What other names is Moringa known by?

Arango, Árbol de las Perlas, Behen, Ben Ailé, Ben Nut Tree, Ben Oléifère, Benzolive, Canéficier de l'Inde, Chinto Borrego, Clarifier Tree, Drumstick Tree, Horseradish Tree, Indian Horseradish, Jacinto, Kelor Tree, Malunggay, Marango, Mlonge, Moringa oleifera, Moringa pterygosperma, Moringe de Ceylan, Mulangay, Murungakai, Narango, Nebeday, Paraíso Blanco, Perla de la India, Pois Quénique, Sahjna, Saijan, Saijhan, Sajna, San Jacinto, Shagara al Rauwaq, Shigru, Terebinto.

What is Moringa?

Moringa is a plant that is native to areas of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan. It is also grown in the tropics. The leaves, bark, flowers, fruit, seeds, and root are used to make medicine.

Moringa is taken by mouth for "tired blood" (anemia), arthritis and other joint pain (rheumatism), asthma, cancer, constipation, diabetes, diarrhea, seizures, stomach pain, stomach and intestinal ulcers, intestinal spasms, headache, heart problems, high blood pressure, kidney stones, symptoms of menopause, thyroid disorders, and infections.

Moringa is also taken by mouth to reduce swelling, as an antioxidant, to prevent spasms, increase sex drive (as an aphrodisiac), prevent pregnancy, boost the immune system, and increase breast milk production. Some people use it as a nutritional supplement or tonic. It is also used as a "water pill" (diuretic).

Moringa is sometimes applied directly to the skin as a germ-killer or drying agent (astringent). It is also applied to the skin for treating pockets of infection (abscesses), athlete's foot, dandruff, gum disease (gingivitis), snakebites, warts, and wounds.

Oil from moringa seeds is used in foods, perfume, and hair care products, and as a machine lubricant.

Moringa is an important food source in some parts of the world. Because it can be grown cheaply and easily, and the leaves retain lots of vitamins and minerals when dried, moringa is used in India and Africa in feeding programs to fight malnutrition. The immature green pods (drumsticks) are prepared similarly to green beans, while the seeds are removed from more mature pods and cooked like peas or roasted like nuts. The leaves are cooked and used like spinach, and they are also dried and powdered for use as a condiment.

The seed cake remaining after oil extraction is used as a fertilizer and also to purify well water and to remove salt from seawater.


Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough? See Slideshow

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Asthma. Early research shows that taking 3 grams of moringa twice daily for 3 weeks reduces the severity of asthma symptoms and improves lung function in adults with mild to moderate asthma.
  • Diabetes. Early research shows that taking moringa tablets along with a type medicine called sulfonylureas does not improve blood sugar control better than taking sulfonylureas alone in people with diabetes.
  • Increasing breast milk production. Research regarding the effects of moringa for increasing breast milk production is conflicting. Some early research shows that moringa increases milk production, while other early research shows no benefit. An analysis of data from five clinical studies shows that moringa moderately increases milk product after one week of use when started on postpartum day 3. But it's not clear if moringa is beneficial when used for longer periods of time.
  • Malnutrition. Early research shows that adding moringa powder to food for 2 months helps improve weight in malnourished children.
  • Menopausal symptoms. Early research shows that adding fresh moringa leaves to food for 3 months improves menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes and sleeping problems in healthy, postmenopausal women.
  • "Tired blood" (anemia).
  • Arthritis.
  • As a nutritional supplement.
  • Birth control.
  • Cancer.
  • Constipation.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Epilepsy.
  • Headache.
  • Heart problems.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Increasing sex drive.
  • Infections.
  • Kidney stones.
  • Stomach and intestinal ulcers.
  • Stomach pain (gastritis).
  • Swelling (inflammation).
  • Stimulating immunity.
  • Thyroid disorders.
  • Other conditions.
  • Athlete's foot..
  • Dandruff.
  • Gum disease (gingivitis).
  • Warts.
  • Skin infections.
  • Snakebites.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate moringa for these uses.

