- What Is
- Side Effects
- Drug Interactions
- Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
Metformin vs. Insulin
- Metformin and insulin are medications used to treat diabetes.
- A difference is metformin is used to treat only type 2 diabetes, while insulin may be used to treat both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
- Metformin is also used to treat polycystic ovaries and weight gain due to medications used for treating psychoses.
- Metformin is an oral medication and insulin is administered by injection under the skin (subcutaneously).
- Brand names of metformin include Glumetza, Glucophage, and Fortamet.
- Side effects of metformin and insulin that are similar include nausea.
- Side effects of metformin that are different from insulin include vomiting, gas, bloating, diarrhea, and loss of appetite.
- Side effects of insulin that are different from metformin include low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Symptoms of hypoglycemia include confusion, hunger, tiredness, sweating, headache, heart palpitations, numbness around the mouth, tingling in the fingers, tremors, muscle weakness, blurred vision, cold feeling, yawning, irritability and loss of consciousness.
What is Metformin? What is Insulin?
Metformin is an oral medication that lowers blood glucose (sugar) by influencing the body's sensitivity to insulin and is used for treating type 2 diabetes. Metformin increases the sensitivity of liver, muscle, fat, and other tissues to the uptake and effects of insulin, which lowers the blood sugar levels.
- Metformin does not increase the concentration of insulin in the blood and does not cause low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia) when used alone.
- Metformin can reduce complications of diabetes such as heart disease, blindness, and kidney disease. Metformin is also used to treat polycystic ovaries and weight gain due to medications used for treating psychoses.
Insulin is a naturally-occurring hormone secreted by the pancreas and used by the cells of the body to remove and use glucose from the blood. People with diabetes mellitus have a reduced ability to take up and use glucose from the blood and the glucose level in the blood rises. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin. In type 2 diabetes, patients produce insulin, but cells throughout the body do not respond normally to the insulin.
- By increasing the uptake of glucose by cells and reducing the concentration of glucose in the blood, insulin prevents or reduces the long-term complications of diabetes, including damage to the blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
- Insulin is administered by injection under the skin (subcutaneously).
What are the side effects of metformin and insulin?
Metformin side effects
The most common side effects with metformin are
These symptoms occur in one out of every three patients. These side effects may be severe enough to cause therapy to be discontinued in one out of every 20 patients. These side effects are related to the dose of the medication and may decrease if the dose is reduced.
Metformin may also cause:
- weakness or lack of energy
- respiratory tract infections,
- low levels of vitamin B-12,
- low blood glucose (hypoglycemia)
- indigestion, muscle pain,
- heartburn, and
A serious but rare side effect of metformin is lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis occurs in one out of every 30,000 patients and is fatal in 50% of cases. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are
- trouble breathing,
- abnormal heartbeats,
- unusual muscle pain,
- stomach discomfort,
- light-headedness, and
- feeling cold.
Patients at risk for lactic acidosis include those with reduced function of the
Insulin side effects
Hypoglycemia is the most common side effect that may occur during insulin therapy. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include:
- Heart palpitations
- Numbness around the mouth
- Tingling in the fingers
- Muscle weakness
- Blurred vision
- Cold temperature
- Excessive yawning
- Loss of consciousness
Patients may experience blurred vision if they have had elevated blood sugar levels for a prolonged period of time and then have the elevated levels rapidly brought to normal. This is due to a shift of fluid within the lens of the eye. Over time, vision returns to normal. Other side effects that may occur include headaches, skin reactions (redness, swelling, itching or rash at the site of injection), worsening of diabetic retinopathy, changes in the distribution of body fat (lipodystrophy), allergic reactions, sodium retention, and general body swelling. Insulin causes weight gain and may reduce potassium blood levels. In addition to these side effects, inhaled insulin
What is the dosage of metformin vs. insulin?
- For treating type 2 diabetes in adults, metformin (immediate release) usually is begun at a dose of 500 mg twice a day or 850 mg once daily. The dose is gradually increased by 500 mg weekly or 850 mg every two weeks as tolerated and based on the response of the levels of glucose in the blood. The maximum daily dose is 2550 mg given in three divided doses.
