- Incubation Period
- Risk Factors
- Signs & Symptoms
What is molluscum contagiosum?
Molluscum contagiosum is a mild skin disease (skin infection) caused by a virus (molluscum contagiosum virus, a member of the Poxviridae family) that causes usually painless small bumps or lumps (flesh-colored or skin-colored, dome-shaped papules); some may be umbilicated, meaning the lesion has a central depression with a spot in the middle that resembles a navel on the skin (umbilication). The disease occurs worldwide but is more prevalent in warm, humid climates.
The disease is usually not serious and, in most people, resolves in about 6 to 12 months without treatment. It is a common infection in children; direct person-to-person contact, sexual contact, and contaminated items like clothing, towels, or other objects may transmit the infection. Some consider it to be a sexually transmitted disease (STD), but many others simply consider it to be a skin disease that is contagious by any skin-to-skin and indirect incidental contact with the infecting virus in adults, the elderly, and children.
The virus can infect all other parts of the body, including the face, by autoinoculation (self-transfer of the virus to another area of the skin).
Is molluscum contagiosum contagious?
With part of its name being contagiosum, you can be sure it is contagious. The virus spreads by direct skin-to-skin contact and by indirect contact (for example, towels or personal items (fomites) used in contact sports that an infected person touches, allowing the virus to pass from the towel or other item to another person's skin).
What is the incubation period for molluscum contagiosum?
The average time from exposure to the development of symptoms (incubation period) is about 2 to 7 weeks and may be as long as 6 months in some individuals.
How long does the infection with molluscum contagiosum last?
The skin lesions last about 6 to 12 months although some individuals have had lesions that last up to 4 years. Once the lesions spontaneously resolve, the person is not contagious. The contagious period is quite variable and depends on when the lesions resolve.
What triggers molluscum contagiosum?
The cause is a virus, molluscum contagiosum, which is a member of the poxvirus family. The virus only survives in the skin, and when the lesions are gone, the person no longer is contagious.
What are risk factors for molluscum contagiosum?
The highest risk factor is when an uninfected person touches a skin lesion on an infected person's skin or contacts an item such as a towel that an infected person recently used. People with weakened immune systems are at risk of getting the infection and having it rapidly spread with larger lesions.
Other people at high risk include:
- People who use steam baths and saunas
It's also possible to transmit the infection sexually (genital infection). It is theoretically possible to contract the virus from a toilet seat, though no one has documented this.
What are the symptoms and signs of molluscum contagiosum?
The first signs and symptoms of molluscum contagiosum are small painless papules (raised bumps or lumps) on the skin (molluscum lesions). It often appears as a raised, pearly pinkish, or pearl-like nodule or redness on the skin; some nodules contain a dimple in the center.
- Most molluscum lesions are small, about 2-5 mm in diameter.
- Inside the nodule, sometimes there is a cheesy whitish core.
- The lesions may become itchy if scratched.
- The lesions may develop redness or become red and inflamed.
The lesions can appear anywhere on the body (face, mouth, inner thighs, genital area, penis, or vagina, for example). The skin lesions may go through 3 stages, which include:
- The first stage is a small whitish and/or reddish bump on the skin.
- Over a few weeks, the bumps can enlarge to about 2-5 mm with a whitish pus head that develops into a small crater when it bursts. This is stage two, and doctors advise patients not to attempt "popping" these pus-containing bumps or pimples.
- Stage three occurs when the burst craters develop into reddish sores; other organisms (secondary infections) may infect these open sores.
IMAGESSee a picture of Molluscum Contagiosum and other viral skin conditions See Images
How do physicians diagnose molluscum contagiosum?
Doctors or other health care providers diagnose molluscum contagiosum based on the person's history and physical exam. A skin biopsy or tissue scraping that shows the viral infection is a definitive diagnosis usually made by a pathologist or a board-certified dermatologist.
This definitive diagnosis is sometimes helpful to distinguish molluscum contagiosum from many other skin conditions like herpes, genital warts (HPV), hives, atopic dermatitis, skin cancer, bacterial infections, or folliculitis.
What type of doctors treat molluscum contagiosum?
Although primary care providers and pediatricians can treat this disease, consultants like board-certified dermatologists, infectious disease specialists, and pathologists may provide consultations for diagnosis and treatment.
What is the treatment for molluscum contagiosum?
Most people need no treatment because the lesions spontaneously disappear (termed a self-limited disease) in about 6 to 12 months, although for a few, it may take up to 4 years. There are many treatment options. Discuss any treatment method with a doctor.
- Cryotherapy (freezing with liquid nitrogen), curettage (cutting out the lesions), and laser therapy may remove lesions.
- In addition, creams that include podophyllotoxin cream, salicylic acid, tretinoin (Retin A, Atralin, Renova, Avita, Altinac), and cantharidin may remove lesions.
- An antiviral medication (Valtrex) has been used to treat the disease.
- Physicians may use cimetidine (Tagamet) to treat molluscum contagiosum in small children.
- A new medication, imiquimod (Aldara), helps to strengthen the skin's immune response and may help to get rid of the lesions in some people.
- Topical desonide cream (a low-dose corticosteroid) reduces any symptoms that may accompany scratching the nodules.
- Some physicians may treat the disease with topical anti-inflammatory medications like diclofenac gel. Research is ongoing.
- Novan Inc. has B-SIMPLE4 in a pivotal phase 3 study of SB206, a topical antiviral gel.
- YCANTH and VP-102 are two other potential treatments for this disease.
- Attachment Theory: What It Is, Stages & the Different Attachment Styles
- Gentle Parenting: What It Is, Techniques & Discipline
- U.S. Nursing Homes Fail to Report Many Serious Falls, Bedsores: Study
- The Younger You Get Diabetes, the Higher Your Risk for Dementia Later
- FDA Grants Full Approval to Paxlovid to Treat COVID-19
- More Health News »
Are there any home remedies for molluscum contagiosum?
