- Type 2 Diabetes: Learn the Warning Signs
- Diabetes Friendly Dining
- Type 2 Diabetes: Test Your Medical IQ
- What is metformin? How does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What are the uses for metformin?
- What are the side effects of metformin?
- What is the dosage for metformin?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with metformin?
- Is metformin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about metformin?
What is metformin? How does it work (mechanism of action)?
Metformin is an oral medication that lowers blood glucose (sugar) by influencing the body's sensitivity to insulin and is used for treating type 2 diabetes. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that controls glucose levels in blood by reducing the amount of glucose made by the liver and by increasing the removal of glucose from the blood by muscle and fat tissues. As a result, insulin causes blood glucose levels fall. Diabetes caused by a decrease in production of insulin that causes increased production of glucose by the liver, and reduced uptake (and effects) of insulin on fat and muscle tissues. Metformin acts by increasing the sensitivity of liver, muscle, fat, and other tissues to the uptake and effects of insulin. These actions lower the level of sugar in the blood.
Unlike glucose-lowering drugs of the sulfonylurea class, for example glyburide (Micronase, DiaBeta) or glipizide (Glucotrol), metformin does not increase the concentration of insulin in the blood and, therefore, does not cause excessively low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia) when used alone. In scientific studies, metformin reduced the complications of diabetes such as heart disease, blindness, and kidney disease
The FDA aproved metformin in December 1994.
What are the uses for metformin?
- Metformin is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults and children. It may be used alone or in combination with other diabetic medications.
- Metformin also has been used to prevent the development of diabetes in people who are at risk.
- Treatment of polycystic ovaries
- Weight gain due to medications used for treating psychoses.
Quick GuideDiabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating
What are the side effects of metformin?
The most common side effects with metformin are
These symptoms occur in one out of every three patients. These side effects may be severe enough to cause therapy to be discontinued in one out of every 20 patients. These side effects are related to the dose of the medication and may decrease if the dose is reduced.
Metformin may also cause:
- weakness or lack of energy
- respiratory tract infections,
- low levels of vitamin B-12,
- low blood glucose (hyperglycemia)
- indigestion, muscle pain,
- heartburn, and
A serious but rare side effect of metformin is lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis occurs in one out of every 30,000 patients and is fatal in 50% of cases. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are
- trouble breathing,
- abnormal heartbeats,
- unusual muscle pain,
- stomach discomfort,
- light-headedness, and
- feeling cold.
Patients at risk for lactic acidosis include those with reduced function of the
What is the dosage for metformin?
- For treating type 2 diabetes in adults, metformin (immediate release) usually is begun at a dose of 500 mg twice a day or 850 mg once daily. The dose is gradually increased by 500 mg weekly or 850 mg every two weeks as tolerated and based on the response of the levels of glucose in the blood. The maximum daily dose is 2550 mg given in three divided doses.
- If extended tablets are used, the starting dose is 500 mg or 1000 mg daily with the evening meal. The dose can be increased by 500 mg weekly up to a maximum dose of 2000 mg except for Fortamet (2500 mg of Fortamet, once daily or in two divided doses). Glumetza tablets (500 -1000mg formulations are given once daily (either 1000 to 2000mg). Fortamet and Glumetza are modified release formulations of metformin. Metformin should be taken with meals.
- For pediatric patients 10-16 years of age, the starting dose is 500 mg twice a day. The dose can be increased by 500 mg weekly up to a maximum dose of 2000 mg in divided doses.
- Children older than 17 years of age may receive 500 mg of extended release tablets daily up to a maximum dose of 2000 mg daily. Extended release tablets are not approved for children younger than 17 years of age.
- Metformin-containing drugs may be safely used in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Renal function should be assessed before starting treatment and at least yearly.
- Metformin should not be used by patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 30 mL/minute/1.73 m2 and starting metformin in patients with an eGFR between 30-45 mL/minute/1.73 m2 is not recommended.
- Metformin should be stopped at the time of or before administering iodinated contrast in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2; in patients with a history of liver disease, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Kidney function should be evaluated 48 hours after receiving contrast and metformin may be restarted if kidney function is stable.