- If extended tablets are used, the starting dose is 500 mg or 1000 mg daily with the evening meal. The dose can be increased by 500 mg weekly up to a maximum dose of 2000 mg except for Fortamet (2500 mg of Fortamet, once daily or in two divided doses). Glumetza tablets (500 -1000mg formulations are given once daily (either 1000 to 2000mg). Fortamet and Glumetza are modified release formulations of metformin. Metformin should be taken with meals.
- For pediatric patients 10-16 years of age, the starting dose is 500 mg twice a day. The dose can be increased by 500 mg weekly up to a maximum dose of 2000 mg in divided doses.
- Children older than 17 years of age may receive 500 mg of extended release tablets daily up to a maximum dose of 2000 mg daily. Extended release tablets are not approved for children younger than 17 years of age.
- Metformin-containing drugs may be safely used in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Renal function should be assessed before starting treatment and at least yearly.
- Metformin should not be used by patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 30 mL/minute/1.73 m2 and starting metformin in patients with an eGFR between 30-45 mL/minute/1.73 m2 is not recommended.
- Metformin should be stopped at the time of or before administering iodinated contrast in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2; in patients with a history of liver disease, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Kidney function should be evaluated 48 hours after receiving contrast and metformin may be restarted if kidney function is stable.
The abdomen is the preferred site for insulin injection, but the sites of injection must be rotated in order to prevent erosion of the fat beneath the skin, a condition called lipodystrophy. Dosing is adjusted for each patient. A combination of short acting/rapid acting and intermediate insulin or long acting insulin are typically used.
What drugs interact with metformin and insulin?
Metformin drug interactions
- Cimetidine (Tagamet), by decreasing the elimination of metformin from the body, can increase the amount of metformin in the blood by 40%. This may increase the frequency of side effects from metformin.
- Ioversol (Optiray) and other iodinated contrast media may reduce kidney function, which reduces elimination of metformin, leading to increased concentrations of metformin in the blood. Metformin should be stopped 48 hours before and after use of contrast media.
- Thiazide diuretics, steroids, estrogens, and oral contraceptives may increase blood glucose and reduce the effect of metformin. When these drugs are stopped, patients should be closely observed for signs of low blood glucose.
- Alcohol consumption increases the effect of metformin on lactate production, increasing the risk of lactic acidosis.
Insulin drug interactions
A number of substances affect glucose metabolism and may require insulin dose adjustment and particularly close monitoring.
The following are examples of substances that may reduce the blood glucose-lowering effect of insulin that may result in hyperglycemia:
- sympathomimetic agents (e.g., epinephrine, albuterol, terbutaline),
- phenothiazine derivatives,
- thyroid hormones,
- progestogens (e.g., in oral contraceptives),
- protease inhibitors, and
- atypical antipsychotic medications (e.g., olanzapine and clozapine).
The following are examples of substances that may increase the blood glucose-lowering effect of insulin and susceptibility to hypoglycemia: oral antidiabetic products, ACE inhibitors, disopyramide, fibrates, fluoxetine, MAO inhibitors, pentoxifylline, propoxyphene, salicylates, and sulfonamide antibiotics.
Beta-blockers, clonidine, lithium salts, and alcohol may either increase or reduce the blood glucose-lowering effect of insulin. Pentamidine may cause hypoglycemia, which may sometimes be followed by hyperglycemia.
Bronchodilators and other inhaled products may alter the absorption of inhaled human insulin.
Are metformin and insulin safe to use while pregnant or breastfeeding?
- There are no adequate studies in pregnant women. Most experts agree that insulin is the best treatment for pregnant women with diabetes.
- Metformin is excreted into breast milk and can therefore be transferred to the nursing infant. Nursing mothers should not use metformin.
Metformin (Glumetza, Glucophage, and Fortamet) and insulin are medications used to treat diabetes. A difference is metformin is used to treat only type 2 diabetes, while insulin may be used to treat both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Metformin is also used to treat polycystic ovaries and weight gain due to medications used for treating psychoses.