How does Moringa work?

Moringa contains proteins, vitamins, and minerals. As an antioxidant, it seems to help protect cells from damage. Moringa may also help decrease inflammation and reduce pain.

Are there safety concerns?

Moringa is LIKELY SAFE when the leaves, fruit, and seeds are eaten as food. Moringa leaf and seeds are POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as medicine, short term. Products containing moringa leaf have been used with apparent safety for up to 90 days. Products containing moringa seed have been used with apparent safety for up to 3 weeks. Moringa root and root extracts are POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth. The roots contain spirochin, a toxic substance.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy: It's POSSIBLY UNSAFE to use the root, bark, or flowers of moringa if you are pregnant. Chemicals in the root, bark, and flowers might make the uterus contract. In traditional medicine the root and bark were used to cause miscarriages. There is not enough information available about the safety of using other parts of moringa during pregnancy. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Breast-feeding: Moringa is sometimes used to increase breast milk production. It seems to be safe for the mother when taken for several days. But there isn't enough information to know if it is safe for the nursing infant. Therefore, it is best to avoid moringa if you are breast-feeding.

Children: Moringa leaf is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth, short-term. Moringa leaf has been used with apparent safety in children for up to 2 months.

Are there any interactions with medications?

LevothyroxineInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Levothyroxine is used for low thyroid function. Moringa might decrease how much levothyroxine your body absorbs. Taking moringa along with levothyroxine might decrease the effectiveness of levothyroxine.

Some brands that contain levothyroxine include Armour Thyroid, Eltroxin, Estre, Euthyrox, Levo-T, Levothroid, Levoxyl, Synthroid, Unithroid, and others.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Moringa might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking moringa along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking moringa, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Moringa might lower blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking moringa along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (Diabeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Moringa might lower blood pressure. It has the potential to add to blood pressure lowering effects of antihypertensive drugs.

Some medications used to lower blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Dosing considerations for Moringa.

The appropriate dose of moringa depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for moringa. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

FDA Logo

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors

Reviewed on 9/17/2019

Akhtar, A. H. and Ahmad, K. U. Anti-ulcerogenic evaluation of the methanolic extracts of some indigenous medicinal plants of Pakistan in aspirin-ulcerated rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1995;46(1):1-6. View abstract.

Almirante, C. and Lim C. Effectiveness of Natalac as Galactagogue. Journal of Phil Med Assoc 1996;71(2):272.

Almirante, C. and Lim C. Enhancement of breastfeeding among hypertensive mothers. Journal of Pediatrics 1996;279-286.

Anwar, F., Latif, S., Ashraf, M., and Gilani, A. H. Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytother Res 2007;21(1):17-25. View abstract.

Arabshahi-Delouee, S., Aalami, M., Urooj, A., and Krishnakantha, T. P. Moringa oleifera leaves as an inhibitor of human platelet aggregation. Pharmaceutical Biology 2009;47:734-739.

Araujo, C. S., Alves, V. N., Rezende, H. C., Almeida, I. L., de Assuncao, R. M., Tarley, C. R., Segatelli, M. G., and Coelho, N. M. Characterization and use of Moringa oleifera seeds as biosorbent for removing metal ions from aqueous effluents. Water Sci Technol 2010;62(9):2198-2203. View abstract.

Atawodi, S. E., Atawodi, J. C., Idakwo, G. A., Pfundstein, B., Haubner, R., Wurtele, G., Bartsch, H., and Owen, R. W. Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam. J Med Food 2010;13(3):710-716. View abstract.

Babu, R. and Chaudhuri, M. Home water treatment by direct filtration with natural coagulant. J Water Health 2005;3(1):27-30. View abstract.

Briton-Medrano, G. and Perez L. The efficacy of malunggay (moringa oleifera) given to near term pregnant women in inducing early postpartum breast milk production-a double blind randomized clinical trial. Unpublished 2002.

