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- What is moxifloxacin-oral, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for moxifloxacin-oral?
- Is moxifloxacin-oral available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for moxifloxacin-oral?
- What are the side effects of moxifloxacin-oral?
- What is the dosage for moxifloxacin-oral?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with moxifloxacin-oral?
- Is moxifloxacin-oral safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about moxifloxacin-oral?
What is moxifloxacin-oral, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Moxifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Other fluoroquinolones include ciprofloxacin (Cipro), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and ofloxacin (Floxin). Moxifloxacin works by blocking DNA gyrase enzyme, which is responsible for production and repair of bacterial DNA. Blocking of DNA gyrase leads to bacteria death and prevents worsening of infection. Moxifloxacin treats infections caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria like Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenza, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Moxifloxacin also treats infections caused by Clostridium perfringens, Chlamydophila pneumonia, and Mycoplasma pneumonia. FDA approved brand name moxifloxacin (Avelox) in December 1999.
What are the side effects of moxifloxacin-oral?
Rare allergic reactions have been described, such as hives and anaphylaxis (shock). Moxifloxacin should be used with caution in patients with central nervous system diseases such as seizures, because rare seizures have been reported in patients receiving moxifloxacin. Moxifloxacin should be avoided in children and adolescents less than 18 years of age, as safe use in these patients has not been established.
Moxifloxacin as well as other antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics, has been associated with tendinitis and even rupture of tendons, particularly the Achilles tendon. This risk is especially increased in patients over 60 or patients taking corticosteroids ( for example prednisone). Many antibiotics, including moxifloxacin, can alter the normal bacteria in the colon and encourage overgrowth of a bacterium responsible for the development of inflammation of the colon, (C. difficile or pseudomembranous colitis). Patients who develop signs of pseudomembranous colitis after starting moxifloxacin (diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and possibly shock) should contact their physician immediately.
Fluoroquinolones have neuromuscular blocking activity and can worsen muscles weakness in individuals with myasthenia gravis. They also worsen low blood glucose levels when combined with sulfonylureas (for example, glyburide [Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase, Prestab]).
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What is the dosage for moxifloxacin-oral?
Acute bacterial sinus infection: Take 1 tablet (400 mg) by mouth or 400 mg injection once daily for 5 to 10 days.
Chronic bacterial bronchitis: Take 400 mg by mouth or injection once daily for 5 days.
Community-acquired pneumonia: Take 400 mg by mouth or injection once daily for 7 to 14 days.
Complicated skin and skin structure infections: Take 400 mg by mouth or injection once daily for 7 to 21 days.
Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections: Take 400 mg by mouth or injection once daily for 7 days.
Complicated intra-abdominal infections: Take 400 mg by mouth or injection once daily for 5 to 14 days.
Safe and effective use of moxifloxacin is not established in patients under the age of 18 years.
Which drugs or supplements interact with moxifloxacin-oral?
Moxifloxacin administration should be separated from aluminum and magnesium containing antacids, sucralfate (Carafate), and multivitamins because they can lower absorption of moxifloxacin and reduce its effectiveness. They should be administered 4 hours before or 8 hours after moxifloxacin.
Is moxifloxacin-oral safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
There are no adequate studies done on moxifloxacin to determine safe and effective use in pregnant women. It should only be used if clearly needed.
Moxifloxacin enters breast milk. Mothers should decide whether to stop breastfeeding or discontinue moxifloxacin.
What else should I know about moxifloxacin-oral?
What preparations of moxifloxacin-oral are available?
Tablets: 400 mg. Injection: 400 mg/250 ml
How should I keep moxifloxacin-oral stored?
Store moxifloxacin tablets between temperatures of 20 C to 25 C (68 F to 77 F).
REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information
Moxifloxacin hydrochloride (Avelox) is an antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. Side effects, drug interactions, dosage, storage, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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Cipro vs. Flagyl
Cipro, generic name ciprofloxacin, is an antibiotic that belongs to a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones, prescribed for the treatment a variety of bacterial infections. Flagyl, generic name metronidazole, is an antibiotic prescribed for the treatment of parasites and anaerobic bacteria.
Cipro and Flagyl have the same common side effects like rash, headache, abdominal cramps and/or pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.
Nerve pain (peripheral neuropathy) and seizures are serious side effects of both Cipro and Flagyl. Cipro may cause rupture of the Achilles tendon. Cipro may cause a rare allergic reaction called anaphylaxis or shock. Symptoms of shock include shortness of breath, hives, itching, and cardiovascular collapse.
Examples of side effects unique to Flagyl are dizziness, constipation, vaginal dryness, furry tongue, dry mouth, and loss of appetite. Neither Cipro or Flagyl are recommended during pregnancy or while breastfeeding.
Common ColdThe common cold (viral upper respiratory tract infection) is a contagious illness that may be caused by various viruses. Symptoms include a stuffy nose, headache, cough, sore throat, and maybe a fever. Antibiotics have no effect upon the common cold, and there is no evidence that zinc and vitamin C are effective treatments.
Legionnaire Disease and Pontiac FeverLegionellosis is an infection caused by the Legionella pneumophila bacterium. There are two forms of legionellosis: Pontiac fever and Legionnaires' disease, which is the more severe of the two infections. Symptoms of Pontiac fever include fever, headache, muscle aches, and chills. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease include cough, chills, fever and sometimes muscle aches, headaches, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and severe pneumonia. While Pontiac fever resolves on its own, Legionnaires' disease must be treated with antibiotics.
Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), most commonly, M. avium complex or MAC, is a mycobacteria that causes lung infections and disease. Nontuberculous mycobacteria are commonly found in soil, air, and water. Examples of how NTM lung infection are transmitted include swimming, using a hot tub (NTM bacteria are aerosolized), or playing with or handling soil.
The most common symptoms of NTM lung infection are chronic, dry cough, and shortness of breath. Sometimes the cough may have mucous or blood. Other symptoms of NTM lung disease include fatigue, chest pain, malaise, and weakness. As NTM lung disease progresses, fevers, night sweats, and appetite loss may occur. Treatment guidelines for NTM lung disease depend upon the type and extent of the infection, and the person's health.