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Related Disease Conditions
Normal Blood Sugar Levels In Adults with Diabetes
People with diabetes can manage and prevent low or high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia) by keeping a log of your blood sugar levels when you are eating and fasting and eat foods that are high in carbohydrates and sugar, for example, buttered potatoes, candy, sugary desserts, and fatty foods. Blood tests, for example, the hemoglobin A1c test (A1c test) and urinalysis can diagnose the type of diabetes the person has. Diabetes during pregnancy, called gestational diabetes, should be managed by you and your OB/GYN or another healthcare professional. Extremely high levels of blood glucose in the blood can be dangerous and life threatening if you have type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. If you or someone that you are with has extremely high blood glucose levels, call 911 or go to your nearest Urgent Care or Emergency Department immediately. To prevent and manage high blood glucose levels in people with diabetes keep a log of your blood sugar levels, eat foods that are high in carbohydrates sugar, for example, buttered potatoes, candy, sugary deserts, and fatty foods that you can share with your doctor and other healthcare professionals.
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan
A type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar (glucose) control in people with diabetes to prevent complications of diabetes. There are a variety of type 2 diabetes diet eating plans such as the Mediterranean diet, Paleo diet, ADA Diabetes Diet, and vegetarian diets.Learn about low and high glycemic index foods, what foods to eat, and what foods to avoid if you have type 2 diabetes.
Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that can occur during pregnancy. Pregnant women with gestational diabetes have not had the condition prior to becoming pregnant. Usually, gestational diabetes has no symptoms or signs and of gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes can cause insulin resistance, hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Treatment of gestational diabetes is managing the condition by checking your blood sugar as recommended, diet changes, getting enough exercise, and monitoring your baby's growth.
Diabetes Symptoms in Women
Diabetes symptoms in women include vaginal itching, pain, or discharge, loss of interest or pain after having sex, polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), and urinary tract infections or UTIs (which are more common in women. Symptoms of diabetes that are the same in women and men are excessive thirst and hunger, bad breath, and skin infections, darkening of skin in areas of body creases (acanthosis nigricans), breath odor that is fruity, sweet, or acetone, and tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, blurred vision, fatigue, tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, wounds that heal slowly, irritability, and weight loss or gain. Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, for example, skin, eye, and circulation problems, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), ketoacidosis, and amputation. If diabetes is not managed a person may not survive.
Diabetes Symptoms in Men
Early symptoms of diabetes are different in men, such as low testosterone. In many cases, prediabetes that will progress to type 2 diabetes if it is not treated early.
Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by: Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.) Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!) Lack of activity Exercise Stress Genetics While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include: Increased urination Increased hunger Increased thirst Unexplained weight loss. However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
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Which is Worse - Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes?
Learn about the similarities and differences between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.
Diabetes and Safe Medications for Colds and the Flu: OTC Medication Guide
If you have diabetes and catch a cold or the flu, can be more difficult to recover from infections and their complications, for example, pneumonia. Home remedies and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs used for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of colds and the flu may affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.Some medications are OK to take if you have diabetes get a cold or the flu include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, like acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Motrin) to control symptoms of fever and pain. Most cough syrups are safe to take; however, check with your pediatrician to see what medications are safe to give your child if he or she has type 1 or 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes and are sick with a cold or flu, you need to check your blood sugar levels more frequently. Continue taking your regular medications. Eat a diabetic low-glycemic index diet rich in antioxidants. To prevent colds and the flu drink at least eight 8 ounce glasses of water a day. To replenish fluids, drink sports drinks like Gatorade and Pedialyte to replenish electrolytes. Avoid people who are sick, sneezing, coughing, or have other symptoms of a cold or flu.
What Baked Goods Can People With Diabetes Eat?
Although most baked items have a high carbohydrate content, which is undesirable for a person with diabetes, several baked meal options are diabetes-friendly.
Are Bananas Good for Diabetes?
Bananas are a type of fruit that is rich in fiber, carbohydrates, vitamin B6, phytonutrients, antioxidants and potassium. People who have diabetes can consume bananas in moderation, preferably if they are small, unripe and eaten along with protein and healthy fats.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that may be reversible with diet and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, and an unusual odor to your urine. Most people don't know they have type 2 diabetes until they have a routine blood test. Treatment options include medications, a type 2 diabetes diet, and other lifestyle changes.
What Is the New Technology for Diabetes?
Diabetes management has seen a significant transition in recent years as a result of technological advancements. Diabetes technology comes in various forms and has the potential to change the way you manage your condition in the future.
What Is a High Insulin Level?
Insulin is a hormone (a chemical substance that acts as a messenger in the human body) that is secreted by an abdominal organ called the pancreas. High insulin levels are levels of the hormone that are higher than they should be after ingesting glucose.