Caceres, A., Cabrera, O., Morales, O., Mollinedo, P., and Mendia, P. Pharmacological properties of Moringa oleifera. 1: Preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 1991;33(3):213-216. View abstract.

Caceres, A., Saravia, A., Rizzo, S., Zabala, L., De Leon, E., and Nave, F. Pharmacologic properties of Moringa oleifera. 2: Screening for antispasmodic, antiinflammatory and diuretic activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 1992;36(3):233-237. View abstract.

Chattopadhyay, S., Maiti, S., Maji, G., Deb, B., Pan, B., and Ghosh, D. Protective role of Moringa oleifera (Sajina) seed on arsenic-induced hepatocellular degeneration in female albino rats. Biol Trace Elem.Res 2011;142(2):200-212. View abstract.

Chumark, P., Khunawat, P., Sanvarinda, Y., Phornchirasilp, S., Morales, N. P., Phivthong-Ngam, L., Ratanachamnong, P., Srisawat, S., and Pongrapeeporn, K. U. The in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant properties, hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities of water extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 3-28-2008;116(3):439-446. View abstract.

Co, M. Hernandez E. and Co B. A comparative study on the efficacy of the different galactogogues among mothers with Lactational Insufficiency. Paper presented at the AAP Section on Breastfeeding Educational Program, San Francisco, CA. 2002.

Coelho, J. S., Santos, N. D., Napoleao, T. H., Gomes, F. S., Ferreira, R. S., Zingali, R. B., Coelho, L. C., Leite, S. P., Navarro, D. M., and Paiva, P. M. Effect of Moringa oleifera lectin on development and mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae. Chemosphere 2009;77(7):934-938. View abstract.

D'souza, J. and Kulkami, A. R. Comparative studies on nutritive values of tender foliage of seedlings, and mature plants of Moringa Oleifera. Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 1990;27(7):205.

Debnath, S. and Guha, D. Role of Moringa oleifera on enterochromaffin cell count and serotonin content of experimental ulcer model. Indian J Exp Biol 2007;45(8):726-731. View abstract.

Debnath, S., Biswas, D., Ray, K., and Guha, D. Moringa oleifera induced potentiation of serotonin release by 5-HT(3) receptors in experimental ulcer model. Phytomedicine. 1-15-2011;18(2-3):91-95. View abstract.

Devaraj, V. C., Asad, M., and Prasad, S. Effect of leaves and fruits of Moringla oleifera on gastric and duodenal ulcers. Pharmaceutical Biology 2007;45:332-338.

Duangjai, A., Ingkaninan, K., and Limpeanchob, N. Potential mechanisms of hypocholesterolaemic effect of Thai spices/dietary extracts. Nat.Prod Res 2011;25(4):341-352. View abstract.

Edwin, E., Sheeja, E., Suresh, D., Suresh, G., and Gupta, S. Antimicrobial activity of leaves of Morinnga oleiffera and Hibiscus rosasinnensis. Indian Journal of Natural Products 2006;22:31-33.

Eilert, U., Wolters, B., and Nahrstedt, A. The antibiotic principle of seeds of Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala. Planta Med 1981;42(1):55-61. View abstract.

Ejoh, R. A., Dever, J. T., Mills, J. P., and Tanumihardjo, S. A. Small quantities of carotenoid-rich tropical green leafy vegetables indigenous to Africa maintain vitamin A status in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus). Br J Nutr 2010;103(11):1594-1601. View abstract.

Estrella, M. Mantaring J. David G. Taup M. A double blind, randomised controlled trial on the use of malunggay (Moringa oleifera) for augmentation of the volume of breastmilk among non-nursing mothers of preterm infants. Philipp J Pediatr 2000;49:3-6.

Fahey, J. W. Moringa oleifera: a review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties. Part 1. Trees for Life Journal 2005;1:5.

Faizi, S., Siddiqui, B. S., Saleem, R., Siddiqui, S., Aftab, K., and Gilani, A. H. Fully acetylated carbamate and hypotensive thiocarbamate glycosides from Moringa oleifera. Phytochemistry 1995;38(4):957-963. View abstract.

