diseases (diabetes, Hansen disease, and gout), viruses, fungi, and bacteria (plantar warts and athlete's foot), or even ingrown toenails. Pain and tenderness may be accompanied by joint looseness, swelling, weakness, discoloration, and loss of function. Minor foot pain can usually be treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation and OTC medications such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen. Severe pain should be treated by a medical professional.
What Is Scoliosis?
Scoliosis causes an abnormal curvature of the spine. When the cause of scoliosis is unknown the disorder is described based on the age when scoliosis develops (infantile, juvenile, or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis). In functional scoliosis, curvature develops due to a problem somewhere else in the body. With neuromuscular scoliosis, there is a problem when the bones of the spine are formed. Treatment typically involves observation, bracing, and surgery and is dependent upon the severity of the curvature.
Piriformis syndrome may develop if the piriformis muscle spasms and compresses the sciatic nerve. This causes buttock pain that radiates down the back of the leg along the sciatic nerve. Symptoms include numbness, a pins-and-needles tingling sensation, and low back pain. Treatment of piriformis syndrome depends upon the syndrome's phase: acute, recovery, or maintenance.
Bone spurs are pointy outgrowths of bone that develop in areas of inflammation or injury. They commonly occur on the heel and spine and may be the result of reactive arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Symptoms include pain, numbness, and tenderness. Treatment focuses on decreasing inflammation and avoiding re-injury.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Multiple sclerosis or MS is an autoimmune disorder in which brain and spinal cord nerve cells become demyelinated. This damage results in symptoms that may include numbness, weakness, vertigo, paralysis, and involuntary muscle contractions. Different forms of MS can follow variable courses from relatively benign to life-threatening. MS is treated with disease-modifying therapies. Some MS symptoms can be treated with medications.
Multiple myeloma is a form of cancer that develops in plasma cells, the white blood cells that make antibodies. Symptoms include bone pain, weakness, extreme thirst, nausea, frequent urination, and broken bones. Treatment of multiple myeloma depends upon the staging and symptoms of the disease.
Lymphedema is a condition in which one or more extremities become swollen as the result of an impaired flow of the lymphatic system. There are two types of lymphedema: primary and secondary. Filariasis is the most common cause of lymphedema worldwide. In the U.S., breast cancer surgery is the most common cause. Symptoms include swelling of one or more limbs, cracked and thickening skin, and secondary bacterial or fungal infections of the skin. There is no cure for lymphedema.
Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or SLE)
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a condition characterized by chronic inflammation of body tissues caused by autoimmune disease. Lupus can cause disease of the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, joints, and nervous system. When only the skin is involved, the condition is called discoid lupus. When internal organs are involved, the condition is called systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Pulmonary Embolism (Blood Clot in the Lung)
A pulmonary embolism (PE) occurs when a piece of a blood clot from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) breaks off and travels to an artery in the lung where it blocks the artery and damages the lung. The most common symptoms of a pulmonary embolism are shortness of breath, chest pain, and a rapid heart rate. Causes of pulmonary embolism include prolonged immobilization, certain medications, smoking, cancer, pregnancy, and surgery. Pulmonary embolism can cause death if not treated promptly.
Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints. Also known as degenerative arthritis, osteoarthritis can be caused by aging, heredity, and injury from trauma or disease.
MS (Multiple Sclerosis) vs. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) Differences and Similarities
ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Lou Gehrig's disease) and MS (multiple sclerosis) are both diseases of the nervous system (neurodegenerative). ALS is a disease in which the nerve cells in the body are attacked by the immune system, although it's not considered an autoimmune disease by some scientists. MS is an autoimmune disease in which the insulated covering of the nerves (myelin sheath) in the CNS (central nervous system) degenerate, or deteriorate. Scientists don't know the exact cause of either problem. However, they have discovered that mutations in the gene that produces the SOD1 enzyme were associated with some cases of familial ALS. Scientists also theorize that multiple sclerosis may be caused by infection or vitamin D deficiency. ALS occurs between 50-70 years of age (the average age of occurrence ALS is 55), and mostly affects men. While MS occurs between 20-60 years of age, and mostly affects women. About 30,000 people in the US have ALS, and an average of 5,000 new diagnoses per year (that's about 15 new cases per week). Worldwide, MS affects more than 2.3 million people, with about 10,000 new cases diagnosed each year (that's about 200 new diagnoses per week).Some of the signs and symptoms of both diseases include muscle weakness, muscle spasms, problems walking, fatigue, slurred speech, and problems swallowing. ALS signs and symptoms that are different from MS include problems holding the head upright, clumsiness, muscle cramps and twitches, problems holding objects, and uncontrollable periods of laughing or crying. MS signs and symptoms that are different from ALS include vision problems, vertigo and balance problems, sexual problems, memory problems, depression, mood swings, and digestive problems. There is no cure for either disease, however the prognosis and life expectancy are different. Multiple sclerosis is not a fatal condition, while ALS progresses rapidly and leads to death.
Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes that cover the spinal cord and brain. Symptoms include fever, headache, and a stiff neck. Treatment of meningitis depends upon the cause of the infection and may include antibiotics or antiviral medications.
A pinched nerve causes pain, numbness, or tingling in the affected area due to pressure on a nerve. Carpal tunnel and sciatica are two examples of conditions caused by a pinched nerve. A pinched nerve is diagnosed by taking a patient history and performing a physical examination. Electromyography may be performed. Treatment for a pinched nerve depends on the underlying cause.
Schistosomiasis (snail fever), a disease caused by parasites, causes a variety of symptoms and signs, such as cough, rash and bloody diarrhea. Praziquantel is used in the treatment of schistosomiasis.
Pain management and treatment can be simple or complex, according to its cause. There are two basic types of pain, nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain. Some causes of neuropathic pain include: complex regional pain syndrome, interstitial cystitis, and irritable bowel syndrome. There are a variety of methods to treat chronic pain, which are dependant on the type of pain experienced.
Myasthenia gravis, a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease. Varying degrees of weakness of the voluntary muscles of the body are the main characteristics. A defect in the transmission of nerve impulses of the muscles is the cause of myasthenia gravis. Myasthenic crisis is when the muscles that control breathing weaken, which requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms include weakness of the eye muscles, facial expression, and difficulty swallowing. Treatment of myasthenia gravis includes medical therapies to control the symptoms of the disease.
Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer has been called a "silent" disease because early pancreatic cancer usually does not cause early symptoms. Typically, pancreatic cancer has metastasized (spread to adjacent organs, such as the liver) by the time most people receive a dignosis of pancreatic cancer. Symptoms and signs usually appear later in the course of the disease and include jaundice, back pain, nausea, weight loss, itching, and loss of appetite. Treatment depends upon the type of pancreatic cancer but may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a ballooning or widening of the main artery (the aorta) as it courses down through the abdomen. Most abdominal aortic aneurysms produce no symptoms. Treatment may include observation or surgical repair.
Melanoma (Skin Cancer)
Melanoma is a type of skin cancer which begins in skin cells called melanocytes and affects more than 53,600 people in the United States each year. These melanocytes can grow together to form benign moles which, after a change in size, shape, or color can be a sign of melanoma. Caused by sun exposure, early detection becomes extremely important to avoid a spread to other areas of the body. Diagnosis is confirmed through a biopsy of the abnormal skin and treatment depends on the extent and characteristics of the patient. Metastatic melanoma is melanoma that has spread to various organs.
Pancreatic cysts are collections of fluid within the pancreas. Some are benign, malignant, or pseudocysts. There are two major types of pancreatic cysts, 1) pseudocysts (inflammatory) and 2) true cysts (non-inflammatory). Symptoms of pancreatic cysts include abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, chills, and sepsis. Treatment depends on the type of cyst, and patient health.
Gallstones are stones that form when substances in the bile harden. Gallstones (formed in the gallbladder) can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. There can be just one large stone, hundreds of tiny stones, or any combination. The majority of gallstones do not cause signs or symptoms; however, when they do occur the primary sign is biliary colic. Symptoms of biliary colic are constant pain for 15 minutes to 4-5 hours, and it may vary in intensity; nausea, severe pain that does not worsen with movement; and pain beneath the sternum. Treatment of gallstones depends upon the patient and the clinical situation.
Uterine Fibroids (Benign Tumors of the Uterus)
Uterine fibroids are benign (non-cancerous) tumors in the womb (uterus). Most uterine fibroids do not cause symptoms; however, if the fibroid is large enough and in the right location, it may cause symptoms of pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, and pressure on the bladder or rectum. Uterine fibroids that remain small and do not grow usually do not need treatment; however, surgery to remove the fibroid may be necessary. Uterine fibroids do not cause cancer; however, there is a rare, fast-growing cancerous called leiomyosarcoma.
Necrotizing fasciitis is also known as a flesh-eating bacterial infection, Fournier's gangrene, suppurative fasciitis, and necrotizing cellulitis. The disease is occasionally caused by fungi, but most cases are caused by bacteria that enter the skin through insect bites, cuts, puncture wounds, or surgical incisions. Signs and symptoms include pain, redness, swelling, fever, chills, skin ulceration, bullae formation, black scabs, gas formation, and fluid draining from the site of infection. Treatment involves hospitalization, the use of intravenous antibiotics, and debridement of the necrotic tissue.