Diabetes Treatment: Medication, Diet, and Insulin
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with: insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with: weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
Prediabetes is a situation where a person's blood sugar levels are higher than they should be, but aren't high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. There are no signs or symptoms of prediabetes. Some of the risk factors for prediabetes are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, smoking, family history, poor diet, and lack of activity. Diet changes along with other healthy lifestyle changes are important in treating prediabetes.
Can Erectile Dysfunction Caused By Diabetes Be Reversed?
Erectile dysfunction is a frustrating condition where your penis cannot get or maintain an erection firm enough for sex. There is no specific treatment to reverse damage to blood vessels caused by diabetes, there are several options to help you have erections.
Gestational Diabetes (Diabetes during Pregnancy))
Learning how to avoid gestational diabetes is possible and maintaining a healthy weight and diet before and during pregnancy can help. Discover risk factors, tests and treatments for, and signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes.
Can a Fit Person Get Diabetes?
No matter how thin or fit you are, you can still get diabetes. About 10%-15% of people with type II diabetes are at a healthy weight, a condition called lean diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes (Symptoms, Causes, Diet, Treatment, Life Expectancy)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (juvenile) is an auto-immune disease with no known cause at this time, although there are a few risk factors. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include frequent urination, unintentional weight loss, dry and itchy skin, vision problems, wounds that heal slowly, and excessive thirst. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed with blood tests. A healthy lifestyle and controlling blood glucose levels can improve life expectancy.
Is Diabetes Inherited From Mother or Father?
Diabetes is a hereditary disease, which means that the child is at high risk of developing diabetes compared to the general population at the given age. Diabetes can be inherited from either mother or father.
What Are the Early Signs of Diabetes?
The early signs of diabetes depend on if one has type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in children, whereas type 2 diabetes is prevalent in adults.
Can Diabetes Make My Legs Hurt?
Yes, diabetes, particularly a poorly controlled diabetes where the blood sugars are high, is a major cause of pain and uncomfortable sensations in the leg. Diabetic leg pain may present as a dull ache in the soles, calves, and thighs or present with pins and needles like sensation in the lower limb.
How to Prevent Diabetes Naturally
Prediabetes is a condition in which a person has early symptoms of diabetes, but has not yet fully developed the condition. If prediabetes is not treated with lifestyle changes, the person could develop type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes can be prevented with lifestyle changes, for example, eating a healthy diet, getting more exercise, reducing stress, quitting smoking, reducing or managing blood pressure and cholesterol, and managing any other health conditions or risk factors that you may have for developing type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes insipidus is a condition in which the patient has frequent urination. Symptoms of diabetes insipidus include irritable, listless, fever, vomiting, or diarrhea due to the loss of large volumes of urine. There are three types of diabetes insipidus, central, nephrogenic, dipsogenic, and gestational. Treatment depends upon the type of diabetes insipidus.
Eye Problems and Diabetes
Diabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems in a person with diabetes include glaucoma, cataracts, and retinopathy. Examples of symptoms include blurred vision, headaches, eye aches, pain, halos around lights, loss of vision, watering eyes. Treatment for eye problems in people with diabetes depend on the type of eye problem. Prevention of eye problems include reducing blood pressure, cholesterol levels, quitting smoking, and maintaining proper blood glucose levels.
Is It Safe for a Person With Diabetes to Get a Pedicure?
It is safe to get a pedicure at a nail salon only if your diabetes is well-controlled. You should exercise caution and consult your doctor before going to a spa or nail salon.
Types of Diabetes Type 2 Medications
Type 2 diabetes oral medications are prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes in conjuction with lifestyle changes like diet and exercise. There are nine classes of drugs approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Examples of type 2 oral diabetes medications include acarbose (Precose), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), and metformin (Glucophage). Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, dosage, and breastfeeding and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Can Diabetes Cause Lack of Sleep?
Diabetes can cause lack of sleep and poor sleep quality. This is often due to fluctuating blood sugar levels, which can cause frequent nighttime urination.
Diabetes and Kidney Disease
In the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose increase the risk that a person with diabetes will eventually progress to kidney failure. Kidney disease in people with diabetes develops over the course of many years. albumin and eGFR are two key markers for kidney disease in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood pressure, blood pressure medications, a moderate protein diet, and compliant management of blood glucose can slow the progression of kidney disease. For those patients who's kidneys eventually fail, dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only option.