Fakurazi, S., Hairuszah, I., and Nanthini, U. Moringa oleifera Lam prevents acetaminophen induced liver injury through restoration of glutathione level. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46(8):2611-2615. View abstract.

Ferreira, P. M., Carvalho, A. F., Farias, D. F., Cariolano, N. G., Melo, V. M., Queiroz, M. G., Martins, A. M., and Machado-Neto, J. G. Larvicidal activity of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds against Aedes aegypti and its toxicity upon laboratory animals. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2009;81(2):207-216. View abstract.

Firth, J., Balraj, V., Muliyil, J., Roy, S., Rani, L. M., Chandresekhar, R., and Kang, G. Point-of-use interventions to decrease contamination of drinking water: a randomized, controlled pilot study on efficacy, effectiveness, and acceptability of closed containers, Moringa oleifera, and in-home chlorination in rural South India. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82(5):759-765. View abstract.

Freiberger, C. E., Vanderjagt, D. J., Pastuszyn, A., Glew, R. S., Mounkaila, G., Millson, M., and Glew, R. H. Nutrient content of the edible leaves of seven wild plants from Niger. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 1998;53(1):57-69. View abstract.

Gacche, R. N., Dhole, N. A., and Jadhav, A. D. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory related activities of certain botanicals frequently used in Ayurveda and other indigenous systems of medication. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism 2008;20(1):27-35.

Ghasi, S., Nwobodo, E., and Ofili, J. O. Hypocholesterolemic effects of crude extract of leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam in high-fat diet fed wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;69(1):21-25. View abstract.

Ghebremichael, K., Gebremedhin, N., and Amy, G. Performance of Moringa oliefera as a biosorbent for chromium removal. Water Sci Technol 2010;62(5):1106-1111. View abstract.

Goyal, B. R., Goyal, R. K., and Mehta, A. A. Investigation into the mechanism of anti-asthmatic action of Moringa oleifera. J DIET SUPPL 2009;6(4):313-327.

Gupta, R., Kannan, G. M., Sharma, M., and SJ, S. Flora. Therapeutic effects of Moringa oleifera on arsenic-induced toxicity in rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2005;20(3):456-464. View abstract.

Hamza, A. A. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48(1):345-355. View abstract.

Humphrey, S. Herbal Therapies During Lactation. Textbook of Human Lactation.Amarillo TX: Hale Publishing. 2007.

Jamal, P., Muyibi, S. A., and Syarif, W. M. Optimization of process conditions for removal of cadmium using bioactive constituents of Moringa oleifera seeds. Med J Malaysia 2008;63 Suppl A:105-106. View abstract.

Jilcott, S. B., Ickes, S. B., Ammerman, A. S., and Myhre, J. A. Iterative design, implementation and evaluation of a supplemental feeding program for underweight children ages 6-59 months in Western Uganda. Matern.Child Health J 2010;14(2):299-306. View abstract.

Karadi, R. V., Palkar, M. B., Gaviraj, E. N., Gadge, N. B., and Alagawadi, K. R. Antiurolithiatic Property of Moringa oleifera Root Bark. Pharmaceutical Biology 2008;46:861-865.

Kumari, P., Sharma, P., Srivastava, S., and Srivastava, M. M. Arsenic removal from the aqueous system using plant biomass: a bioremedial approach. J Ind Microbiol.Biotechnol. 2005;32(11-12):521-526. View abstract.

Kurma, S. R. and Mishra, S. H. Hepatoprotective principles from the stem bark of Moringa pterygosperma. Pharmaceutical Biology 1998;36:295-300.

KURUP, P. A. and RAO, P. L. Antibiotic principle from Moringa pterygosperma. II. Chemical nature of pterygospermin. Indian J Med Res 1954;42(1):85-95. View abstract.

Lea, M. Bioremediation of turbid surface water using seed extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) tree. Curr Protoc.Microbiol. 2010;Chapter 1:Unit1G. View abstract.

