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- What is metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)?
- What brand names are available for metoprolol?
- Is metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL) available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)?
- Why is metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL) prescribed to patients?
- What are the side effects of metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)?
- What is the dosage for metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)?
- Is metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL) safe to use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)?
What is metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)?
- Metoprolol is a beta-adrenergic blocking agent that is used for treating high blood pressure, heart pain, abnormal rhythms of the heart, and some neurologic conditions. Examples of beta-adrenergic blockers include propanolol (Inderal, Inderal LA, Innopran XL), atenolol (Tenormin), and timolol (Blocadren).
What brand names are available for metoprolol?
- Lopressor and Toprol XL are brand names available for metoprolol in the US.
Quick GuideHow to Lower Blood Pressure: Exercise Tips
Why is metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL) prescribed to patients?
- Metoprolol is prescribed for patients with high blood pressure (hypertension).
- It also is used to treat congestive heart failure and angina pectoris (heart pain) related to coronary artery disease.
- Metoprolol also is useful in slowing and regulating certain types of abnormally rapid heart rates (tachycardias).
- Other uses for metoprolol include the
What are the side effects of metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)?
Metoprolol is generally well tolerated. Side effects include
- abdominal cramps,
- memory loss,
- low blood pressure,
- cold extremities,
- sore throat, and
- shortness of breath or wheezing.
Possible serious adverse effects include
- In patients with existing slow heart rates (bradycardias) and heart blocks (defects in the electrical conduction of the heart), metoprolol can cause dangerously slow heart rates, and even shock. Metoprolol reduces the force of heart muscle contraction and can aggravate symptoms of heart failure. In patients with coronary artery disease, abruptly stopping metoprolol can suddenly worsen angina, and occasionally precipitate heart attacks. If it is necessary to discontinue metoprolol, its dosage should be reduced gradually over several weeks.
- Initiation of high-dose extended release metoprolol in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery is associated with bradycardia (slow heart rate), hypotension, stroke, and death. However, long-term therapy with metoprolol should not be routinely withdrawn prior to major surgery. Impaired ability of the heart to respond to reflex adrenergic stimuli may increase the risks of general anesthesia and surgery.
Quick GuideHow to Lower Blood Pressure: Exercise Tips
What is the dosage for metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)?
- Metoprolol should be taken before meals or at bedtime.
- The dose for treating hypertension is 100-450 mg daily in single or divided doses.
- Angina is treated with 100-400 mg daily in two divided doses.
- Heart attack (acute myocardial infarction) is treated with three 5 mg injections administered 2 minutes apart followed by treatment with 50 mg oral metoprolol every 6 hours for 48 hours. After 48 hours, patients should receive 100 mg orally twice daily for at least 3 months.
- The dose for congestive heart failure is 25 mg/daily initially. Then the dose is increased every 2 weeks to reach a target dose of 200 mg/daily orally.
- Hyperthyroidism is treated with 25 to 30 mg by mouth every 6 hours.
Which drugs or supplements interact with metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)?name="interact">
Which drugs or supplements interact with metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)?
- Calcium channel blockers and digoxin (Lanoxin) can lower blood pressure and heart rate to dangerous levels when administered together with metoprolol.
- Metoprolol can mask the early warning symptoms of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and should be used with caution in patients receiving treatment for diabetes.
- Fluoxetine (Prozac) can increase blood levels of metopropol by reducing breakdown of metoprolol, and increase the side effects from metoprolol.
Is metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL) safe to use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding?
Safe use of metoprolol during pregnancy has not been established.
Small quantities of metoprolol are excreted in breast milk and may potentially cause adverse effects in the infant.
What else should I know about metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)?
What preparations of metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL) are available?
- Tablets: 25, 50, and 100 mg.
- Tablets (extended release): 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg.
- Injection: 1 mg/ml
How should I keep metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL) stored?
- Tablets should be stored between 15 C and 30 C (59 F and 86 F).
- They should be protected from moisture and dispensed in tight, light-resistant containers.
How does metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL) work?
- Metoprolol blocks the action of the sympathetic nervous system, a portion of the involuntary nervous system, by blocking beta receptors on sympathetic nerves. Since the sympathetic nervous system is responsible for increasing the rate with which the heart beats, by blocking the action of these nerves metoprolol reduces the heart rate and is useful in treating abnormally rapid heart rhythms.
- Metoprolol also reduces the force of contraction of heart muscle and thereby lowers blood pressure. By reducing the heart rate and the force of muscle contraction, metoprolol reduces the need for oxygen by heart muscle. Since heart pain (angina pectoris) occurs when oxygen demand of the heart muscle exceeds the supply of oxygen, metoprolol, by reducing the demand for oxygen, is helpful in treating heart pain.