Diabetes Foot Problems
Diabetes related foot problems can affect your health with two problems: diabetic neuropathy, where diabetes affects the nerves, and peripheral vascular disease, where diabetes affects the flow of blood. Common foot problems for people with diabetes include athlete's foot, fungal infection of nails, calluses, corns, blisters, bunions, dry skin, foot ulcers, hammertoes, ingrown toenails, and plantar warts.
Why Can't People With Diabetes Go in Hot Tubs?
Hot tubs pose health risks to people with diabetes due to peripheral neuropathy, slow wound healing, and the danger of overheating. Here are precautions to take before going in a hot tub.
Why Is Diabetes Increasing in the United States
As per the National Diabetes Statistics Report (2020), around 34.2 million people in the United States have diabetes.
What Tests Should Be Done for Diabetes?
Testing for diabetes is important because early detection and treatment can help maintain healthy blood glucose levels and lower the rate of premature death. Learn the ten best tests to diagnose diabetes here.
Is Avocado Good for Diabetes Type I And Type II?
Avocados are great to include in a diabetes diet plan because they can help you manage your blood sugar levels and maintain overall health.
Diabetes: Caring for Your Diabetes at Special Times
Taking care of a disease such as diabetes is a life-long process. Learn how to care for yourself or loved one with diabetes in situations such as illness, work, school, travel, or a natural disaster.
What Is the Difference Between Diabetes Insipidus and Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes affects the way your body turns food into energy. Diabetes insipidus causes thirst due to dehydration from constant urination while diabetes mellitus causes thirst due to high glucose levels in the blood.
What Population Is Most Affected by Diabetes?
Diabetes can affect anyone, but certain ethnic groups are more affected by it than others.
What Percentage of Japanese Have Diabetes?
The prevalence of diabetes has been on the rise in Japan in recent years. The increase can be ascribed to a sedentary lifestyle and increased fat consumption.
How Many Types of Diabetes Are There?
There are four major types of diabetes and there are many other types of diabetes due to genetic mutations, health conditions, and other factors.
Can Type 2 Diabetes be Cured?
Type 2 diabetes is a long-term medical condition in which the body is not able to regulate blood sugar (glucose) level because of the inability of the body to properly use insulin. An individual can get type 2 diabetes because of a number of factors that reduce insulin action or quantity in the body. The goals of diabetes management are to eliminate symptoms and prevent the development of complications. Many drugs, both oral and injectable, are available for diabetes management.
Is Diabetes A Lifestyle Choice
Diabetes mellitus or diabetes is a metabolic disease that is characterized by high levels of blood sugar (glucose).
Sex, Urinary, and Bladder Problems of Diabetes
Having diabetes can mean early onset and increased severity of bladder symptoms (urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections) and changes in sexual function. Men may have erectile dysfunction; and women may have problems with sexual response and vaginal lubrication. Keep your diabetes under control, and you can lower your risk of sexual and urologic problems.
Which Country Has the Highest Diabetes Rate?
Diabetes mellitus (DM), or simply referred to as diabetes, is a condition that impairs the body's ability to use blood glucose, known as blood sugar, and other nutrients including fats and proteins. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, helps glucose from the food get into the cells to be used for the production of energy.
What Tools Are Used for Diabetes?
With improvements in medical science and technology, various methods have evolved to manage your blood sugar levels more effectively. Learn six devices that can be used to measure blood sugar levels and keep diabetes in check.
What Supplies Do You Need for Type 2 Diabetes?
Supplies like a blood sugar meter, insulin syringe, pen, or pump, and continuous glucose monitor can help you monitor and control your blood sugar levels and manage your Type 2 diabetes.
How and Why Does Ethnicity Affect Diabetes?
Diabetes is a condition that causes elevated blood sugar levels. Acquired risk factors are associated with diabetes although ethnicity plays a role in increasing the incidence of the condition.
How Do People With Diabetes Heal Sores?
If you have diabetes, you are more likely to develop ulcers that do not heal as quickly as they should. People with diabetes can heal sores with proper wound care and medical treatment.
What Are the 3 Most Common Symptoms of Undiagnosed Diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus has become a worldwide epidemic, thanks to changing lifestyles and increasing obesity. Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 13% of the population of the United States. Worldwide prevalence of diabetes is estimated to be around 463 million people. Type 2 diabetes accounts for over 90% of patients with diabetes.