Sprains and Strains
An injury to a ligament is called a sprain, and an injury to muscle or tendon is called a strain. Sprains and strains may be caused by repetitive movements or a single stressful incident. Symptoms and signs include pain and swelling. Though treatment depends upon the extent and location of the injury, rest, ice, compression, and elevation are key elements of treatment.
Neck Pain (Cervical Pain)
Neck pain (cervical pain, cervicalgia) may be caused by any number of disorders and diseases. Tenderness is another symptom of neck pain. Though treatment for neck pain really depends upon the cause, treatment typically may involve heat/ice application, traction, physical therapy, cortisone injection, topical anesthetic creams, and muscle relaxants.
Duodenal diverticula (extramural or intramural), or duodenal diverticulum, is a pouch that is attached to the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). The cause of extramural diverticula is not clear, however, it may be congenital. Complications caused by duodenal diverticulum include rupture, gallstones, or pancreatitis. Extramural duodenal diverticula has no symptoms. Treatment is generally surgery.
Migraine headache is a type of headache associated with a sensitivity to light, smells, or sounds, eye pain, severe pounding on one side of the head, and sometimes nausea and vomiting. The exact cause of migraine headaches is not known. Triggers for migraine headaches include certain foods, stress, hormonal changes, strong stimuli (loud noises), and oversleeping. Treatment guidelines for migraines include medicine, pain management, diet changes, avoiding foods that trigger migraines, staying hydrated, getting adequate sleep, and exercising regularly. Prevention of migraine triggers include getting regular exercise, drinking water daily, reducing stress, and avoiding trigger foods.
Cervical Cancer (Cancer of the Cervix)
Cervical cancer is cancer of the entrance to the womb (uterus) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Regular pelvic exams, Pap testing, and screening can detect precancerous changes in the cervix. Cervical cancer can be prevented by a vaccine. The most common signs and symptoms are an increase in vaginal discharge, painful sex, and postmenopausal bleeding. The prognosis and survival rate depend upon the stage at which the cancer was diagnosed.
Ankle Pain (Tendonitis)
Ankle pain is commonly due to a sprain or tendinitis. The severity of ankle sprains ranges from mild (which can resolve within 24 hours) to severe (which can require surgical repair). Tendinitis of the ankle can be caused by trauma or inflammation.
There are many types of quadriceps injuries, including strains, contusions, Osgood-Schlatter disease, patellar tendinitis, quadriceps tendinitis, jumper's knee, tendinitis, compartment syndrome, rupture, and herniation. Symptoms and signs of a quadriceps injury including pain, swelling, limping, and decreased range of motion. Treatment of most quad injuries includes rest, ice, compression, and elevation. Ibuprofen may help with pain relief.
Schizophrenia is a disabling brain disorder that may cause hallucinations and delusions and affect a person's ability to communicate and pay attention. Symptoms of psychosis appear in men in their late teens and early 20s and in women in their mid-20s to early 30s. With treatment involving the use of antipsychotic medications and psychosocial treatment, schizophrenia patients can lead rewarding and meaningful lives.
Occipital Neuralgia (Headache)
Occipital neuralgia is a type of headache that involves inflammation or irritation of occipital nerves. Signs and symptoms include a stabbing and throbbing head pain, and an aching pain in the upper back of the head and neck. Potential causes include infection, irritation, or trauma of the occipital nerves. This type of headache is diagnosed by physical examination findings and imaging tests. Treatment involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes massage, rest, physical therapy, heat, muscle relaxants, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Invasive procedures and even surgery may be considered if first-line treatments fail to bring relief from the chronic pain of this type of headache.
Arthritis, bursitis, IT band syndrome, fracture, and strain are just some of the causes of hip pain. Associated symptoms and signs include swelling, tenderness, difficulty sleeping on the hip, and loss of range of motion of the hip. Treatment depends upon the cause of the hip pain but may include anti-inflammatory medications and icing and resting the hip joint.
Though uterine cancer's cause is unknown, there are many factors that will put a woman at risk, including being over age 50, having endometrial hyperplasia, using hormone replacement therapy, obesity, using tamoxifen, being Caucasian, and/or having colorectal cancer. Symptoms and signs of cancer of the uterus (endometrial cancer) include abnormal vaginal bleeding, painful urination, painful intercourse, and pelvic pain. Treatment depends on staging and may include radiation therapy or hormone therapy.
Fatty Liver (NASH)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NASH occurs due to the accumulation of abnormal amounts of fat within the liver. Fatty liver most likely caused by obesity and diabetes. Symptoms of fatty liver disease are primarily the complications of cirrhosis of the liver; and may include mental changes, liver cancer, the accumulation of fluid in the body (ascites, edema), and gastrointestinal bleeding. Treatment for fatty liver includes avoiding certain foods and alcohol. Exercise, weight loss, bariatric surgery, and liver transplantation are treatments for fatty liver disease.
Lung cancer kills more men and women than any other form of cancer. Eight out of 10 lung cancers are due to tobacco smoke. Lung cancers are classified as either small-cell or non-small-cell lung cancers.
Thyroid nodules are the most common endocrine problem in the United States. The term thyroid nodule refers to any abnormal growth that forms a lump in the thyroid gland. The vast majority of thyroid nodules are benign.
A hip dislocation may occur due to an athletic injury or a motor vehicle accident. Joint deformity, pain, an inability to move the hip, and muscle spasms are signs and symptoms of a dislocated hip. Treatment may involve traction, arthroscopic surgery, physical therapy, and rehabilitation.
Bell's Palsy (Facial Nerve Problems)
Bell's palsy is one type of facial nerve paralysis. The seventh cranial nerve controls the muscles of the face, and although scientists do not know the exact cause of Bell's palsy, they think it may be due to nerve damage from an infection, for example, the flu, common cold viruses, and more serious infections like meningitis. The symptoms of Bell's palsy vary from person to person, but can include mild weakness to total paralysis, dry eye, dry mouth, eyelid drooping, drooling, mouth drooping, dry mouth, changes in taste, and excessive tearing in one eye.
The bacteria Brucella causes brucellosis, an infectious zoonotic disease in humans. Symptoms and signs include fatigue, fever, sweating, and appetite loss. The preferred treatment is doxycycline and rifampin taken for six to eight weeks.
Double vision (diplopia) is a symptom that my indicate Graves' disease, myasthenia gravis, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, diabetes, cataracts, aneurysm, brain tumor, or migraine. Symptoms and signs include eye pain, droopy eyelids, nausea, headache, and a cross-eyed appearance. Treatment of double vision depends upon the underlying cause.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism in children and adults is a developmental disorder, characterized by impaired development in communication, social interaction, and behavior. Autism is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), which is part of a broad spectrum of developmental disorders affecting young children and adults. There are numerous theories and studies about the cause of autism. The treatment model for autism is an educational program that is suitable to an individual's developmental level of performance. There is no "cure" for autism.
Psoriatic arthritis is a disease that causes skin and joint inflammation. Symptoms and signs include painful, stiff, and swollen joints, tendinitis, and organ inflammation. Treatment involves anti-inflammatory medications and exercise.
Degenerative Disc Disease and Sciatica
Degenerative disc disease makes the disc more susceptible to herniation (rupture) which can lead to localized or radiating pain. The pain from degenerative disc or joint disease of the spine is usually treated conservatively with intermittent heat, rest, rehabilitative exercises and medications to relieve pain, muscle spasm and inflammation.
Kidney Pain vs. Back Pain
The signs and symptoms of kidney pain and back pain depend upon the underlying cause. Doctors may use blood tests, X-rays, CT, and/or MRI to diagnose kidney pain and back pain. Treatment may include rest, ice, stretching, muscle strengthening, and pain-relieving medications.
Balance is a state of body equilibrium or stability. We often take for granted how dependent we are on a healthy balance system. When the system breaks down, however, patients will describe symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, lightheadedness, or motion sickness.
A herniated disc may be caused by injury or degeneration from age. Symptoms depend on the location of the herniation and whether nerve tissue is being irritated. An MRI or CT scan is performed to diagnose a herniated disc. Treatment may involve physical therapy, cortisone injection, pain medications, anti-inflammatory medications, muscle relaxants, and surgery.
Achilles Tendon Rupture
The Achilles tendon is the body's largest and strongest tendon. Repeated stress is the usual cause of a ruptured Achilles tendon. Surgery is the typical treatment for a torn Achilles tendon.
ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) Symptoms, Causes, Life Expectancy
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease) is a neurological disease that progresses rapidly. The disease attacks the nerve cells responsible for the control of voluntary muscles. Early symptoms include cramping, twitching, or stiffness of the muscles; slurred nasal speech; difficulty swallowing or chewing, and muscle weakness in an arm or leg. Currently, the cause of ALS is not known. ALS is a fatal disease. No cure has been found for ALS, however, the drug riluzole (Rilutek) is FDA approved, and this drug reduces the damage to motor neurons by decreasing the release of glutamate.
A liposarcoma is a cancerous tumor that develops in the soft deep tissue fat cells. Symptoms and signs include a growing lump under the skin, abdominal pain, decreased range of motion in the limbs, and enlarged varicose veins. Treatment incorporates surgery and possibly chemotherapy.
Cluster headaches are a type of headache that recurs over a period. Episodes can last one to three times a day during this time, which may last from 2 weeks to 3 months. The three main types of treatments for cluster headaches are, 1) Abortive medications that work to stop the process in the brain that causes migraines and stops the symptoms too. 2) Preventive prescription medications, or 3) surgery which involves blocking the trigeminal nerve.