Lipipun, V., Kurokawa, M., Suttisri, R., Taweechotipatr, P., Pramyothin, P., Hattori, M., and Shiraki, K. Efficacy of Thai medicinal plant extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Res 2003;60(3):175-180. View abstract.

Lockett, C. T., Calvert, C. C., and Grivetti, L. E. Energy and micronutrient composition of dietary and medicinal wild plants consumed during drought. Study of rural Fulani, northeastern Nigeria. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000;51(3):195-208. View abstract.

Luqman, S., Kaushik, S., Srivastava, S., Kumar, R., and Khanuja, S. P. Protective effect of medicinal plant extracts on biomarkers of oxidative stress in erythrocytes. Pharmaceutical Biology 2009;47:483-490.

Madsen, M., Schlundt, J., and Omer, E. F. Effect of water coagulation by seeds of Moringa oleifera on bacterial concentrations. J Trop.Med Hyg. 1987;90(3):101-109. View abstract.

Mahajan, S. G. and Mehta, A. A. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs. Inhal.Toxicol 2008;20(10):897-909. View abstract.

Mahajan, S. G. and Mehta, A. A. Immunosuppressive activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. in experimental immune inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol. 7-6-2010;130(1):183-186. View abstract.

Mahajan, S. G. and Mehta, A. A. Inhibitory Action of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. On Systemic and Local Anaphylaxis. J Immunotoxicol. 2007;4(4):287-294. View abstract.

Mahajan, S. G. and Mehta, A. A. Suppression of ovalbumin-induced Th2-driven airway inflammation by beta-sitosterol in a guinea pig model of asthma. Eur J Pharmacol 1-10-2011;650(1):458-464. View abstract.

Mahajan, S. G., Banerjee, A., Chauhan, B. F., Padh, H., Nivsarkar, M., and Mehta, A. A. Inhibitory effect of n-butanol fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a guinea pig model of asthma. Int J Toxicol 2009;28(6):519-527. View abstract.

Mahajan, S. G., Mali, R. G., and Mehta, A. A. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on toluene diisocyanate-induced immune-mediated inflammatory responses in rats. J Immunotoxicol. 2007;4(2):85-96. View abstract.

Medhi, B., Khanikor, H. N., Lahon, L. C., Mohan, E., and Barua, C. C. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and local anaesthetic activity of Moringa pterygosperma in laboratory animals . Pharmaceutical Biology 2003;41:248.

Morton, J. F. The Horseradish Tree, Moringa Pterygosperma (Moringaceae) - a boon to arid lands? Economic Botany 1991;45:318-333.

Muyibi, S. A., Noor, M. J., Ahmadun, F. R., and Ameen, E. S. M. ESM. BENCH SCALE STUDIES FOR PRETREATMENT OF SANITARY LANDFILL LEACHATE WITH MORINGA OLEIFERA SEEDS EXTRACT. International Journal of Environmental Studies 2002;59(5):513.

Nadeem, M., Mahmood, A., Shahid, S. A., Shah, S. S., Khalid, A. M., and McKay, G. Sorption of lead from aqueous solution by chemically modified carbon adsorbents. J Hazard.Mater. 12-1-2006;138(3):604-613. View abstract.

Nambiar, V. S. and Seshadri, S. Bioavailability trials of beta-carotene from fresh and dehydrated drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera) in a rat model. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 2001;56(1):83-95. View abstract.

Nath, D., Sethi, N., Singh, R. K., and Jain, A. K. Commonly used Indian abortifacient plants with special reference to their teratologic effects in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1992;36(2):147-154. View abstract.

Oluduro, O. A., Aderiye, B. I., Connolly, J. D., Akintayo, E. T., and Famurewa, O. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl-1-->4-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl thiocarboxamide; a novel bioactive compound from Moringa oleifera seed extract. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 2010;55(5):422-426. View abstract.