What Are the Warning Signs of Gestational Diabetes?
Gestational diabetes is diabetes that develops in a woman during pregnancy. Warning signs of gestational diabetes include increased thirst, tiredness, nausea and vomiting, and other signs.
Hypoglycemia Without Diabetes: Causes and Diet
Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar level) is a condition most seen in patients with diabetes, who are on insulin or medications. Hypoglycemia is uncommon to happen in people without diabetes.
Is Quinoa Good for Diabetes?
Quinoa (pronounced as keen-wah) or Chenopodium quinoa is an annual herb of the goosefoot family. The herb is known for its edible starchy seeds. It is native to the Andean highlands and is popular over the world for its health benefits. Quinoa seeds may be used as cooked grains or grounded into flour.
Can Type 1 Diabetes be Cured?
Type 1 diabetes is a disorder of the pancreas. The organ doesn't make enough insulin. Learn what medical treatments can help ease your type 1 diabetes symptoms and speed up your recovery.
Is Diabetes Insipidus Life-Threatening?
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon disease that manifests as a frequent urge for urination and extreme thirst. It has nothing to do with blood sugar levels. Although in both diabetes mellitus and insipidus, patients experience a large volume of urine production, the cause is completely different.
Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home
Managing your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
What Are the Early Signs of Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 2 Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by increased blood sugar (glucose) level. Type 2 Diabetes is caused by either insufficient insulin secretion or resistance to that hormone’s action. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and helps process the glucose in the blood. Thus, with inadequate insulin, the bodies can’t burn all the blood sugar for energy in an efficient way. This means the glucose level in the blood rises, causing a variety of symptoms and when severe may even lead to death.
What Happens to Your Body When You Have Diabetes?
Diabetes is an impairment in the manner in which the body manages and uses sugar (glucose) as a fuel. High blood sugar levels may cause problems with the cardiovascular system, neurological system, and immune system.
What Is the Pathophysiology of Type I Diabetes Mellitus?
The pathophysiology of type I diabetes is autoimmunity, which is a complex interplay between genetic predisposition and possible viral infection of the pancreas.
What Is Type 1 Diabetes and How Do You Get It?
What is type 1 diabetes? Learn the differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, as well as the symptoms and treatments for type 1 diabetes.
Do Certain Ethnic Groups Have a Higher Risk of Diabetes?
One out of every 10 people in the United States has diabetes. Pacific Islanders, Alaskan natives and American Indians have the highest prevalence rates of diabetes among groups studied in the United States Census.
Is Gestational Diabetes the Same as Diabetes Mellitus?
Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes mellitus (DM) that develops during pregnancy and goes away after the birth of the baby.
What Technologies Are Used for Type 2 Diabetes?
Approximately 90 percent of all diabetes cases are type 2. Over the past decade, many improvements in diabetes technology have focused on safer and more precise glucose testing and insulin delivery.
Which Type of Diabetes Is Worse for COVID?
COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is a mild illness in most people. People with type 1 diabetes have 3.5 times the risk of dying compared to people without diabetes and people with type 2 diabetes have double the mortality risk with this viral infection.
What Is the Pathogenesis of Types I and II Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia caused by abnormalities in insulin production, insulin action, or both. Learn about what causes type I vs. type II diabetes.
Are There Any Sweets That People With Diabetes Can Eat?
People with diabetes can eat sweets as long as they are part of a healthy diet and consumed in moderation. Here are 7 diabetes-friendly sweets and tips for including them in your diet.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Gestational Diabetes
- Diabetes: Monitoring Your Sugar Levels
- Diabetes & Fitness: Get Moving!
- Diabetes: Your Guide to Life With Diabetes
- Diabetes: Maintaining Control with Nutrition
- Diabetes and Your Heart
- Diabetes and Diet: What Do I Eat?
- Diabetes: Your Treatment Options
- Diabetes: Psychological Challenges
- Diabetes: Dealing with the Complications
- Diabetes: Dealing with Your New Diagnosis
- Diabetes- Keeping Watch: Daily Diabetes Monitoring
- Diabetes and the Holidays: Eating Well-- Elaine Magee, MPH, RD-- 11/19/03
- Diabetes: Maintaining Control
- Diabetes Alert Day
- Diabetes: Scientific Research for Type I Diabetes
- Diabetes: Meeting the Diabetes Challenge
- Diabetes Update -- Brunilda Nazario, MD
- Diabetes FAQs
- Type 2 Diabetes FAQs
- Type 1 Diabetes FAQs
- What if I get COVID-19 with Diabetes?