What Is Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma?
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is cancer of the lymphatic system, a vital part of the body's immune system. Symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, coughing, weakness, chest pain, unexplained weight loss, and abdominal pain.
What Are Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Symptoms?
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), also known by the name Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a hormonal problem that causes women to have a variety of symptoms including irregular or no menstrual periods, acne, obesity, and excess hair growth. Treatment of PCOS depends partially on the woman's stage of life and the symptoms of PCOS.
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBS) is a liver disease in which bile building up in the organ damages bile ducts. Ultimately, this can cause liver failure. A number of drugs are available to treat this disease of unknown cause, but the only ultimate cure is a liver transplant.
Elbow pain is most often the result of tendinitis, which can affect the inner or outer elbow. Treatment includes ice, rest, and medication for inflammation. Inflammation, redness, warmth, swelling, tenderness, and decreased range of motion are other symptoms associated with elbow pain. Treatment for elbow pain depends upon the nature of the patient's underlying disease or condition.
Alzheimer's disease is a common cause of dementia. Symptoms and warning signs of Alzheimer's disease include memory loss, difficulty performing familiar tasks, disorientation to time and place, misplacing things, and more. The biggest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is increased age. Treatment for Alzheimer's is often targeted toward decreasing the symptoms and progression of the disease.
Radiculopathy, a condition in which a nerve or nerves along the spine are compressed causing pain, numbness, weakenss, and tingling along the nerve(s). Some causes of radiculopathy include bone spurs, disc hernation, osteoarthritis, tumors, infection, and neuropathy. There are many types of radiculopathy, including cervical radiculopathy, lumbar radiculopathy, and thoracic radiculopathy. Treatment depends on the are of nerve compression. Surgery is generally not required.
Cysticercosis (Pork Tapeworm Infection)
Cysticercosis is an infection caused by Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. Symptoms include seizures, lethargy, nausea and vomiting, headache, vision changes, weakness, and confusion. Treatment depends upon the individual's symptoms and the stage of the infection. Treatment may incorporate anthelmintics, corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, and/or surgery.
Amenorrhea (including hypothalmic amenorrhea) is a condition in which there is an absence of menstrual periods in a woman. There are two types of amenorrhea: primary and secondary. Treatment of amenorrhea depends on the type. In primary, surgery may be an option and in secondary amenorrhea medication or lifestyle changes may be treatment options. We go over the definition of amenorrhea, causes, and treatment options for amenorrhea.
Rotator Cuff Tear and Injury
Rotator cuff injury is damage to any of the four tendons that stabilize the shoulder joint. Shoulder pain and tenderness are common symptoms. Rotator cuff disease treatment depends on the severity of the shoulder injury.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is an abnormality of motor function and postural tone acquired at an early age (even before birth). Cerebral palsy is generally caused by brain trauma. Types of cerebral palsy include: spastic, dyskinetic (dystonic or choreoathetoid), hypotonic, and mixed types. There is no cure for cerebral palsy, and treatment is generally managing the symptoms of the condition.
Reactive arthritis is a chronic, systemic rheumatic disease characterized by three conditions, including conjunctivitis, joint inflammation, and genital, urinary, or gastrointestinal system inflammation. Inflammation leads to pain, swelling, warmth, redness, and stiffness of the affected joints. Non-joint areas may experience irritation and pain. Treatment for reactive arthritis depends on which area of the body is affected. Joint inflammation is treated with anti-inflammatory medications.
Ocular Melanoma (Intraocular Melanoma or Uveal Melanoma)
Ocular melanoma is cancer that begins in the eye tissue. Risk factors include being Caucasian, older age, having light eyes and fair skin. Ocular melanoma symptoms and signs include blurry vision and a dark spot on the iris. Treatment may involve surgery, thermotherapy, photocoagulation, radiation therapy, and watchful waiting.
The five types of spondylolisthesis include dysplastic, isthmic, degenerative, traumatic, and pathologic. The most common symptom of spondylolisthesis is lower back pain. Treatment depends on the type and severity of spondylolisthesis. Surgery is required in some cases of spondylolisthesis.
Pain that originates in the face is referred to as trigeminal neuralgia. This pain may be caused by: an injury, an infection in the face, a nerve disorder, or it can occur for no known reason. Trigeminal neuralgia can be treated with antiseizure medications. Some antidepressant drugs also have significant pain relieving effects.
Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults
Brain and spinal tumors are diseases in which cancer (malignant) cells begin to grow in the tissues of the brain. Tumors that start in the brain are called primary brain tumors. Tumors that start in the brain and spread to other organs are called primary brain tumors. Symptoms and signs may include headaches, personality changes, dizziness, and trouble walking. Treatment depends upon the type and grade of the tumor.
Urinary Incontinence in Children
Urinary incontinence in children (enuresis) is twice as common in boys as in girls and may occur during the daytime or nighttime. Nighttime urinary incontinence is also called bedwetting and sleepwetting. The cause of nighttime incontinence in children is unknown. Daytime incontinence in children may be caused by an overactive bladder. Though many children overcome urinary incontinence naturally, it may be necessary to treat incontinence with medications, bladder training and moisture alarms, which wake the child when he or she begins to urinate.
Brief Psychotic Disorder
Brief psychotic disorder is a short-term mental illness that features psychotic symptoms. There are three forms of brief psychotic disorder. The first occurs shortly after a major stress, the second has no apparent trauma that triggers the illness, and the third is associated with postpartum onset. Symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, unusual behavior, disorientation, changes in eating and sleeping, and speech that doesn't make sense. Treatment typically involves medication and psychotherapy.
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone. Potential causes include injections around the bone, fractures that puncture the skin, recent surgeries, and bacterial infections that travel from other areas of the body, spreading through the blood to the bone. Symptoms include pain, fever, chills, stiffness, and nausea. Treatment involves antibiotics and pain medications. Surgery is sometimes necessary.
Male Breast Cancer
Male breast cancer accounts for 1% of all breast cancers, and most cases are found in men between the ages of 60 and 70. A man's risk of developing breast cancer is one in 1,000. Signs and symptoms include a firm mass located below the nipple and skin changes around the nipple, including puckering, redness or scaling, retraction and ulceration of the nipple. Treatment depends upon staging and the health of the patient.
Chronic pain is pain (an unpleasant sense of discomfort) that persists or progresses over a long period of time. In contrast to acute pain that arises suddenly in response to a specific injury and is usually treatable, chronic pain persists over time and is often resistant to medical treatments.
Moyamoya disease is an inherited (genetic) progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused by arteries that are blocked at the base of the brain. Moyamoya means "puff of smoke" in Japanese. Signs and symptoms of Moyamoya disease in adults include fainting, and vision problems, and in children included may include headaches and speech problems. There are 6 stages of Moyamoya disease. Surgery is the preferred treatment for the disease, and there is no cure for Moyamoya disease, and it can be fatal.
Scar formation is a natural part of the healing process after injury. The depth and size of the wound incision and the location of the injury impact the scar's characteristics, but your age, heredity and even sex or ethnicity will affect how your skin reacts.
Pelvic Pain (in Women and Men)
Pelvic pain is described as pain, usually in the lower pelvic area. Causes of acute and chronic pelvic pain in women include endometriosis, ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, menstrual cramps, ovarian cysts, tumors, or fibroids, ovulation, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or congestion syndrome, vulva pain, and rarely cancer. Pelvic pain during pregnancy may be caused by miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy (tubal pregnancy), preterm or premature labor, and placental abruption. Causes of pelvic pain in men include prostate problems, testicular pain, and groin pain. Causes of pelvic pain in men and women include kidney stones, appendicitis, UTIs, IBD, and STDs. Signs and symptoms associated with pelvic pain depend on the cause, but man include pain during or after sexual intercourse, abdominal pain, distension, and tenderness, diarrhea, constipation, vaginal discharge or bleeding, blood, pus, in the urine, cloudy urine, blood in the stool, stool color changes, and low back pain. The cause of pelvic pain is diagnosed by a physical exam, blood tests, and imaging procedures. Treatment for pelvic pain depends on the cause.
Optic neuritis is inflammation of the optic nerve, the structure that connects the eye to the brain. The precise cause of optic neuritis is unknown, but it is thought to be a type of autoimmune disorder. Optic neuritis most commonly develops due to an autoimmune disorder that may be triggered by a viral infection.
Meniere disease (idiopathic endolymphatic hydrops) is an inner ear disorder with symptoms that include vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, and the sensation of ear fullness. The primary treatments for Meniere disease are diuretics, anti-vertigo, anti-nausea, and low salt diets. Surgery may be recommended if the vertigo cannot be controlled with medication.
With a dislocated knee, the femur and shinbones are out of alignment. Severe pain, swelling, and joint deformity are symptoms and signs of a knee dislocation. Treatment typically involves reduction of the joint, surgery to repair torn ligaments, and immobilization.
Bowel Incontinence (Fecal Incontinence)
Bowel or fecal incontinence refers to the loss of voluntary control of stool, or bowel movements. The condition can include partial incontinence, in which a person loses only a small amount of liquid waste, to complete incontinence, in which the entire bowel movement cannot be controlled. Diet changes and elimination of certain medications can help patients to regain bowel control. Treatment involves a combination of medication, biofeedback, and exercise.