Which drugs or supplements interact with metformin?
- Cimetidine (Tagamet), by decreasing the elimination of metformin from the body, can increase the amount of metformin in the blood by 40%. This may increase the frequency of side effects from metformin.
- Ioversol (Optiray) and other iodinated contrast media may reduce kidney function, which reduces elimination of metformin, leading to increased concentrations of metformin in the blood. Metformin should be stopped 48 hours before and after use of contrast media.
- Thiazide diuretics, steroids, estrogens, and oral contraceptives may increase blood glucose and reduce the effect of metformin. When these drugs are stopped, patients should be closely observed for signs of low blood glucose.
- Alcohol consumption increases the effect of metformin on lactate production, increasing the risk of lactic acidosis.
Is metformin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
What else should I know about metformin?
- Metformin is available as
- Tablets: 500, 850, and 1000 mg
- Tablets (extended release): 500, 750, and 1000 mg.
- Solution: 100 mg/ ml
- Metformin should be stored at room temperature between 20 C to 25 C (68 F to 77 F).
- Metormin is available in generic versions of immediate release and extended release formulations.
- You need a prescription from your doctor to obtain metformin.
- Brand names available for metformin in the US include:
- Glucophage XR
Metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Fortamet, Riomet) is a medication prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes and the prevention of type 2 diabetes in patients who are at risk for type 2 diabetes. Side effects of metformin include loss of appetite, bloating, heartburn, gas, nausea, and vomiting.
Drug interactions, dosage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
10 Benefits of Walking
Take this quiz to learn about the many health benefit of walking for exercise!...
Type 2 Diabetes: Test Your Medical IQ
What causes type 2 diabetes? Can it be prevented? Take this online quiz and challenge your knowledge of this common condition....
Diabetes Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Take the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do...
Exercise and Fitness Quiz: Test Your IQ
Take our Exercise and Fitness Quiz and learn to maximize your fitness level with simple exercises that do not require major...
Metabolic Syndrome Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Metabolic syndrome is serious and you should be concerned. Learn the causes, symptoms, treatments, and complications of metabolic...
Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication
Learn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Read how diet and exercise can help manage...
Exercise Tips for Seniors
Exercise for seniors is important for healthy and successful aging. Learn what happens to our bodies as we age, how to start...
How Diabetes Can Affect Your Feet
Learn more about diabetes related foot problems. For people with diabetes, too much glucose in the blood can cause serious foot...
Diabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating
Discover the best and worst meals for diabetes-savvy dining. See how to avoid carbs and control your blood sugar with healthier...
Fat-Burning Foods in Pictures: Blueberries, Green Tea, and More
Learn about fat-fighting foods such as grapefruit, hot peppers, vinegar, and more. Discover the benefits along with surprising...
Pictures of the 7 Most Effective Exercises to Do at the Gym or Home (and Tips to Improve Form)
These seven exercises deliver fitness results at home or in the gym. Start your training to better physical health with the most...
Snacks With 100 Calories or Less
Reducing calories is an effective weight loss strategy. Here are 25 100-calorie snacks that offer quick, satisfying solutions to...
Blood Sugar Swings: Tips for Managing Diabetes & Glucose Levels
Learn to better control your glucose levels by preventing blood sugar swings. Beware of caffeine, sugary foods, spices, exercise,...
Pictures of the 7 Riskiest Workout Moves, and How to Improve Them
Working out is supposed to make you healthier--but some exercises can leave your body at risk of pain or injury. Some exercises...
Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Improve Diabetes Nerve Pain
Read about diabetic peripheral neuropathy and exercises to manage nerve pain. Learn how to cope with the symptoms of diabetic...
The Worst Foods in Your Fridge
What are the worst foods to eat in your fridge? From mayonnaise to ice cream and butter to processed lunch meats, learn about the...
Healthy Living: 20 Common Health Myths Exposed
Can vitamin C cure colds? Read as we dispel the half-truths and common myths of health, from X-rays to eggs, from the...