Patel, J. A., Patel, D. S., and Patel, K. M. Anti-ulcer activity of Moringa oleifera against ethanol induced gastric mucosal damage in mice. Indian Journal of Natural Products 2008;24:8-12.

Pullakhandam, R. and Failla, M. L. Micellarization and intestinal cell uptake of beta-carotene and lutein from drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. J Med Food 2007;10(2):252-257. View abstract.

Rahman, M. M., Rahman, M. M., Akhter, S., Jamal, M. A., Pandeya, D. R., Haque, M. A., Alam, M. F., and Rahman, A. Control of coliform bacteria detected from diarrhea associated patients by extracts of Moringa oleifera. Nepal.Med Coll J 2010;12(1):12-19. View abstract.

Rao, A. V., Devi, P. U., and Kamath, R. In vivo radioprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves. Indian J Exp.Biol 2001;39(9):858-863. View abstract.

RAO, R. R., GEORGE, M., and PANDALAI, K. M. Pterygospermin; the antibacterial principle of Moringa pterygosperma, Gaertn. Nature 11-23-1946;158(4021):745. View abstract.

Rathi, B. S., Bodhankar, S. L., and Baheti, A. M. Evaluation of aqueous leaves extract of Moringa oleifera Linn for wound healing in albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2006;44(11):898-901. View abstract.

Ray, K., Hazrai, R., and Guha, D. Central inhibitory effect of Moringa oleifera root extract: possible role of neurotransmitters. Indian J Exp.Biol 2003;41(11):1279-1284. View abstract.

Reddy, D. H., Seshaiah, K., Reddy, A. V., Rao, M. M., and Wang, M. C. Biosorption of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions by Moringa oleifera bark: equilibrium and kinetic studies. J Hazard.Mater. 2-15-2010;174(1-3):831-838. View abstract.

Reyes Sánchez, N. Spörndly E. and Ledin, I. Effect of feeding different levels of foliage of Moringa oleifera to creole dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and composition. Livestock Production Science 2006;101(1-3):24-31.

Sashidhara, K. V., Rosaiah, J. N., Tyagi, E., Shukla, R., Raghubir, R., and Rajendran, S. M. Rare dipeptide and urea derivatives from roots of Moringa oleifera as potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive agents. Eur J Med Chem 2009;44(1):432-436. View abstract.

Sasikala, V., Rooban, B. N., Priya, S. G., Sahasranamam, V., and Abraham, A. Moringa oleifera prevents selenite-induced cataractogenesis in rat pups. J Ocul.Pharmacol Ther 2010;26(5):441-447. View abstract.

Seshadri, S. and Nambiar, V. S. Kanjero (Digera arvensis) and drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera): nutrient profile and potential for human consumption. World Rev Nutr.Diet. 2003;91:41-59. View abstract.

Sharma, P., Kumari, P., Srivastava, M. M., and Srivastava, S. Removal of cadmium from aqueous system by shelled Moringa oleifera Lam. seed powder. Bioresour.Technol. 6-8-2005; View abstract.

Sharma, P., Kumari, P., Srivastava, M. M., and Srivastava, S. Ternary biosorption studies of Cd(II), Cr(III) and Ni(II) on shelled Moringa oleifera seeds. Bioresour.Technol 2007;98(2):474-477. View abstract.

Shukla, S., Mathur, R., and Prakash, A. O. Anti-implantation efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. and Moringa concanensis Nimmo in rats. Int J Crude Drug Res 1988;26:29-32.

Shukla, S., Mathur, R., and Prakash, A. O. Antifertility profile of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera roots. J Ethnopharmacol. 1988;22(1):51-62. View abstract.

Shukla, S., Mathur, R., and Prakash, A. O. Biochemical and physiological alterations in female reproductive organs of cyclic rats treated with aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Acta Eur.Fertil. 1988;19(4):225-232. View abstract.

Shukla, S., Mathur, R., and Prakash, A. O. Effect of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. on the periodicity of estrous cycle in adult intact rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1987;49:218.