There is a wide range of home remedies available for this disease. People have tried remedies such as apple cider vinegar, tea tree oil, alcohol, iodine, hydrogen peroxide, elderberry extract, and duct tape occlusion.
Unfortunately, there is little data to support these remedies although some claim to cure the disease. Some are easily available at pharmacies (for example, ZymaDerm). It is important to discuss the situation with your doctor before trying a home remedy.
What is the prognosis of molluscum contagiosum?
Most people who get molluscum contagiosum have an excellent prognosis because the infection is usually self-limiting; it typically affects only the skin and resolves without treatment over about 6 to 12 months in most people. However, immunosuppressed people have a more guarded prognosis as the disease may persist for years and become widespread on the skin; some people may get secondary bacterial skin infections; the major complication of the disease.
Some treatments listed above (cryotherapy, curettage, laser, and some chemical treatments) may leave small scars. Even if you get the disease and are cured, you can be reinfected and get the disease again.
Is it possible to prevent molluscum contagiosum?
It is possible to reduce the chance of getting the disease by taking some preventative measures, such as:
- Avoiding any direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected person can protect from the disease.
- Direct contact with items touched recently by an infected person (clothing, towels, and benches used in contact sports like football, for example) should also be avoided.
- Either not having sexual contact (genital or oral) or using condoms can prevent some individuals from getting the disease, but if the condom does not cover an infected area, it's still possible to infect a sex partner.
- Washing clothes, cleaning surfaces, and limiting skin-to-skin contact may reduce the chances of becoming infected.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Molluscum Contagiosum: Transmission." <https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/molluscum-contagiosum/>.
Top Molluscum Contagiosum Facts Related Articles
AcneAcne is a localized skin inflammation as a result of the overactivity of oil glands at the base of hair follicles. This inflammation, depending on its location, can take the form of a superficial pustule (contains pus), a pimple, a deeper cyst, congested pores, whiteheads, or blackheads. Treatments vary depending on the severity of the acne.
CryotherapyCryotherapy, sometimes referred to as cryosurgery, is a pain treatment procedure that uses a method of localized freezing temperatures to deaden an irritated nerve. Cryotherapy can be used to treat nerve irritation between the ribs (intercostal neuralgia), cluneal nerve entrapment, ilioinguinal neuroma, hypogastric neuromas, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve entrapment, and interdigital neuromas, nerve entrapment (pinched nerves), and neuromas.
CystCysts are sac-like structures that may be filled with gas, liquid, or solid materials. Cysts may produce symptoms and signs depending on their location. Treatment of a cyst depends upon what caused the cyst in the first place.
FolliculitisFolliculitis is a skin condition that causes small red bumps to form around the hair follicles. Skin bacteria such as Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas may infect the follicles. Treatment involves over-the-counter bacterial washes, topical antibiotics, and/or topical steroids.
Itching (Pruritus)Itching can be a common problem. Itches can be localized or generalized. There are many causes of itching including infection (jock itch, vaginal itch), disease (hyperthyroidism, liver or kidney), reactions to drugs, and skin infestations (pubic or body lice). Treatment for itching varies depending on the cause of the itch.
MicrodermabrasionMicrodermabrasion is a skin-exfoliating treatment that may improve the condition of acne scars and fine wrinkles. The skin should feel softer and smoother after microdermabrasion. Side effects may include skin tightness, redness, fine broken blood vessels, and minor bruising.
Molluscum Contagiosum PictureMolluscum contagiosum is a common contageous viral skin infection that most often affects children. It causes either single or multiple raised, pearl-like bumps (papules) on the skin. It’s a chronic infection, so the bumps may last for a few months or a few years.
Skin RashThe word "rash" means an outbreak of red bumps on the body. The way people use this term, "a rash" can refer to many different skin conditions. The most common of these are scaly patches of skin and red, itchy bumps or patches all over the place.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)Common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in women include gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital herpes, and HPV infection (genital warts). Learn about types, symptoms, and treatment.
Skin BiopsyDuring a skin biopsy, a piece of skin is removed under a local anesthesia and examined using a microscope. The different types of skin biopsy include shave biopsy, punch biopsy, and excisional biopsy. Skin biopsies are performed to diagnose skin growths, skin conditions, and skin cancers.
Skin Picture QuizCould you identify a scabies infestation? Take the Skin Diseases Pictures Quiz and learn to identify common conditions that plague human skin.
STD QuizThere are more sexually transmitted diseases than just the ones you've heard of. Find out what you've been missing with the STD Quiz.
STDs Facts SlideshowSexually transmitted infections like chlamydia and genital herpes are common STDs. Think you might have an STD? You’re not alone. Find pictures of herpes, gonorrhea, and more. Learn how venereal disease can harm your health, and how to tell your partner if you have an STD.
What's a Virus?Is a virus alive? Learn the definition of a virus. Viral infections like COVID-19 can occur in your eyes, mouth, skin, or anywhere else. Should you use antibiotics to treat the flu? Is this STD a bacterium or a virus? Get the answers to the most common questions about viral infections.
Viral Skin Rashes: Pictures of Rashes, Blisters, and SoresViral skin rashes in adults and toddlers are due to a variety of different viruses. Itching, inflammation, and other symptoms like blisters and sores are treated with topical creams, over-the-counter pain relievers, steroids, and other treatments. See pictures of these viral skin conditions to identify your rash.
Yeast infections vs. STDs in Men and WomenSTDs, also termed sexually transmitted diseases, are infections that are mainly transmitted to others during direct sexual contact. A yeast infection is the invasion and multiplication of a fungus (yeast) in or on the body.