Sugar Addiction Facts: Cravings, Hidden Sugar, and More in Pictures
Learn about sugar addiction to see why we often crave sweets and binge on carbs. Learn how sugar affects the brain and get tips...
Diabetes Diet: 11 Low-Sugar Drink Ideas
Searching for low-sugar drink ideas? This pictures slideshow has eleven beverages ideal for people with diabetes and those...
12 Reasons to Love the Mediterranean Diet in Pictures
The Mediterranean diet is a delicious way to eat healthy. We show you how to get the most from this diet with foods like olive...
Pictures of Famous People With Diabetes
See pictures of celebrities that have been diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes including Mary Tyler Moore, Salma Hayek, and...
Portion Control Tips: Lose Weight and Stick to Your Diet
Portion control can help with weight loss and help you stick to a healthy diet. But how much is too much? This photo guide will...
Top 15 Immune System Boosters
Immune system boosters include foods, supplements, and lifestyle habits to help you fight off infections. A healthy immune system...
Travel Tips for Better Diabetes Control
Traveling with diabetes can be intimidating, but it shouldn't stop you! Learn tips for packing your diabetic supplies, how to...
Pictures of 10 Muscle-Building Exercises for Diabetes
Watch this slideshow on Diabetes and Exercise. If you have diabetes, see how strengthening your muscles with these 10 weight...
The 30-Minute Fitness Routine in Pictures
This quick, high-intensity 30-minute workout routine can make you look better and feel better. Discover the right way to do...
Diabetes: How Blood Sugar Levels Affect Your Body
High blood sugar can be a sign of diabetes or prediabetes. The drugs that treat it sometimes cause low blood sugar too. WebMD...
Top 7 Ways Water Benefits the Body
Drinking water benefits digestion, metabolism, toxin elimination, and other functions. Water promotes weight loss and helps...
Healthy Indulgences for Under $15 With Pictures
Isn't it time you took care of yourself? Good food, relaxation, laughter -- we offer 15 great ideas for affordable, healthy...
Exercise and Fitness: The 7-Minute Workout
The 7-minute workout provides a free, convenient way to get and stay fit. Discover these short, quick exercises that use your own...
Healthy Dieting Myths and Facts
Learn about healthy dieting myths and facts. Can't tell fact from fiction about weight loss and healthy eating? Discover the...
Food Cravings Slideshow: Chocolate, Carbs, Salt, Sugar
Learn which food cravings can wreck your diet. Whether your craving something creamy or crunchy, sweet or salty, food cravings...
No-Gym Workout in Pictures: Equipment, Routines, and More
Learn about this no-gym, at home quick workout. It can get you into great shape at home and shows the best moves for flat abs and...
Easy, Tasty Grilled Foods for Dinner Tonight in Pictures
Explore easy and tasty grilled foods. When your rushed to get dinner on the table, fire up the grill and use these delicious,...
Benefits of Exercise: Fitness Facts Prove the Benefits of Working Out
These fitness facts explain why to get in shape. Check out these health facts on the benefits of exercise....
Diabetes Management Tips and Preventing Complications
Learn 10 simple ways to better manage your diabetes. See tips for controlling blood sugar, diet and exercise and other helpful...
Exercise and Fitness: 10 Budget-Friendly Exercise Gadgets
There are plenty of cheap and free ways to exercise. Learn about inexpensive ways to get in shape with the use of jump ropes,...
17 Must-Try Fitness Workouts in Pictures
Learn the latest exercise crazes such as TRX, pole dancing, Zumba, Kangoo jumps, boot camps, exergames and more that are designed...
10 Tips for a Healthier Fast Food Diet
Losing weight is tough on the road. Fast food can't compare to the health of a well-planned, balanced diet. But if you must eat...
Grocery Smarts: 'Healthy Fat' Foods for Fitness in Pictures
A healthy diet starts at the grocery store. See which fat foods to avoid and which fit foods to choose....
Tips to Eat Healthy When You Dine Out in Pictures
Recognize the dangers of eating out and stay on your healthy diet at restaurants. Learn about healthy eating at restaurants,...