- Gee - Whats in a Name
- Diabetes - An Aspirin A Day
- Diabetes and Eye Disease...See No Evil
- Diabetes - David Meets Goliath
- Insulin...Getting Better All the Time
- Exercise Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes - Part 1
- Exercise Therapy in Diabetes - Part 2
- Insulin Resistance - Keypoints
- Diabetes Mellitus - The Work Pays Off
- Diabetes - Foot Care: A Walking Matter
- Ramipril, Heart Disease, Stroke & Diabetes
- Diabetes Type I...Insulin Therapy
- Heart Disease Stroke and Diabetes
- Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) Symptoms and Diabetes
- Rheumatoid Arthritis & Diabetes Gene (PTPN22)
- Diabetes Report From The National ADA Meeting 2003
- What Foods to Eat to Reverse Diabetes
- How Bad Is Type 1 Diabetes?
- What Causes Type 1 Diabetes in Adults?
- Is Type 1 Diabetes Genetic?
- What Will Happen if Type 1 Diabetes Is Left Untreated?
- Can You Get Diabetes from Stress?
- How Do You Know if You Have Diabetes?
- Does Celiac Disease Cause Diabetes?
- Can oral diabetes medications cause impotence?
- Does Diabetes Cause Gum Disease?
- What Is the Treatment for Diabetes Eye Damage?
- Does Anti-Retroviral Therapy for HIV Cause Diabetes?
- Can You Have Type 1 Diabetes Without Symptoms?
- 6 Frequently Asked Diabetes Question
- What Kind of Candy Can You Eat With Diabetes?
- Is Weight Loss Caused by Diabetes Dangerous?
- Can Diabetes Cause Muscle Pain?
- 11 Diabetes Diet Tips for the Holidays
- Diabetes Diet
- Top 10 Questions to Ask Your Doctor About Diabetes
- Prediabetes Symptoms and Diagnosis
- Diabetes: Eating Well with Type 2 Diabetes
- Diabetes: What Can I Eat?
Medications & Supplements
- metformin solution - oral, Riomet
- metformin sustained-action tablet - oral, Fortamet, Glucophage XR, Glume
- metformin - oral, Glucophage
- metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Fortamet, Riomet)
- Insulin for Diabetes Treatment (Types, Side Effects, and Preparations)
- Metformin (Glucophage) vs. Glipizide (Glucotrol)
- What Is Intravenous Insulin Therapy?
- SGLT2 Inhibitors (Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2)
- How Long Does Insulin Last After Injection?
- How Do You Give Intravenous Insulin Therapy?
- glipizide and metformin
- metformin and sitagliptin (Janumet)
- Synjardy (empagliflozin and metformin)
- Types of Diabetes Type I And II Medications
Prevention & Wellness
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Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Diabetes QuizTake the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do with obesity and diet? Learn about life as a diabetic.
Diabetes Symptoms in MenDiabetes mellitus is a disease in which a person's blood sugar (blood glucose) is either too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia) due to problems with insulin regulation in the body. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs during childhood, while type 2 diabetes usually occurs during adulthood, however, rates of both types of diabetes in children, adolescents, and teens is increasing. More men than women have diabetes in the US, and the disease can affect men differently than women.
Warning symptoms of diabetes that men have and women do not include low testosterone (low-t), sexual problems, impotence (erectile dysfunction), decreased interest in sex, and retrograde ejaculation.
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes symptoms and signs that are the same in men and women include skin infections, numbness or tingling in the feet or hands, nausea, excessive thirst or hunger, fatigue, irritability, blurred vision, weight gain, weight loss, urinary tract infections (URIs), and kidney problems.
Treatment for type 1 diabetes is insulin, and treatment for type 2 diabetes are lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, getting exercise daily, and if necessary, diabetes medications.
Diabetes Symptoms in WomenDiabetes symptoms in women include vaginal itching, pain, or discharge, loss if interest or pain after having sex, polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), and urinary tract infections or UTIs (which are more common in women.
