How does atrial fibrillation occur? 3 Types

Atrial fibrillation (AF)
The most common causes leading to atrial fibrillation include heart valve disease, heart failure, and others.

Atrial fibrillation (AF, AFib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by an irregular and fast heartbeat. The upper chambers of the heart (atria) beat chaotically.  This can cause pooling and clotting of blood in the atria, instead of it emptying into the lower chamber (ventricles). AF can lead to stroke, heart failure, blood clots, and heart-related complications.

In the United States, approximately 5 million people are affected by atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is classified into three types:

  • Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: AF attacks that last for less than 24 hours
  • Persistent atrial fibrillation: AF attacks that last for more than seven days and require treatment
  • Long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation: AF that has continued for more than a year

The most common causes leading to atrial fibrillation include:

What are the signs of AFib?

Frequently, persons with AFib have no symptoms. When Symptoms do occur, the signs of AFib include:

How is atrial fibrillation diagnosed?

The tests commonly used in evaluating a patient with atrial fibrillation are:

Can a person die from atrial fibrillation?

Atrial fibrillation is a serious condition that, if untreated, doubles the risks of heart-related deaths and stroke. The Framingham Heart Study reported that AFib increases the risk of death by 1.5-fold in men and 1.9-fold in women.  So, it is important to control atrial fibrillation.

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How is atrial fibrillation treated?

The four major goals of atrial fibrillation are

  • Regaining a normal heart rhythm,
  • Controlling heart rate,
  • Preventing blood clots, and
  • Mitigating the risk of stroke.

The various treatment options include drug therapy, surgery, and lifestyle changes.

Drug Therapy

Medications commonly used to treat atrial fibrillation are:

When drug therapy fails, procedures to treat atrial fibrillation include:

  • Electrical cardioversion: Restoring normal heart rhythm by using electrical shock with the patient under anesthesia.
  • Pulmonary vein ablation: Applying radiofrequency energy or freezing to excitable electrical tissue around the connections of the pulmonary vein near the atrium.
  • Ablation of the AV node: A catheter is directed to the heart through the groin. A small area of tissue around the junction connecting the upper (atria) and lower (ventricles) chambers of the heart are destroyed with radiofrequency energy.
  • Patients with a slow heart rate may have a pacemaker installed with a pulse generator and wires that transmit electrical impulses to the heart.
  • Left atrial appendage closure: A small, ear-shaped sac present in the muscle wall of the atrium that is closed to prevent stroke.

Surgery

Some patients, who have had failed drug therapy and catheter ablation or with blood clots in the left atrium, recent stroke and an enlarged left atrium may be suitable for surgical treatment:

  • Maze procedure: This procedure involves a series of cuts made in the upper chambers of the heart to block any abnormal electrical impulse.
  • Excision of the left atrial appendage: Surgical removal of the left atrial appendage.

Lifestyle changes

Lifestyle changes for AF include:

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Medically Reviewed on 5/18/2022
References
Medscape Medical Reference

What is Atrial Fibrillation (AFib or AF)?

Atrial Fibrillation (Afib): Management and Treatment