Worst-Appetizer Pictures: Spinach Dip, Potato Skins, and More
A tasty appetizer can be a great start to any meal--but some appetizers are diet disasters. Potato skins and cheese fries pack on...
Exercise Tips for Kids and the Whole Family
Exercise is great for kids, and fun activities for the whole family are there if you know how to find them. Learn how to lose...
Related Disease Conditions
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are...
Diabetes Diet for Type 2 Diabetes, List of Foods
A type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar (glucose) control in people with diabetes to...
Insulin resistance is the diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in transporting glucose (sugar) from...
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which a person's pancreas does not produce enough insulin to meet the needs of the body....
Diabetes Treatment (Type 1 and Type 2 Medications and Diet)
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar....
Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) Symptoms, Levels, Diet and Causes
Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar is a serious health problem for diabetics. There are two types of hyperglycemia, 1) fasting,...
Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)
Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, is a syndrome in which a person's blood sugar is dangerously low. People with type 1 and type 2...
Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes (Similarities and Differences)
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million...
Prediabetes is a situation where a person's blood sugar levels are higher than they should be, but aren't high enough to be...
The main features of metabolic syndrome include insulin resistance, hypertension (high blood pressure), cholesterol...
Preventing Diabetes Naturally (Type 2, Diet, Causes, Symptoms)
Prediabetes is a condition in which a person has early symptoms of diabetes, but have not yet fully developed the condition. If...
A diabetic diet, or diabetes diet helps keep blood glucose levels in the target range for patients. Exercise and medication may...
Type 2 Diabetes Medications (Side Effects, Differences)
Type 2 diabetes oral medications are prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes in conjuction with lifestyle changes like diet and...
Regular physical activity can reduce the risk of disease. Regular exercise can also reduce the symptoms of stress and anxiety....
Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home
Managing your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the...
Diabetes: Caring for Your Diabetes at Special Times
Taking care of a disease such as diabetes is a life-long process. Learn how to care for yourself or loved one with diabetes in...
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Diabetes FAQs
- Exercise and Fitness FAQs
- Metabolic Syndrome FAQs
- Type 2 Diabetes FAQs
- 10 Benefits of Walking FAQs
- Medication Disposal
- Dangers of Mixing Medications
- How To Reduce Your Medication Costs
- Pharmacy Visit, How To Get The Most Out of Your Visit
- Indications for Drugs: Approved vs. Non-approved
- Drugs: Buying Prescription Drugs Online Safely
- Drugs: The Most Common Medication Errors
- Generic Drugs, Are They as Good as Brand-Names?
Medications & Supplements
Prevention & Wellness
- Intensive Treatment Shows Potential Against Type 2 Diabetes
- Youth With Type 2 Diabetes Often Face Complications
- Metformin Still Best as First Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
- Is Web-Based Test for Prediabetes Faulty?
- Older Drug May Help Type 1 Diabetics' Heart Health
- Diabetes Drug May Help Kids With Autism Fight Unwanted Pounds
- Which Diabetes Drug Is Best?
- Coffee, Wine Good for Healthy Gut, Sodas May Be Bad
- Metformin Safer for Heart Than Other Common Type 2 Diabetes Drugs: Study
- Widely Used Type 2 Diabetes Drug May Reduce Cancer Death Risk
- Cost of Insulin Rises Threefold in Just a Decade: Study
- FDA: 2 Diabetes Drugs May Be Linked to Heart Failure Risk
- Diabetes Meds Vary in Safety and Effectiveness, Study Shows
- A Wearable Patch Might Help Manage Diabetes Painlessly
- Diabetes Drug May Not Help Obese Women Have Normal-Weight Babies
- Diabetes Drug Improves Gut Bacteria, Study Finds
- Metformin May Not Help Obese Teens With Type 1 Diabetes
- Prescription Drug Use on the Rise in U.S.