When was metoprolol approved by the FDA?
- The FDA approved metoprolol in August 1978.
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information
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Arrhythmia (Irregular Heartbeat)An arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm. With an arrhythmia, the heartbeats may be irregular or too slow (bradycardia), to rapid (tachycardia), or too early. When a single heartbeat occurs earlier than normal, it is called a prmature contraction.
A-Fib SlideshowAtrial fibrillation is the most common type of abnormal heart rhythm. Atrial fibrillation or AF can lead to serious heart complications like stroke. Risks associated with AFib are related to heart rhythm changes. Treating atrial fibrillation addresses these changes in heartbeat.
Heart Disease (Coronary Artery Disease)
Heart disease (coronary artery disease) occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, the vessels that supply blood to the heart. Heart disease can lead to heart attack. Risk factors for heart disease include:
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol
- Family history
Angina, shortness of breath, and sweating are just a few symptoms that may indicate a heart attack. Treatment of heart disease involves control of heart disease risk factors through lifestyle changes, medications, and/or stenting or bypass surgery. Heart disease can be prevented by controlling heart disease risk factors.
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Heart Disease SlideshowLearn about heart disease and heart attack symptoms and signs of a heart attack in men and women. Read about heart disease diagnostic tests, treatments, and prevention strategies.
Heart Disease QuizTake our Heart Disease Quiz to get answers and facts about high cholesterol, atherosclerosis prevention, and the causes, symptoms, treatments, testing, and procedures for medically broken hearts.
Illustrations of the HeartThe muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. See a picture of the Heart and learn more about the health topic.
Heart: How the Heart WorksThe heart is a very important organ in the body. It is responsible for continuously pumping oxygen and nutrient-rich blood throughout your body to sustain life. It is a fist-sized muscle that beats (expands and contracts) 100,000 times per day, pumping a total of five or six quarts of blood each minute, or about 2,000 gallons per day.
High Blood Pressure HypertensionHigh blood pressure is defined as a pressure of 140/90 mmHg or higher in the arteries. Genetic factors, high salt intake, and increased arterial stiffness cause high blood pressure. Dizziness, headache, nausea, and shortness of breath are just a few symptoms of high blood pressure. Untreated high blood pressure increases the risk of heart disease, kidney disease, atherosclerosis, eye damage, stroke, and increased risk of aneurysms. High blood pressure can be managed with weight loss, lifestyle changes, and medication.
Hyperthyroidism is an excess of thyroid hormone resulting from an overactive thyroid gland. Symptoms can include
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- weight loss,
- frequent bowel movements,
- depression, and
- cognitive slowing.
Treatment is by medication, the use of radioactive iodine, thyroid surgery, or reducing the dose of thyroid hormone.
Hyperthyroidism SlidesWhat is hyperthyroidism? Hyperthyroidism occurs when an overactive thyroid gland produces an excessive amount of thyroid hormones. Learn hyperthyroidism causes, symptoms, and treatment.
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- Certain foods
- Changes in barometric pressure
- Other phenomenon
They are diagnosed by a doctor if the headache pattern fits established migraine headache criteria. Over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications are sometime used to treat acute migraines. To prevent or reduce the frequency and severity of them doctors recommend supplements and prescription medications, for example:
- Blood pressure drugs
- Anti-seizure drugs
Lifestyle modification helps in migraine management. Many people who suffer from migraines get relief from their condition by keeping a headache diary, identifying and avoiding triggers, and taking appropriate medication.
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- paralysis of the vocal cords,
- difficulty swallowing thin liquids,
- difficulty breathing,
- and drug reactions.
- damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve,
- bleeding or hematoma,
- problems maintaining calcium levels in the blood,
- need for further and more aggressive surgery,
- need for a limited or total thyroidectomy,
- prolonged pain,
- impaired healing,
- and recurrence of the tumor.
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Take the Salt QuizDo you love salt? Take the online Salt Quiz to get the facts about dietary salts and sodium in fruits, vegetables, processed foods, snacks and soups!
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Take the Thyroid QuizYour unexplained change in weight could indicate a thyroid condition. Take the Thyroid Quiz to learn about common symptoms and treatments of overactive and underactive thyroid disorders.
TremorTremor is the involuntary movements of one or more parts of the body. Causes of tremor include neurological disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, drugs, mercury poisoning, overactive thyroid and liver failure. There are several types of tremor. Treatment depends upon the type of tremor and availability of medications for the condition.