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD), ARPKD, and ADPKD
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is characterized by numerous cysts in the kidneys. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder. There are two major inherited forms of PKD, autosomal dominant PKD, and autosomal recessive PKD. Symptoms include headaches, urinary tract infections, blood in the urine, liver and pancreatic cysts, abnormal heart valves, high blood pressure, kidney stones, aneurysms, and diverticulosis. Diagnosis of PKD is generally with ultrasound, CT or MRI scan. There is no cure for PKD, so treatment of symptoms is usually the general protocol.
Calcific bursitis is the calcification of the bursa caused by chronic inflammation of the bursa. Calcific bursitis most commonly occurs in the shoulder. Calcific bursitis treatment includes medication for inflammation, ice, immobilization, cortisone injections, and occasionally surgical removal of the inflamed bursa.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Symptoms and Treatments
Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms vary from person to person, and can last for days to months without periods of remission. Symptoms of MS include sexual problems and problems with the bowel, bladder, eyes, muscles, speech, swallowing, brain, and nervous system. The early symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis usually start between age 20 and 40. MS in children, teens, and those over age 40 is rare. Treatment options for multiple sclerosis vary depending on the type and severity of symptoms. Medications may be prescribed to manage MS symptoms.
Approximately 40 million children suffer abuse every year around the world, and more than 1,500 children die of abuse in the U.S. every year. Symptoms and signs of child abuse include poor school performance, physical injuries, regression, anxiety, and panic. Treatment involves ensuring the safety of the child and tending to any physical injuries.
Diabetes insipidus is a condition in which the patient has frequent urination. Symptoms of diabetes insipidus include irritable, listless, fever, vomiting, or diarrhea due to the loss of large volumes of urine. There are three types of diabetes insipidus, central, nephrogenic, dipsogenic, and gestational. Treatment depends upon the type of diabetes insipidus.
Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that leads to ongoing pain symptoms. Patients can be predisposed to developing neuropathic pain who have conditions such as diabetes, cancer, stroke, HIV, vitamin deficiencies, shingles, and multiple sclerosis. Patient history and nerve testing are used to diagnose neuropathic pain. Antidepressants, antiseizure medications, and other types of medications are used to treat neuropathic pain. Many people with neuropathic pain are able to attain some level of relief.
Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is a fungal infection caused by Zygomycetes. Symptoms and signs include fever, headache, coughing, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, bloody vomit, and possible altered mental status. Treatment usually involves debridement of infected tissue and antifungal drugs.
What Is Eosinophilic Fasciitis (Shulman's Syndrome)?
Eosinophilic fasciitis is a skin disease that causes thickening and inflammation of the skin and fascia. Symptoms include redness, warmth, and hardening of the skin, as well as occasional tissue and joint pain. Treatment for eosinophilic fasciitis aims to eliminate inflammation through the use of aspirin, NSAIDs, and cortisone.
Lewy Body Dementia (Dementia with Lewy Bodies)
Lewy body dementia (LBD or dementia with Lewy bodies) is one the most common causes of dementia. There are two types of LBD: 1) dementia with Lewy bodies, and 2) Parkinson's disease dementia. Symptoms of LBD are changes in a person's ability to think, movement problems, and sleep disorders. Treatment of LBD includes lifestyle changes, management of symptoms, palliative care, and medications to manage symptoms.
Paget's disease, also called Paget's disease of bone, is a chronic bone disorder due to irregular breakdown and formation of bone tissue. Paget's disease symptoms include bone pain, headaches and hearing loss, pressure on nerves, increased head size, hip pain, and damage to cartilage of joints.
Meningococcemia (Meningococcal Disease)
Meningococcemia is a bloodstream infection caused by Neisseria meningitides. Meningococcemia symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and body aches. Meningococcemia is treated with intravenous antibiotics. There is an effective and safe vaccine to protect against most serogroups of meningococcus that cause meningococcemia.
Is a Bone Scan the Same as an MRI?
A bone scan is a nuclear imaging technology, whereas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses magnetic waves to create a three-dimensional (3D) image of an organ. Therefore, they are different.
Adult ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
About 2%-6% of adults have ADHD, a common behavioral problem. Symptoms include impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention. Treatment may involve ADHD education, attending a support group, skills training, and medication.
Encephalitis is a brain inflammation that causes sudden fever, vomiting, headache, light sensitivity, stiff neck and back, drowsiness, and irritability. Treatment may incorporate anticonvulsants and antiviral medications.
Tourette syndrome is disorder, which symptoms include involuntary facial tics, motor tics, and vocal tics. The cause of Tourette syndrome is not known. ADHD is associated with Tourette syndrome. Treatment includes medication, psychotherapy, and in severe cases surgery.
What Should I Do After an Unwanted Pregnancy?
There are a variety of options that may help you handle your situation. It might help you to visualize each option and decide how you feel about it. Consider reaching out to trained professionals or close friends if you get overwhelmed.
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis
Lumbar stenosis can be caused by degenerative arthritis (the most common cause), tumor, infection, or metabolic disorders (Paget's disease of the bone). Symptoms include low back pain, weakness, pain, numbness, and loss of sensation in the legs. Other conditions may cause similar symptoms of lumbar stenosis, including diabetic neuropathy, claudication, and peripheral vascular disease. Lumbar stenosis may be treated with medication or surgery.
Ataxia is a lack of muscle coordination when a voluntary movement is attempted. There are many different types of ataxia (cerebellar, sensory, vestibular). Ataxia causes include heredity, genetic defect, or it may be acquired. Ataxia symptoms may include difficulty walking, slurring speech, fatigue, and difficulty using the hands and fingers. History and physical examination, blood tests, and CT and MRI scans may be used to help diagnose ataxia. The treatment and prognosis of ataxia depend on the underlying cause.
Choledochal cysts are cysts of the bile ducts. There are several different types of choledochal cysts. These cysts are congenital, however, their cause is not known. Symptoms of choledochal cysts in infants include an enlarged liver and jaundice. In older people, the cysts cause abdominal pain, jaundice, cholangitis, gallstones, and pancreatitis. Treatment for choledochal cysts is surgery.
Breast cancer is an invasive tumor that develops in the mammary gland. Breast cancer is detected via mammograms, breast self-examination (BSE), biopsy, and specialized testing on breast cancer tissue. Treatment of breast cancer may involve surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Breast cancer risk may be lowered by managing controllable risk factors. What you should know about breast cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women. One in every eight women in the United States develops breast cancer. There are many types of breast cancer that differ in their capability of spreading (metastasize) to other body tissues. The causes of breast cancer are unknown, although medical professionals have identified a number of risk factors. There are 11 common types of breast cancer and 4 uncommon types of breast cancer. Breast cancer early signs and symptoms include a lump in the breast or armpit, bloody nipple discharge, inverted nipple, orange-peel texture or dimpling of the breast's skin (peau d'orange), breast pain or sore nipple, swollen lymph nodes in the neck or armpit, and a change in the size or shape of the breast or nipple. Breast cancer can also be symptom free, which makes following national screening recommendations an important practice. Breast cancer is diagnosed during a physical exam, by a self-exam of the breasts, mammography, ultrasound testing, and biopsy. Treatment of breast cancer depends on the type of cancer and its stage (0-IV) and may involve surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy.
Direct vs. Indirect Hernia
Direct and indirect hernia are both inguinal hernias. Both types of hernias may cause a visible bulge in the groin area. Weakness in the muscle of the abdominal wall causes a direct hernia. A birth defect causes an indirect hernia. Hernias that can't be pushed in need surgery.
Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injury
The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is one of four ligaments that stabilize the knee. MCL injuries are referred to as tears or sprains. Sprains are graded from 1-3 based on the severity of the injury. Symptoms and signs of MCL injuries include swelling, pain, stiffness, and limping. Treatment of MCL injuries may involve resting and bracing the affected knee, and physical therapy can help to restore the range of motion.
Shin splints are injuries to the front of the outer leg caused by overuse, and typically happens to runners or aggressive walkers. Shin splint pain can be extreme enough to prevent you from working out. Rest is usually the best treatment for shin splints, and you can also ice the injury and take over-the-couner (OTC) pain medicine to relieve pain.
A frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis) is when the shoulder joint experiences a significant loss in its range of motion due to inflammation, scarring, or injury. Treatment involves anti-inflammatory medication, cortisone injections, and physical therapy.
Stuttering is a speech disorder characterized by speech disruptions such as prolongations of speech sounds, syllables or words, frequent repetitions, or the inability to start a word. Over 3 million Americans stutter, and boys are more likely to stutter than girls. Stuttering may be developmental, neurogenic, psychogenic, or even genetically determined. Treatment for stuttering may incorporate stuttering therapy with a speech-language pathologist and educating the parents about restructuring the child's speaking environment.