- Too Many Seniors With Diabetes Are Overtreated, Study Suggests
- Diabetes a Concern for Half of Americans
- FDA Warns of Joint Pain Tied to Common Type 2 Diabetes Drugs
- Diabetes Drug Might Also Help Some Patients Lose Weight
- Diabetes Drug Given to Obese Moms-to-Be Won't Keep Baby's Weight Down
- Order in Which Food Is Eaten May Affect Type 2 Diabetics' Blood Sugar
- The Benefits of Exercise Go Way Beyond the Muscles
- Diabetes Drug Metformin May Lower Glaucoma Risk
- Vegan Diet Might Ease Diabetic Nerve Pain
- FDA Issues Warning for Type 2 Diabetes Drugs
- Diabetes Drug May Not Guard Against Pancreatic Cancer
- More TV Time May Mean Higher Diabetes Risk, Study Finds
- Latest Diabetes Care Guidelines Focus on Individual Approach
- Diabetes Drug Metformin Safe for Patients With Kidney Disease: Review
- Metformin Beats Other Type 2 Diabetes Drugs for First Treatment: Study
- Weekly Diabetes Drugs: FAQs
- Diabetes Drug Metformin May Affect Thyroid in Some Patients
- Can Prediabetes Raise Risk of Certain Cancers?
- Blacks May Respond Better Than Whites to Diabetes Drug Metformin
- Tanzeum Approved for Type 2 Diabetes
- Diabetes Treatment Falls Short as Heart Failure Drug in Study
- Diabetes Drug Metformin Tied to Slight Weight Loss in Obese Kids
- Diabetes Drugs Affect Hearts of Men, Women Differently
- Metformin Won't Help Heart Patients Without Diabetes: Study
- Cinnamon May Help Ease Common Cause of Infertility, Study Says
- Tom Hanks Has Type 2 Diabetes
- Common Diabetes Drugs May Carry Risk, Study Suggests
- Weight Loss May Help Thwart Diabetes
- Diabetes Drug May Protect the Brain
- Type 2 Diabetes Progresses Faster in Kids, Study Finds
- Metformin Won't Aid Breast Cancer Survival in Diabetics
- New Diabetes Drug Expected This Week
- Antihistamines Adding to Drug Pollution in Streams
- Millions on Verge of Diabetes Don't Know It: CDC
- Certain Diabetes Medications May Lower Heart Failure Risk
- Three New Drugs Approved for Type 2 Diabetes
- Diabetes Drug Metformin May Fight Cancer
- World Diabetes Day Designed to Raise Awareness
- New Diabetes Drugs Have Different Advantages, Study Says
- Popular Diabetes Meds Put to the Test
- Diabetes Patients Should Have More Voice in Treatment: Experts
- Weight Loss May Increase Testosterone Levels
- Newer 'Second-Line' Diabetes Drug May Outperform Older Meds
- Task Force to Doctors: Obesity Screening for All
- Metformin Outperforms Common Class of Diabetes Drugs in Study
- Diabetes Drug Metformin May Cut Breast Cancer Risk in Older Women
- Diabetes Drugs Avandia, Actos Linked to Vision Woes
- Treating Prediabetes Might Prevent Full-Blown Disease
- Type 2 Diabetes in Kids a Challenge to Control
- Two-Drug Therapy Helped Kids With Type 2 Diabetes
- Diabetes Groups Issue New Guidelines on Blood Sugar
- Diabetes Drug Metformin Might Also Help Fight Cancer
- Prescription Meds Can Put on Unwanted Pounds
- Experimental Drug Shows Promise Against Type 2 Diabetes
- Metformin Preferred Drug for Type 2 Diabetes, Experts Say
- Popular Diabetes Drug Might Cut Pancreatic Cancer Risk: Study
- Experts Assess What Works for Weight Loss
- FDA Panel Opposes New Type of Diabetes Drug
- Diet, Metformin Cut Medical Cost for Prediabetes Patients
- Metformin: Safer for Heart Than Older Diabetes Drugs?
- New Drug May Help Treat Diabetes
- New Insulin May Treat Dangerously Low Blood Sugar
- The 10 Most Prescribed Drugs
- Qnexa Yields Up to Nearly a 10% Weight Loss: Study
- New Type of Diabetes Drug Drops Weight With Blood Sugar
- Inhaled Insulin May Help Treat Diabetes
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Top metformin Related Articles
Diabetes Foot ProblemsLearn more about diabetes related foot problems. For people with diabetes, too much glucose in the blood can cause serious foot complications such as nerve damage, infection, and ulcers. Find tips for proper foot care to help prevent serious complications.