Simms, J. T. Ingenuity, peanut butter, and a little green leaf. World Policy J 2010;27(3):75-77. View abstract.

Singh, B. N., Singh, B. R., Singh, R. L., Prakash, D., Dhakarey, R., Upadhyay, G., and Singh, H. B. Oxidative DNA damage protective activity, antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing potentials of Moringa oleifera. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47(6):1109-1116. View abstract.

Spiliotis, V., Lalas, S., Gergis, V., and Dourtoglou, V. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of seeds of different Moringa oleifera varieties. Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Letters 1998;8:39-40.

Sreelatha, S. and Padma, P. R. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2009;64(4):303-311. View abstract.

Suarez, M., Entenza, J. M., Doerries, C., Meyer, E., Bourquin, L., Sutherland, J., Marison, I., Moreillon, P., and Mermod, N. Expression of a plant-derived peptide harboring water-cleaning and antimicrobial activities. Biotechnol.Bioeng. 1-5-2003;81(1):13-20. View abstract.

Subadra, S. and Monica, J. Retention and storage stability of beta-carotene in dehydrated drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera). International Journal of Food Sciences & Nutrition 1997;48(6):373.

Sulaiman, M. R., Zakaria, Z. A., Bujarimin, A. S., Somchit, M. N., and Moin, S. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extract for Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Animal Models. Pharmaceutical Biology 2008;46:838-845.

Sultana, B., Anwar, F., and Ashraf, M. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts. Molecules. 2009;14(6):2167-2180. View abstract.

Thomas, B. Pathogentic trial (drug proving) of Moringa-Oleifera. National Journal of Homeopathy 2005;7(5):357-360.

Thurber, M. D. and Fahey, J. W. Adoption of Moringa oleifera to combat under-nutrition viewed through the lens of the "Diffusion of innovations" theory. Ecol.Food Nutr 2009;48(3):212-225. View abstract.

Verma, A. R., Vijayakumar, M., Mathela, C. S., and Rao, C. V. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47(9):2196-2201. View abstract.

Verma, R., Trivedi, M., Keshwani, H., Choksi, P., and Sangai, N. Ameliorative effect of three medicinal plants (P. fraternus, Terminelia a., and Moringa oleifera) on arsenic trioxide induced alteration of lipid peroxidation and protein contents in chicken liver homogenate: an in vitro study. Acta Pol.Pharm 2007;64(5):417-421. View abstract.

Viera, G. H., Mourao, J. A., Angelo, A. M., Costa, R. A., and Vieira, R. H. Antibacterial effect (in vitro) of Moringa oleifera and Annona muricata against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Rev Inst.Med Trop Sao Paulo 2010;52(3):129-132. View abstract.

Villasenor, I. M., Finch, P., Lim-Sylianco, C. Y., and Dayrit, F. Structure of a mutagen from roasted seeds of Moringa oleifera. Carcinogenesis 1989;10(6):1085-1087. View abstract.

Villasenor, I. M., Lim-Sylianco, C. Y., and Dayrit, F. Mutagens from roasted seeds of Moringa oleifera. Mutat.Res 1989;224(2):209-212. View abstract.

Agrawal B, Mehta A. Antiasthmatic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam: A clinical study. Indian J Pharmacol 2008;40:28-31. View abstract.

Anwar F, Bhanger MI. Analytical characterization of Moringa oleifera seed oil grown in temperate regions of Pakistan. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:6558-63. View abstract.

Bharali R, Tabassum J, Azad MRH. Chemomodulatory effects of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2003;4:131-9. View abstract.

Bose CK. Possible role of Moringa oleifera Lam. root in epithelial ovarian cancer. MedGenMed 2007;9:26. View abstract.

Bour S, Visentin V, Prevot D, et al. Effects of oral administration of benzylamine on glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism in rats. J Physiol Biochem 2005;61:371-9. View abstract.

Chuang PH, Lee CW, Chou JY, et al. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam. Bioresour Technol 2007;98:232-6. View abstract.