Migraine vs. Headache: Differences and Similarities
Headaches are the most common reason why a person goes to the doctor or other healthcare professional for treatment. There are different types of headaches, for example, migraine, tension, and cluster headaches. The most common type of headache is tension headache. Migraine is much less common. There are few similarities between migraine and other headaches, for example, the severity of the pain can be the same, mild, moderate, or severe; and they can occur on one side or both sides of the head. However, there are many differences between migraine and other types of headaches. Migraine headaches also have different names, for example, migraine with aura and menstrual migraine. Symptoms of migraine that usually aren't experienced by a person with another type of headache include nausea, vomiting, worsens with mild exercise, debilitating pain, eye pain, throbbing head pain. Migraine trigger include light, mild exercise, strong smells, certain foods like red wine, aged cheese, smoked meats, artificial sweeteners, chocolate, alcohol, and dairy products, menstrual period, stress, oversleeping, and changes in barometric pressure. Untreated migraine attacks usually last from 4 to 72 hours, but may last for weeks. Most headaches resolve within 24-48 hours. Doctors don't know exactly what causes migraine headaches; however, other headaches like tension headaches have more specific triggers and causes. Additional tests usually are required to diagnose migraine from other types of headaches, diseases, or other medical problems. Most headaches can be treated and cured with home remedies like essential oils, massage, and over-the-counter pain medication like acetaminophen (Tylenol) and NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) like naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn) or ibuprofen (Advil, Midol, Motrin). Most headaches resolve with OTC and home remedy treatment, while your doctor may need to prescribe medication to treat your migraines. If you have the "worst headache of your life," seek medical care immediately.
Spina Bifida (Anencephaly, Neural Tube Defects) in Babies and Adults
Spina bifida is the most common neural tube defect in the United States. There are four types of spina bifida; 1) occulta, 2) closed neural tube defects, 3) meningocele, and 4) myelomeningocele. The cause of spina bifida is not known. Theories include genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. Lack of folic acid during pregnancy is highly suspected. Symptoms of spina bifida vary from individual to individual. Treatment depends on the type of spanina bifida the person suffers.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Teens
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in teens is a disruption of neurocognitive functioning. Genetics contribute to ADHD. Symptoms of ADHD in teens include inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, or a combination of these. Treatment may include cognitive behavioral therapy, behavior therapy, medication, or alternative therapies.
Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)
Tennis elbow is also known as lateral epicondylitis. Symptoms of tennis elbow include tenderness and dull pain of the outer elbow. Resting, applying cold packs, and taking anti-inflammatory medications are usually effective treatments for tennis elbow.
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a group of signs and symptoms that show up two to four decades after the initial polio infection. Symptoms of PPS include fatigue, pain, sleep disorders, muscle twitching, gastrointestinal problems, and weakness. Treatment focuses on slowing down to conserve energy and relieving symptoms with pain relievers.
What Is Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)?
Valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) is a disease caused by the inhalation of the Coccidioides immitis or C. posadasii fungus. Symptoms are flu-like and resolve over two to six weeks. Infection typically requires no treatment, though there are many antifungal drugs to treat valley fever.
Anal cancer, cancer located at the end of the large intestine, has symptoms that include anal or rectal bleeding, anal pain or pressure, anal discharge or itching, a change in bowel movements, and/or a lump in the anal region. Treatment for anal cancer may involve radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery and depends upon the stage of the cancer, its location, whether cancer is eradicated after the first treatment, and whether the patient has HIV.Anal cancer is usually curable when found localized. Early detection remains the key to long-term survival as it is in many forms of cancer.
What Is Aortic Dissection?
Aortic dissection is a small tear in the large blood vessel that leads from the heart and supplies blood to the body. Symptoms of aortic dissection include a tearing or ripping pain, nausea, sweating, weakness, shortness of breath, sweating, or fainting. Treatment depends on the type of aortic dissection, and the severity of the tear in the aorta.
Nasopharyngeal cancer is a form of cancer in which malignant cells form in the nasopharynx tissues. Risk factors include being of Chinese or Asian ancestry and exposure to the Epstein-Barr virus. Symptoms and signs of nasopharyngeal cancer include a sore throat, a lump in the neck or nose, trouble hearing, nosebleeds, headaches, and trouble hearing, breathing, or speaking. Treatment depends upon the stage of the cancer, the tumor size, the type of cancer, and the patient's health and age.
Shaken Baby Syndrome (Abusive Head Trauma)
Shaken baby syndrome, or abusive head trauma, is the condition that describes the symptoms and signs that result from the violent shaking of an infant. These symptoms and signs include bruising, vomiting, poor feeding, seizures, head trauma, and hemorrhages of the retina. Shaken baby syndrome treatment involves removing the infant from the household where the abuse occurred and providing supportive care for the child's injuries.
Friedreich's Ataxia Syndrome
Friedreich's ataxia syndrome is a rare inherited (genetic) disease that causes progressive nervous system damage and movement problems. Friedreich's ataxia syndrome usually begins in childhood and leads to impaired muscle coordination (ataxia) that worsens over time. Symptoms of Friedreich's ataxia syndrome include poor balance, slurred and jerky speech, and difficulty with coordination. Genetic testing and other procedures are used to confirm the diagnosis of Friedreich's ataxia syndrome. There is no effective treatment or cure for Friedreich's ataxia syndrome, however; the symptoms of Friedreich's ataxia syndrome can be treated.
Nerve Disease and Bladder Control
A nerve problem might affect your bladder control if the nerves that are supposed to carry messages between the brain and the bladder do not work properly. Such problems include urine retention, poor control of sphincter muscles, and overactive bladder. Treatment depends upon the cause of the nerve damage and resulting type of bladder control problem.
Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS)
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is unusual growth of the tissue that lines the tendons in the body (synovium) and joints. PVNS causes hitching of the joint, loss of range of movement, and pain. Diagnosis may incorporate X-rays, MRI, CT scan, and joint aspiration. Treatment involves surgery and radiation if a patient can't have surgery.
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)
There are many types of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): gastrinoma, insulinoma, glucagonoma, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas. Symptoms and signs vary with the type of pancreatic NET. Standard treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, chemoembolization, targeted therapy, and supportive care.
Acute Flaccid Myelitis (AFM)
Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a condition that affects the nervous system, causing weakening of the muscles and reflexes. Adenoviruses, poliovirus, non-polio enteroviruses, and West Nile virus can cause AFM. Symptoms and signs include drooping eyelids, difficulty swallowing and moving the eyes, facial weakness, and slurred speech. There is no treatment for acute flaccid myelitis.
With osteochondritis dissecans, bone and its adjacent cartilage loses its blood supply. Though osteochondritis dissecans can involve any joint's bone and cartilage, elbows and knees are most commonly affected. Though there is no known cure, arthroscopic surgery is frequently performed to remove the damaged cartilage and bone tissue from the joint.
What Is Loeys-Dietz Syndrome?
Loeys-Dietz syndrome is an inherited genetic syndrome characterized by aortic aneurysms in children, which put them at a greater risk of dying. Physical characteristics of the syndrome include early fusion of the skull bones, widely spaced eyes, and split uvula or cleft palate. Treatment includes surgical repair of the aneurysms.
Non-Radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA)
Non-radiographic spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) is an inflammatory arthritis that mainly affects the joints of the spine. Morning stiffness and back pain are the usual symptoms of nr-axSpA. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, exercise, and biologics are treatments for nr-axSpA.
Cancer pain results from the tumor pressing on nerves or invading bones or organs. Cancer treatments like chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery can also cause pain. Over-the-counter pain relievers, prescription medications, radiation, biofeedback, and relaxation techniques are just some treatments for cancer pain.
Headaches in Children
Kids get headaches and migraines too. Many adults with headaches started having them as kids, in fact, 20% of adult headache sufferers say their headaches started before age 10, and 50% report their headaches started before age 20.
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- U.S. Hospitals Are Facing Shortage of Dye Needed for Life-Saving Scans
- AI May Not Be Better Than Experts at Reading Medical Scans
- More CT, MRI Scans Being Used, Despite Calls to Cut Back
- Study Points to Harms From MRI 'Dye' in Early Pregnancy
- Is MRI Screening Worth It for Breast Cancer Survivors?
- Tattooed and Need an MRI Scan? What You Need to Know
- Brain Changes Seen in MRIs of Young Football Players
- Scientists Finally Get Around to Finding Procrastination's Home in the Brain
- New MRI Test May Predict Severity of MS
- Brain Scans Yield More Clues to Autism
- MRI Sheds New Light on Brain Networks Tied to Autism
- Many Patients Know Too Little About Their MRI, CT Scans: Study
- FDA Says U.S. Will Now Produce Critical MRI Component
- MRIs Safe With Older Pacemakers, Study Finds
- FDA Issues Tougher Warning on MRI Dye Tied to Brain Effects
- Chuck Norris Says MRI Dye Harmed Wife's Brain, But Study Finds No Link
- Youth Football Ups Odds of Brain Problems in Adulthood
- Brain Scans Offer Clues to Why Some Teens Pile on Pounds
- Can Scans Predict Some Autism Cases?
- Combined MRI Might Help Predict Brain Damage in Boxers
- Senator McCain Faces a Tough Cancer Foe
- MRI Approved for Young Infants in Intensive Care
- Special Brain Scans May Predict Autism in High-Risk Babies
- Brain Scans Spot Where Fear and Anxiety Live
- Is MRI the 'Mammography' of Prostate Cancer Screening?
- Steroid Shots Offer No Long-Term Relief for Low-Back Pain
- MRIs Can Be Safe for People With Heart Devices …
- 'Love Hormone' Helps Dads and Babies Bond
- Experimental Test Can Spot Autism in Infancy
- Space Reshapes Astronauts' Brains: Study
- Amnesia Affecting Some Opioid Abusers
- Fitter Seniors May Have Healthier Brains
- MRIs Might Help Guide Preemies' Neurological Care
- Can Brain Scans Help Doctors Navigate Epilepsy Surgery?