Diabetes MellitusDiabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Take the Diabetes QuizTake the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do with obesity and diet? Learn about life as a diabetic.
Diabetes Diet PlansDiscover the best and worst meals for diabetes-savvy dining. See how to avoid carbs and control your blood sugar with healthier meal combinations that retain all the foods and flavors you love.
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with:
- and a diabetic diet.
Type 2 diabetes is first treated with:
- weight reduction,
- a diabetic diet,
- and exercise.
When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
Diabetic Diet for Type 2 Diabetes
A type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar (glucose) control in people with diabetes to prevent complications of diabetes. There are a variety of type 2 diabetes diet eating plans such as the Mediterranean diet, Paleo diet, ADA Diabetes Diet, and vegetarian diets.Learn about low and high glycemic index foods, what foods to eat, and what foods to avoid if you have type 2 diabetes.
Take the Exercise QuizTake our Exercise and Fitness Quiz and learn to maximize your fitness level with simple exercises that do not require major changes to your lifestyle.
Exercise for AgingExercise for seniors is important for healthy and successful aging. Learn what happens to our bodies as we age, how to start exercising, and the benefits of exercising as a senior.
Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar is a serious health problem for diabetics. There are two types of hyperglycemia, 1) fasting, and 2)postprandial or after meal hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can also lead to ketoacidosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). There are a variety of causes of hyperglycemia in people with diabetes. Symptoms of high blood sugar may include increased thirst, headaches, blurred vision, and frequent urination.Treatment can be achieved through lifestyle changes or medications changes. Carefully monitoring blood glucose levels is key to prevention.
Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, is a syndrome in which a person's blood sugar is dangerously low. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are at risk for this condition. There are other diseases that can cause a person's blood sugar levels to go too low, for example, pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, and pancreatic cancer. Symptoms and signs that your blood sugar levels are too low include:
- Intense hunger
If your blood sugars become too have the following nearby as a quick treatment.
- Table sugar
- Glucose tablets
Insulin resistance is the diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in transporting glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream into muscle and other tissues. There are no signs or symptoms of insulin resistance. Causes of insulin can include conditions such as stress, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and steroid use.
Some of the risk factors for insulin resistance include fatty liver, heart disease, strokes, peripheral vascular disease, high cholesterol, and smoking. Treatment for insulin resistance are lifestyle changes and if necessary, medication.
Metabolic SyndromeThe main features of metabolic syndrome include insulin resistance, hypertension (high blood pressure), cholesterol abnormalities, and an increased risk for clotting. Patients are most often overweight or obese. Lifestyle modification such as the Mediterranean diet, exercise, and quitting smoking are the preferred treatment of metabolic syndrome.
Metabolic SyndromeMetabolic syndrome is serious and you should be concerned. Learn the causes, symptoms, treatments, and complications of metabolic syndrome with our quick quiz.
Prediabetes is a situation where a person's blood sugar levels are higher than they should be, but aren't high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. There are no signs or symptoms of prediabetes. Some of the risk factors for prediabetes are
- high blood pressure,
- high cholesterol,
- heart disease,
- family history,
- poor diet, and
- lack of activity.
Diet changes along with other healthy lifestyle changes are important in treating prediabetes.
Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes Similarities Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by:
Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.)
- Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!)
- Lack of activity
While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include:
- Increased urination
- Increased hunger
- Increased thirst
- Unexplained weight loss.
However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which a person's pancreas does not produce enough insulin to meet the needs of the body. Causes of type 2 diabetes are a sedentary lifestyle, eating excess sugar and carbohydrates, lack of exercise, being overweight, and genetics. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes are often subtle, but may include fatigue, urine odor, unintentional
Type 2 Diabetes SlideshowLearn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Read how diet and exercise can help manage type 2 diabetes.