What is methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type?
Beta-globin type methemoglobinemia is an inherited blood disorder. It disrupts the function of hemoglobin, the molecule in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to cells throughout the body. Methemoglobinemia is characterized by increased levels of an atypical form of hemoglobin that is unable to deliver oxygen efficiently.
In most individuals with beta-globin type methemoglobinemia, the only symptom is cyanosis, which is a bluish appearance of the skin, mucous membranes, or the area underneath the fingernails due to a lack of oxygen in the blood. Symptoms may appear as early as age 3 to 4 months. Methemoglobinemia symptoms do not improve when affected individuals are given additional oxygen, because oxygen cannot bind effectively to the abnormal hemoglobin.
What genes are related to methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type?
Mutations in the HBB gene cause methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type.
Hemoglobin consists of four protein subunits and four iron-containing molecules called heme. Heme molecules are necessary for red blood cells to pick up oxygen in the lungs and release oxygen to other cells in the body. Hemoglobin typically has two protein subunits call alpha-globin and two protein subunits called beta-globin. The HBB gene provides instructions for making beta-globin. Mutations in specific regions of the HBB gene lead to an atypical version of beta-globin known as hemoglobin M. Hemoglobin M interacts abnormally with heme molecules, which impairs the uptake of oxygen by red blood cells. As a result, a reduced amount of oxygen is delivered to cells throughout the body.
Other types of methemoglobinemia can be caused by abnormal alpha-globin, a shortage of a particular enzyme called NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, or unusual reactions to certain drugs or chemicals.
How do people inherit methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type?
This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder.
What other names do people use for methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type?
- blue baby syndrome
- congenital methemoglobinemia
- hemoglobin M disease
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Top Methemoglobinemia Related Articles
Birth DefectsBirth defects have many causes and currently, are the leading cause of death for infants in the first year of life. Some of the causes of birth defects include genetic or chromosome problems. Exposure of the mother to rubella or German measles during pregnancy, or using drugs or alcohol during pregnancy. The treatment for birth defects depends upon the condition of the effected child.
Genetic CounselingYour health care provider may refer you to a genetic professional. Universities and medical centers also often have affiliated genetic professionals, or can provide referrals to a genetic professional or genetics clinic. Genetic counseling provides patients and family members the tools to make the right choice in regard to test for a disease or condition.
Genetic DiseaseThe definition of a genetic disease is a disorder or condition caused by abnormalities in a person's genome. Some types of genetic inheritance include single inheritance, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Marfan syndrome, and hemochromatosis. Other types of genetic diseases include multifactorial inheritance. Still other types of genetic diseases include chromosome abnormalities (for example, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome), and mitochondrial inheritance (for example, epilepsy and dementia).
HemoglobinHemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying protein molecule in the blood, specifically in the red blood cells. High hemoglobin count may be caused by dehydration, smoking, emphysema, tumors, or abuse of Epogen. Low levels of hemoglobin may be caused by anemia, blood loss, nutritional deficiency, bone marrow problems, chemotherapy, kidney failure, or sickle cell disease.
TeethingTeething in babies typically starts between 4 and 10 months of age. Symptoms and signs of cutting teeth include rash, drooling, decreased sleeping, fussiness, bringing the hands to the mouth, and rubbing the cheek or ear. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen may be used to treat teething pain.