- Brain Deficits in Preemies May Start Before Birth
- Scans Hint at Running's Brain Benefits, Even When Young
- Study Links Stuttering to Less Blood Flow in Brain
- 'You're Not My Wife, You're an Impostor'
- New MS Drug Shows 'Breakthrough' Promise for Advanced Disease
- 'Groundbreaking' Research Offers Clues to Cause of Dyslexia
- Some Kids' Genes Might Make Food Ads More Tempting
- Pregnancy May Spur 'Mothering' Changes in a Woman's Brain
- MRI Helps Assess Fetal Brain Abnormalities: Study
- Brain Harm May Last Long After College Football Players' Final Game
- Scientists Discover More Clues to Stuttering
- Spiritual Experiences Seem to Trigger the Brain's Reward System
- Zika Babies May Look Normal at Birth, Display Brain Defects Later: CDC
- New Fetal Views in 3-D
- Imaging Studies Shed Light on Zika's Effects
- PTSD May Affect Boys, Girls Differently, Brain Scans Show
- Brain Scans May Improve Dementia Diagnosis, Treatment
- Surgery Not the Answer for Most Back Pain, Sports Doctor Says
- Researchers: We Found Area of Brain That Responds to Placebo
- Childhood PTSD May Leave Imprint on Brain
- Brain Changes Seen in Kids After One Season of Football
- Cartilage From Nose Used to Repair Bum Knees
- More Evidence Menopause 'Brain Fog' Is Real
- Acute Flaccid Myelitis Cases Rising in Kids: FAQ
- Breast Cancer Deaths Increasing for Black Women
- Obese Kids Have Different Germs in Their Gut
- Monkey Study Shows How Zika May Harm Baby's Brain Development
- MRIs Safe During First Months of Pregnancy: Study
- Funds to Fight Zika Nearly Exhausted: CDC
- Researchers Find Another Way Zika Can Harm Babies
- Scans Show Range of Zika-Linked Infant Brain Defects
- What Happens When You're Hypnotized?
- Study of Teen Brains Offers Clues to Timing of Mental Illness
- People-Oriented Jobs May Help Lower Alzheimer's Risk
- Wide Variation Seen in 'Dense' Breast Diagnoses
- Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood
- Ultrasound Device Approved to Treat Essential Tremor
- Old Drug Boosts Brain's Memory Centers
- Patient Positioning Might Hamper Accuracy of Breast MRI
- Want New Knowledge to Stick? Head Straight to a Workout
- The Teen Brain Likes Social Media 'Likes'
- Early Alzheimer's Linked to Brain 'Leakage'
- Fatty Foods During Teen Years May Influence Later Breast Cancer Risk
- Gestational Diabetes May Lead to More Body Fat on Babies
- Meditation May Sharpen Memory
- Preemies' Brains Get Boost From Breast Milk
- About Half of Women May Benefit From Mammograms at 40: Analysis
- Sleepless Nights Linked to Brain Changes in Study
- Harmful Artery-Stiffening Seen in Healthy 40-Year-Olds
- Berries: Big Health Benefits in Small Packages
- Right Brain Scan Could Aid in Stroke Recovery: Study
- Mindfulness Training May Ease PTSD
- Could Less Time Spent Online Signal Early Alzheimer's?
- Exercise May Keep Your Brain 10 Years Younger, Study Suggests
- Want to Keep an Aging Brain Sharp? Try the Stairs
- Earthquake Survivors With PTSD Show Brain Differences
- Are Women the Key to Unlocking Alzheimer's?
- Alzheimer's Risk: Do You Want to Know?
- Pot Habit Early in Life May Alter Brain, Study Suggests
- Head Injuries Tied to Buildup of Alzheimer's Plaques, Small Study Finds
- High Deductibles = Fewer Imaging Tests: Study
- Risky Gambling Tied to Single Brain Connection
- Mammograms a Personal Decision for Women in Their 40s, Panel Says
- Brain Wiring Changes Might Help Guard Against Bipolar Disorder
- Losing Pancreas Fat May Treat Type 2 Diabetes
- Child Paralysis Cases Spiked During Virus Outbreak: Study
- Reduced Blood Flow to Back of Brain Raises Recurrent Stroke Risk: Study
- Study Maps Areas of Brain Linked to PTSD
- New Device Approved for Fecal Incontinence
- Are You a Secret Santa or a Grinch? Brain Scans May Tell
- ADHD Patients Show Weaker Connections in Brain Networks Tied to Focus: Study
- Scans Show Many Injured U.S. Vets May Have Brain 'Scarring'
- Laser: A Breast Cancer Treatment Alternative?
- Bodily Changes Don't Always Signal 'Precocious' Puberty in Kids
- Doctors Rally in Support of Fibroid Device Curbed by FDA
- Does Testosterone Give Men Better Direction Sense?
- Jimmy Carter's Recovery Highlights Power of New Cancer Treatments
- Jimmy Carter Says Brain Scans Show No Signs of Cancer
- False-Positive Mammogram May Hint at Breast Cancer Risk Later
- MRI Can Spot Early Signs of Knee Arthritis: Study
- Powerful New Pot May Harm the Brain, Researchers Say
- Hearts Entombed With Loved Ones Give Clues to Cardiac Disease Centuries Ago
- After Concussion Symptoms Fade, Slowed Blood Flow in Brain May Persist
- Human Brains Aren't Distinctly Male or Female, Study Says
- Long-Distance Running Takes Toll on Joints, But It May Be Temporary
- Brain Scans May Reveal Which Coma Patients Will Recover
- Your DNA May Explain High-Calorie Food Cravings
- Brain Differences Seen in Young Adults at Genetic Risk of Alzheimer's
- Mediterranean Diet May Keep Your Mind Healthier in Old Age
- Men's, Women's Hearts Age Differently
- Doctors Use 3D Printing to Safeguard Baby Before Birth
- Too Few Women Get Counseling Before Breast Cancer Gene Test: Study
- MRIs Before Breast Cancer Surgery on the Rise: Study
- Researchers Pinpoint Brain Region That Manages Multistep Tasks
- Exercise May Help Keep an Aging Mind Agile
- Hi-Tech Scans Spot Brain Damage in High Blood Pressure Patients
- MRI Helps Detect Brain Bleeding Soon After Traumatic Brain Injury
- Brain Scans May Take Guesswork Out of Schizophrenia Treatment
- X-Rays, Other Scans Generally Safe in Pregnancy: Report
- Blood Test May One Day Predict Breast Cancer Relapse
- CT Scan Use in Kids Fell Over Past Decade
- Preteen Football Tied to Brain Changes in Retired NFL Players: Study
- Jimmy Carter: Melanoma Has Spread to Brain
- Brain Scans Show Why Reading to Kids Is Good for Them
- In Rare Cases, Infection May Be at Root of Back Pain
- Rugby Takes Toll on Spine, Scans Show
- Screams Tap Into Brain's Fear Response
- Could That Before-Dinner Drink Make You Eat More?
- Type 2 Diabetes May Damage Thinking Skills: Study
- Patients with Low-Grade Brain Tumors Living Longer
- Exercise, Games, Puzzles Don't Prevent Signs of Alzheimer's in the Brain: Study
- Brains of Teens With Bipolar Disorder Develop Differently: Study
- More Evidence That General Anesthesia May Affect Young Brains
- Scientists Explore Morality's Home in the Brain
- International Panel Finds Only 'Limited' Evidence for Mammograms in 40s
- Alzheimer's-Linked Brain Proteins Tied to Poor Sleep in Study
- White Matter Damage in Brain May Help Spot Early Alzheimer's
- Steroids No Better for Sciatica Pain Than Placebo, Study Finds
- Autism May Differ in Brains of Boys and Girls
- MRI Might Predict Breast Cancer Risk in Some Women
- 3D 'Printout' Device Keeps Very Ill Babies Breathing
- MRI May Help Gauge Stroke Risk in Those With Irregular Heartbeat
- Mammograms a Personal Decision for Women in Their 40s, Panel Says
- Here's Why Your Knuckles Crack
- Brain's Visual Center Similar in Sighted and Those Blind From Birth
- Brain Scans May Predict Language Skills in Kids With Autism
- Study Probes Use of MRI to Spot Pancreatic Cancer in High-Risk Patients
- Genes Linked to Breast, Ovarian Cancers Act Differently in Each Woman: Study
- All That Googling May Make People Feel Smarter Than They Are
- New Stroke Prevention Efforts May Be Paying Off
- Malpractice Fears Spurring Most ER Docs to Order Unnecessary Tests
- Can Fish Oil Help Boys With ADHD Pay Attention?