Symptoms of diabetes that are the same in women and men are excessive thirst and hunger, bad breath, and skin infections, darkening of skin in areas of body creases (acanthosis nigricans), breath odor that is fruity, sweet, or acetone, and tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, blurred vision, fatigue, tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, wounds that heal slowly, irritability, and weight loss or gain.
Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, for example, skin, eye, and circulation problems, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), ketoacidosis, and amputation. If diabetes is not managed a person may not survive.
Diabetes Treatment: Medication, Diet, and Insulin
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with:
- and a diabetic diet.
Type 2 diabetes is first treated with:
- weight reduction,
- a diabetic diet,
- and exercise.
When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet PlanA type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar (glucose) control in people with diabetes to prevent complications of diabetes. There are a variety of type 2 diabetes diet eating plans such as the Mediterranean diet, Paleo diet, ADA Diabetes Diet, and vegetarian diets.Learn about low and high glycemic index foods, what foods to eat, and what foods to avoid if you have type 2 diabetes.
Exercises for Diabetes Nerve PainLearn how to cope with the symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy through pain management exercises. Find relief for diabetic nerve pain without medication.
Diabetes Foot ProblemsDiabetes related foot problems can affect your health with two problems: diabetic neuropathy, where diabetes affects the nerves, and peripheral vascular disease, where diabetes affects the flow of blood. Common foot problems for people with diabetes include athlete's foot, fungal infection of nails, calluses, corns, blisters, bunions, dry skin, foot ulcers, hammertoes, ingrown toenails, and plantar warts.
Insulin Pump for DiabetesAn insulin pump is designed to deliver insulin directly to a patient with diabetes. They are about the size of a standard beeper. The pump is attached to under the skin (usually on the abdomen). The amount of insulin required will depend on lifestyle (exercise, sleep patterns, activity level, and diet).
Diabetes: What Raises and Lowers Your Blood Sugar Level?Want to lower your blood sugar? Learn to better control your glucose levels by preventing blood sugar spikes and swings to avoid neuropathy and other diabetes complications. Find foods that lower blood sugar, and identify foods and activities that raise high blood sugar risks.
Diabetes and Safe Medications for Colds and the Flu: OTC Medication GuideIf you have diabetes and catch a cold or the flu, can be more difficult to recover from infections and their complications, for example, pneumonia. Home remedies and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs used for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of colds and the flu may affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
Some medications are OK to take if you have diabetes get a cold or the flu include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, like acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Motrin) to control symptoms of fever and pain. Most cough syrups are safe to take; however, check with your pediatrician to see what medications are safe to give your child if he or she has type 1 or 2 diabetes.
If you have diabetes and are sick with a cold or flu, you need to check your blood sugar levels more frequently. Continue taking your regular medications. Eat a diabetic low-glycemic index diet rich in antioxidants.
To prevent colds and the flu drink at least eight 8 ounce glasses of water a day. To replenish fluids, drink sports drinks like Gatorade and Pedialyte to replenish electrolytes. Avoid people who are sick, sneezing, coughing, or have other symptoms of a cold or flu.
Type 1 DiabetesWhat is type 1 diabetes? There are new treatments for juvenile diabetes, and more people with diabetes can be treated than ever before. Learn the symptoms of T1D, the causes, and find ways to control your blood glucose levels naturally.
Type 1 Diabetes QuizWhat are the causes of type 1 diabetes? Take this quiz and challenge your knowledge of causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatments for this common condition, formerly known as juvenile diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes QuizWhat causes type 2 diabetes? Can it be prevented? Take this online quiz and challenge your knowledge of this common condition. Also, get the truth about myths and facts!
Type 2 Diabetes SignsLearn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Find out why thirst, headaches, and infections could be signs of diabetes. Discover the treatment options for people with type 2 diabetes, including medicines and lifestyle improvements.
Diabetes Urine TestsUrine tests for individuals with diabetes is important to check for diabetes-related kidney disease and severe hypoglycemia. With proper monitoring of blood glucose levels, diabetic-kidney disease can be avoided.
What Is a High Insulin Level?Insulin is a hormone (a chemical substance that acts as a messenger in the human body) that is secreted by an abdominal organ called the pancreas. High insulin levels are levels of the hormone that are higher than they should be after ingesting glucose.