Espinosa-Kuo CL. A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Use of Malunggay (Moringa oleifera) for Augmentation of the Volume of Breastmilk Among Mothers of Term Infants. Filipino Family Physician. 2005;43(1):26-33.

Estrella M, Mantaring J, David G, Taup M. A double blind, randomised controlled trial on the use of malunggay (Moringa oleifera) for augmentation of the volume of breastmilk among non-nursing mothers of preterm infants. Philipp J Pediatr 2000;49:3-6.

Fahey JW. Moringa oleifera: A review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties. Part 1. Trees for Life Journal 2005;1:5.

Faizi S, Siddiqui BS, Saleem R, et al. Isolation and structure elucidation of new nitrile and mustard oil glycosides from Moringa oleifera and their effect on blood pressure. J Nat Prod 1994;57:1256-61. View abstract.

Faizi S, Siddiqui BS, Saleem R, et al. Hypotensive constituents from the pod of Moringa oleifera. Planta Med 1998;64:225-8. View abstract.

Ghasi S, Nwobodo E, Ofili JO. Hypocholesterolemic effects of crude extract of leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam in high-fat diet fed wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;69:21-5. View abstract.

Giridhari VVA, Malathi D, Geetha K. Anti Diabetic Property of Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) Leaf Tablets. Int J Health Nutr 2011;2(1):1-5.

Gupta R, Dubey DK, Kannan GM, Flora SJS. Concomitant administration of Moringa oleifera seed powder in the remediation of arsenic-induced oxidative stress in mouse. Cell Biol INt 2007;31:44-56. View abstract.

Iffiu-Soltesz Z, Wanecq E, Lomba A, et al. Chronic benzylamine administration in the drinking water improves glucose tolerance, reduces body weight gain and circulating cholesterol in high-fat diet-fed mice. Pharmacol Res 2010;61:355-63. View abstract.

Jaiswal D, Kumar Rai P, Kumar A, et al. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves aqueous extract therapy on hyperglycemic rats. J Ethnopharmcol 2009;123:392-6. View abstract.

Kar A, Choudhary BK, Bandyopadhyay NG. Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;84:105-8. View abstract.

Karadi RV, Gadge NB, Alagawadi KR, Savadi RV. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root-wood on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;105:306-11. View abstract.

King JS, Raguindin PFN, Dans LF. Moringa oleifera (Malunggay) as a Galactagogue for Breastfeeding Mothers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Philipp J Pediatr 2013;61(2):34-42.

Kushwaha S, Chawla P. Impact of supplementation of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) and amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) leaves powder on menopausal symptoms of postmenopausal. Int J Sci Res Pub 2015;5(1):1-11.

Mehta K, Balaraman R, Amin AH, et al. Effect of fruits of Moringa oleifera on the lipid profile of normal and hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;86:191-5. View abstract.

Monera TG, Wolfe AR, Maponga CC, et al. Moringa oleifera leaf extracts inhibit 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone by CYP3A4. J Infect Dev Ctries 2008;2:379-83. View abstract.

Nambiar VS, Bhadalkar K, Daxini M. Drumstick leaves as a source of vitamin A in ICDS-SFP. Indian J Pediatr 2003;70:383-7. View abstract.

Siddhuraju P, Becker K. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree. (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:2144-55. View abstract.

Singh D, Choudhury S, Singh TU, Garg SK. Pharmacodynamics of uterotonic effect of Moringa oleifera flowers extract. J Vet Pharmcol Toxicol 2008;7(1-2):12-15.

Srikanth VS, Mangala S, Subrahmanyam G. Improvement of Protein Energy Malnutrition by Nutritional Intervention with Moringa Oleifera among Anganwadi Children in Rural Area in Bangalore, India. Int J Sci Stud 2014;2(1):32-35.

Tahiliani P, Kar A. Role of Moringa oleifera leaf extract in the regulation of thyroid hormone status in adult male and female rats. Pharmacol Res 2000;41:319-23. View abstract.