- CT Scans Might Spot Heart Risks More Clearly in Patients With Chest Pain
- Excessive Use of Medical Scans Varies By Region
- Exercise's Effect on Brain May Boost Mobility in Old Age
- Exercise May Boost Size of Some Brain Regions
- Fit Body at 40 May Keep Brain Bright at 60
- Tracking Brain Blood Flow May Help Predict Concussion Outcomes
- Epilepsy Surgery Gets High Marks From Patients in Survey
- Methamphetamine May be More Harmful to Teen Brains
- Graphic Images on Cigarette Labels Affect Smokers' Brains: Study
- Dehydration Linked to Greater Stroke Damage
- New MRI Test May Help Diagnose Liver Condition in Kids
- Study Underscores Power of Placebo Effect
- Concussions Linked to Memory Loss in Study of Retired NFL Players
- MRI Improves Prostate Cancer Biopsy Accuracy, Study Finds
- Scientists Spot Mutation Behind Genetic Form of Heart Failure
- Synthetic Oil May Help Patients With Huntington's Disease
- Common Breast Biopsy Finding May Be More Dangerous Than Thought
- Scans May Spot People Who'll Benefit From Surgery for OCD
- FDA Approves Injectable Device for Back, Leg Pain
- Common Knee Surgery May Boost Arthritis Risk, Study Suggests
- MRI Can Be Painful, Disruptive for People With Cochlear Implants
- Oxygen May Not Help Heart Attack Victims
- 3-D Model of Heart May Help Surgeons Fix Defects
- Chronic Pot Smoking May Alter Brain, Study Suggests
- Study Points to Causes Behind Age-Linked Memory Loss
- Brain Scans Yield Clues to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- Repetitive Pitching May Cause Teens Serious Shoulder Problems
- Many Parents Need to Educate Themselves About Concussions
- MRI May Spot Early Signs of Mental Decline, Study Finds
- Too Many Heart Scans May Pose Radiation Risks, Cardiologists Say
- Can Media Multitasking Alter Your Brain?
- Brain Structure Might Help Predict Risky Behavior
- One Dose of Antidepressant Changes Brain Connections, Study Says
- Not Everyone With Alzheimer's-Linked Protein Develops Dementia: Study
- Study Sees Differences in Brain Connections of Kids With ADHD
- New Myelin Loss Linked to MS Severity: Study
- Scientists Watch Imagination at Work in the Brain
- Electrical Pulses to Scalp May Boost Memory: Study
- Hormone Might Help Preemies' Brains
- Playing Video Game May Boost MS Patients' Balance: Study
- When It Comes to a Growing Child, the Brain Comes First
- Older Adults Sharpest in the Morning, Study Finds
- Clues to How Heavy Drinking in Pregnancy Harms Child's Brain
- Skip the Steroids for Shoulder Pain?
- Different Areas of Brain Affected in Autism, Sensory Disorders
- Gene Mutation May Make Food More Tempting
- Will 3-D Printing Revolutionize Medicine?
- Even Mild Concussion Can Cause Thinking, Memory Problems: Study
- Can Games, Puzzles Keep Aging Minds Sharp?
- MRIs Plus Mammograms Best for High-Risk Women, Study Finds
- MRI Technique May Help Detect Parkinson's Earlier
- Medicaid Patients Get Worse Cancer Care, Studies Contend
- Memory Problems After Chemo Linked to Brain Changes
- Double Mastectomy Often Not Needed, Study Finds
- Migraines Linked to Increased Risk of 'Silent Strokes'
- Smaller Brain Volume Seen in College Football Players in Study
- Japan Quake Shows How Stress Alters the Brain
- Type 2 Diabetes May Shrink the Brain, Study Suggests
- Guidelines Aim to Detect More Congenital Heart Defects in Womb
- Key Brain 'Networks' May Differ in Autism, Study Suggests
- Apathy Might Signal Brain Shrinkage in Old Age: Study
- Scientists Find New Way to Observe 'Good' Brown Fat
- Study Links Casual Marijuana Use to Changes in Brain
- Brain Scans Might Spot Potential for Recovery From Coma
- Lab-Grown Vaginas, Noses Herald New Options for Patients
- Just One Season of Hits in High School Football May Alter Brain: Study
- Stem Cells Show Promise for Stroke Recovery
- Diabetes Treatment Falls Short as Heart Failure Drug in Study
- Avoid Sports Injuries: Advice From an Olympic Doctor
- Amnesia Patient's Brain Helps Illuminate How Memory Works
- Hearing Loss Tied to Faster Brain Shrinkage With Age
- Is the Stethoscope Living on Borrowed Time?
- Fish Oil Might Guard Against Loss of Brain Cells
- Your Brain Structure Might Influence Pain Tolerance
- Vitamin D May Slow Multiple Sclerosis, Study Suggests
- New Study Challenges Dyslexia-Brain Changes Link
- Childhood Cancer Survivors a Growing Patient Population
- Could Brain Thickness Point to Stronger Religious Belief?
- Brain Scan Study Suggests 'Pothead' Stereotype Might Be Real
- Preemies Show Subtle Differences in Brain Development
- What Not to Do for Migraines
- Use of Breast MRIs Way Up, Studies Find
- Scans Show Brain-Connection Differences in Those With Epilepsy
- Implanted Device Approved to Decrease Seizures
- FDA Approves Implanted Brain Stimulator for Epilepsy
- Aerobics Might Boost Brain Health for Older Adults
- Music Training May Boost Young Brains, Studies Suggest
- Could Warmer Weather Hamper Brain Function in People With MS?
- Brain Scans Show Fibromyalgia Patients Process Pain Differently
- Can Marathons Temporarily Hurt the Heart?
- Poverty May Harm a Child's Brain Development, Study Suggests
- New Research May Help Spare Patients 'Accidental Awareness' During Surgery
- Vets With Gulf War Syndrome Show Brain Changes, Study Finds
- Stutterers Show Different Brain Development, Study Says
- Gene Mutation May Double Rate of Brain Tissue Lost to Alzheimer's
- Stem Cells From Fat Might Improve Plastic Surgery
- Brain Scans Show Why Psychopaths Don't Feel Your Pain
- Carbonation May Help Artificially Sweetened Soda 'Trick' the Brain
- Doctors Quick to Order Knee MRIs When They Own a Scanner, Study Finds
- Smaller Testicles, Bigger Parenting Role, Study Suggests
- With Insomnia, Mind May Also Wander During Day
- MRI May Not Improve Outcomes for Early Form of Breast Cancer
- Facebook Use Linked to Brain's Reward Center
- Brain Size May Yield Clues to Anorexia
- Migraines Linked to Changes in Brain Structure
- Humans Hardwired to Feel Others' Pain, Study Finds
- Brain May Recover From Concussion by Compensating
- High-Tech Prostate Scan May Boost Cancer Detection
- Kids With Autism Outperformed Others on Math Test, Study Found
- MRIs May Spur Unneeded Mastectomies in Older Women With Breast Cancer
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- MRI Might Allow Earlier Diagnosis of Dyslexia: Study
- More Women Consider Gene Test After Angelina Jolie Mastectomy Revelation
- Famous Face Test May Spot Early Dementia
- Migraines Linked to Artery Networks in Brain
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- New Clues About Hot Flashes and the Brain
- Brain Wired Differently in Those With Autism: Study
- Could a Gene Help Make You Obese?
- Sweet Tooth May Foretell of Binge Drinking, Brain Scans Show
- Extra Brain Fluid May Predict Autism Diagnosis: Study
- Depressed Preschoolers Show Brain Changes, Scans Find
- Brain Scans Suggest 'Food Addiction' Might Be Real
- 'Hyperconnectivity' Seen in Brains of Children With Autism
- Scientists Map a Brain Down to Its Cells
- MRIs Spot 'Hidden' Fungal Infections From Tainted Steroid Shots
- Kids With Autism May Find Human Voice Unpleasant
- Scans Uncover Dangerous Hardening of Abdominal Aorta
- Concussion Damage Looks Much Like Early Alzheimer's: Study
- Canine Research Sheds Light on OCD in Humans
- More Evidence Shows Breast-Feeding Helps Babies' Brains
- Scientists ID Gene Behind Early Onset Puberty
- Research Shows How Ritalin Affects Brains of Kids With ADHD
- 1 in 5 Americans Goes to the ER Each Year: CDC
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- Having Both Migraines, Depression May Mean Smaller Brain
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- Cellphone Use May Reveal Your 'Dominant Brain'
- Angelina Jolie's Double Mastectomy: Q&A
- iPads Could Affect Implanted Heart Devices, Early Study Finds
- Brain Differences Seen in Kids With Conduct Problems
- Implants May Delay Breast Cancer Detection, Raise Death Risk
- Psychopaths May Lack Capacity for Empathy
- Magnetic Brain Stimulation May Temporarily Dull Nicotine Craving
- New MS Drug Tecfidera: Q&A
- Ingredient in New MS Drug Linked to Serious Brain Disease
- Shrinkage of Brain Region May Signal Onset of Multiple Sclerosis
- For First Time, Pain 'Signature' Spotted on Brain MRIs
- Scans May Reveal Pre-Schizophrenia Brain Changes
- Could Scientists Peek Into Your Dreams?
- Researchers Test Implanted Brain Stimulator for Alzheimer's
- Brain Differences Seen in People With Migraines
- Reduced 'Fine-Tuning' of Brain May Hamper Face Recognition in Autism
- Dotarem Approved for Nervous System MRIs
- Brain Changes Could Contribute to Gulf War Illness: Study
- False-Positive Mammograms Can Trigger Long-Term Distress
- Spine MRIs Often Show Harmless 'Defects,' Study Finds
- Brain Imaging Detects Tiny Lesions Related to Mild Injury: Study
- Single Concussion May Lead to Lasting Brain Damage
- Brain Scans May Explain Thinking, Memory Problems in Some MS Patients
- Brain 'Pacemaker' May Help Ease Tough-to-Treat Anorexia
- 5 Rheumatology Procedures You Might Not Need
- Scans That Gauge Heart Scarring May Spot High-Risk Patients
- Eye-Tracking Tool Might Quickly Spot Stroke
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- Scientists Pinpoint How Deep Brain Stimulation Eases OCD
- Injected 'Hydrogel' May Help Repair Failing Hearts
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- 'Watch and Wait' Approach Often Best for Older Patients With Kidney Cancer
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- Targeted Prostate Cancer Biopsies Might Improve Care: Study
- 'Chemo Brain' May Occur Before Treatment Even Starts
- Study Supports Link Between Stress, Epileptic Seizures
- Climbers With Altitude Sickness Show Signs of Brain Bleeds Years Later
- 'Chemo Brain' Real, Not Just Patient's Imagination
- Brain Scans Show Differences in Adults With Autism
- Reading, Games May Help Aging Brains Stay Sharp
- Too Much or Too Little Activity Can Spur Knee Problems
- Alzheimer's May Progress Differently in Women, Men
- Scans Spot Brain Changes in Patients With Concussion Syndrome
- Scientists Track Activity in Rappers' Brains
- Migraines' Brain Changes Not Linked to Mental Harm
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- Cocaine Raises Heart Risks for Fit, Young Adults: Study
- Brain Anatomy May Play Role in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
- Handshakes Matter for First Impressions, Brain Study Confirms
- Elevated BP May Prematurely Age the Brain
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- Speed-Learning a New Language May Help Brain Grow: Study
- Stroke Risk Rises in Seniors With COPD: Study
- Exercise Protects Aging Brains Better
- Brain Scans Suggest Downside to Skipping Breakfast
- Pain Level After Car Crash Could Depend on Your Genes, Studies Say
- New MRI Might Help Spot Heart Disease Early: Study
- Researchers Map Vision in Brain
- Retina's Thickness May Be Tied to Severity of MS, Study Suggests
- Study Ties Common Back Ailment to Faulty Gene
- After Breast Cancer Diagnosis, Are Other Tests Overdone?
- X-Rays May Up Breast Cancer Risk for Women With Certain Genes: Study
- Combat Stress Linked to Brain Changes in Study
- Many Heart Attacks May Go Unrecognized in Seniors
- Beyond Statistics: 2 Faces of West Nile Virus
- Obesity Might Lower Teens' Thinking Skills, Study Suggests
- Frequent MRI Scanner Exposure Might Affect Memory: Study
- Study Casts Doubt on Link Between MS and Vein Trouble
- New Brain Measurements Can Pinpoint Children's Age
- Sharp as a Tack at 90: Here's Why
- Condition Commonly Seen in Aging May Alter Brain Function
- Brain Scans May Spot Teens at Risk for Problem Drinking
- Week-Long Speech Therapy May Improve Stuttering
- Imaging Tests Up Among Advanced Cancer Patients
- Neglect May Harm Brain Growth in Children
- Sodium Buildup in Brain Linked to Disability in MS Patients
- Exercise Can Shield the Aging Brain, Studies Show
- Common Hip Disorder May Raise Risk for Sports Hernia
- Cell-Based 'Tracking Devices' Might Help Monitor Treatments
- Study of Retired NFL Players Finds Evidence of Brain Damage
- Brain EEG Test Might Help Spot Autism: Study
- 'Mindful' Meditation Tied to Healthy Brain Changes: Study
- CT Scans, MRIs Becoming More Common
- Seizure Behind Commerce Secretary Bryson's Crashes: Report
- Head Injury's Location Key to Concussion Effects
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- Study Supports Guilt's Role in Depression
- Who's Touching You Affects How It Feels: Study
- After Chest Radiation, Girls at Greater Risk for Early Breast Cancer: Study
- Probiotics: Exploring the Gut-Mind Connection
- Breast MRI Best at Tracking Response to Chemo: Study
- Could Nasal Spray of 'Love Hormone' Treat Autism?
- FDA Seeks Less Radiation for Kids Getting X-Rays, CT Scans
- New Clues to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- Strength Training May Give Boost to Seniors' Brains
- 'No Regrets' Outlook May Make for Sunnier Old Age
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- Brain Changes May Hamper Decision-Making in Old Age
- Ultrasound 'Male Lumpectomy' for Prostate Cancer
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- Researchers ID Genes That May Determine Mental Illness
- Anxiety Might Help People Sniff Out Threats
- Many Medical Tests, Procedures Not Always Needed
- Epilepsy Leads to More Brain Abnormalities Over Time
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- Physician Groups Call for Fewer Medical Tests
- The Human Brain: Not a Tangle, But a Grid
- New Device Approved for Lingering GERD
- Brain Scans Suggest How Alzheimer's Spreads
- Infants' Faces Trigger Caregiving Impulse in Adults' Brains
- Study Explains How Shock Therapy Might Ease Severe Depression
- Long Space Missions May Harm Astronauts' Eyes
- Past Pregnancies May Protect Against MS
- Brain Scans Overused on U.S. Stroke Patients, Study Says
- Sports Concussion: Myths and Facts
- Omega-3 Fatty Acids Help Brain Age Better
- Brain Scans Might Spot Autism as Early as 6 Months of Age
- Brain Scans May One Day Be Used to Predict Dementia
- Scarred Hearts Healed After Heart Attack
- Mediterranean Diet May Protect Brain
- Brain Development Harmed in Mistreated Kids
- Brain Scans May Predict How People Learn
- Female Soccer Players May Face Health Problems: Study
- Adult Children of Stroke Sufferers May Show Signs of Brain Aging, Too
- Study Finds Link Between Heart Failure, Brain Changes
- Stem Cell Therapy Shows Promise for Stroke, Studies Say
- Mom's Support Tied to Child's Brain Development
- Many Docs Use Costly MRIs to Diagnose Nerve Condition: Study
- Could 'Magic' Mushrooms Ease Depression?
- Lack of ZZZs May Fuel Appetite
- Dyslexia's Brain Changes May Occur Before Kids Learn to Read
- FDA Panel Backs New Device for Chronic Heartburn
- Paranoid or Placid? Scans Show Pot's Effect on Brain
- Is American Medicine Too Test Happy?
- 'Silent Strokes' Linked to Memory Loss in Elderly: Study
- Diet Patterns Linked With Brain Health
- The New Face of Pet Therapy
- Breast Cancer Patients Face More Imaging Tests Today
- Thinner Brains Could Signal Alzheimer's, Study Suggests
- Brain Changes May Be Tied to Parkinson's Dementia
- Study Questions Use of MRI Before Back-Pain Injections
- Carriers of Breast Cancer Gene at Risk of Second Cancer
- Marathons May Damage Part of Heart: Study
- Concussions Might Affect Kids and Adults Differently
- Violent Video Games May Alter Brain Function: Study
- Kids With ADHD Have Distinct Brain Patterns
- New Version of Contraceptive Implant Is Easier to Insert
- Study Suggests Exercise May Help Memory of Fibromyalgia Patients
- EEG Measures Awareness in Some 'Vegetative' Patients
- Study Finds No Link Between Dyslexia and IQ
- Teens' IQ May Fluctuate Over Time: Study
- For Many, Epilepsy Surgery Effective Long-Term
- Winning May Take All Your Brain Power
- Anesthesia Before Age 2 Linked to Learning Problems
- Brain Continues to Develop Beyond Adolescence
- Blood Test May Help Spot Stroke
- MRI Can Spot Breast Cancer in High-Risk Women: Study
- Brains of Obese May Crave High-Calorie Foods More: Study
- FDA Questions Studies of Breast Implant Safety
- Brain Scans Show Risk Factor for Alzheimer's
- Fat Around Heart May Be Linked to Clogged Arteries
- Like Those in Humans, Baby Chimps' Forebrains Immature
- Love May Boost Athletic Performance
- Brain Injuries Increase Risk of Stroke
- Why Comfort Foods Are So Comforting
- Study: Blood Test Detects Early Alzheimer's
- Very Low-Calorie Diet May Reverse Diabetes
- Moderate Exercise May Cut Risk of 'Silent' Stroke
- Being 'Born-Again' Linked to More Brain Atrophy: Study
- Relieving Back Pain May Help the Brain
- Gene for Alzheimer's Risk May Affect Brain Early
- Quick Screening May Help Spot Autism in Babies
- New Alzheimer's Guidelines Stress Early Diagnosis
- Brain Shrinkage May Help Predict Alzheimer's
- Meditation May Reduce Pain
- New Clues on Brain's Ability to Learn
- Is Itching Contagious?
- Stem Cell Transplants May Treat Aggressive MS
- Brain Scans Shed Light on Teen Peer Pressure
- Placebo Effect May Work in Reverse
- Survey: Doctors Order Imaging Tests 'Defensively'
- Repeat MRIs Boost Accuracy of Breast Cancer Testing
- Michael Douglas: Throat Cancer Survivor
- Arthritis Doctors Too Often Opt for Drugs, Surgery
- How to Know You're in Love? Brain Scans Tell All
- Gene Test, Preventive Surgery Save Women's Lives
- Larger Head Size May Help Alzheimer's Patients
- Predicting Alzheimer's: PET Scan Plus Memory Test Works Best
- Knee Injury? Surgery Won't Cut Arthritis Risk
- IBD May Raise Risk of Pancreatic Cancer
- Drug for Immune Disorders Helps Alzheimer's
- Mediterranean Diet May Prevent Stroke-Related Brain Damage
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