The main features of metabolic syndrome include insulin resistance, hypertension (high blood pressure), cholesterol abnormalities, and an increased risk for clotting. Patients are most often overweight or obese. Lifestyle modification such as the Mediterranean diet, exercise, and quitting smoking are the preferred treatment of metabolic syndrome. Read more: Metabolic Syndrome Article
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Type 2 Diabetes: Signs, Symptoms, Treatments
Learn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Find out why thirst, headaches, and...
Heart Disease: Causes of a Heart Attack
Heart disease prevention includes controlling risk factors like diet, exercise, and stress. Heart disease symptoms in women may...
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension): Symptoms, Causes, Treatments
What causes high blood pressure (hypertension)? Know the warning signs and symptoms of high blood pressure. Read about high blood...
Menopause & Perimenopause: Symptoms, Signs
What is menopause? What are the signs of menopause? What age does menopause start? Learn about menopause and perimenopause...
Heart Disease: Symptoms, Signs, and Causes
What is heart disease (coronary artery disease)? Learn about the causes of heart disease. Symptoms of heart disease include chest...
Cholesterol Drugs: What to Expect With Heart Medication
When diet and exercise aren't enough, should you turn to drugs? Learn cholesterol basics, drug classes, and available drugs along...
Heart Health Pictures: How to Lower Triglycerides
Learn 14 ways to lower triglycerides. Learn to keep your heart healthy and triglyceride levels in check with these diet,...
How to Lower Your Cholesterol & Save Your Heart
Need to lower your cholesterol levels? Use these smart diet tips to quickly and easily lower your blood cholesterol levels....
Diabetes: 15 Famous Celebrities With Diabetes
See pictures of celebrities that have been diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes including Mary Tyler Moore, Salma Hayek, and...
Metabolism Quiz: What is Metabolism?
Would you know if there were something wrong with your metabolism? At what age does metabolism begin to slow? Take the mystery...
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Quiz: Symptoms, Signs & Causes
Take this quiz and test your IQ of high blood pressure (hypertension), the cardiovascular disease that causes most strokes and...
Diabetes Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Take the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do...
Metabolic Syndrome Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Metabolic syndrome is serious and you should be concerned. Learn the causes, symptoms, treatments, and complications of metabolic...
10 Metabolism Boosting Facts and Myths
Losing weight by increasing your metabolism is challenging. There are many metabolism myths and only a few surefire tricks to get...
Related Disease Conditions
Cirrhosis of the liver refers to a disease in which normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue caused by alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C. This disease leads to abnormalities in the liver's ability to handle toxins and blood flow, causing internal bleeding, kidney failure, mental confusion, coma, body fluid accumulation, and frequent infections. Symptoms include yellowing of the skin (jaundice), itching, and fatigue. The prognosis is good for some people with cirrhosis of the liver, and the survival can be up to 12 years; however the life expectancy is about 6 months to 2 years for people with severe cirrhosis with major complications.
Staph Infection (Staphylococcus Aureus)
Staphylococcus or staph is a group of bacteria that can cause a multitude of diseases. Staph infections can cause illness directly by infection or indirectly by the toxins they produce. Symptoms and signs of a staph infection include redness, swelling, pain, and drainage of pus. Minor skin infections are treated with an antibiotic ointment, while more serious infections are treated with intravenous antibiotics.
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms. Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure. The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater. If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
Obesity is the state of being well above one's normal weight. A person has traditionally been considered to be obese if they are more than 20% over their ideal weight. That ideal weight must take into account the person's height, age, sex, and build.
Menopause is the time in a woman's life when menstrual periods permanently stop, also called the "change of life." Menopause symptoms include hot flashes, night sweats, irregular vaginal bleeding, vaginal dryness, painful intercourse, urinary incontinence, weight gain, and emotional symptoms such as mood swings. Treatment of menopausal symptoms varies, and should be discussed with your physician.
Heart disease (coronary artery disease) occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, the vessels that supply blood to the heart. Heart disease can lead to heart attack. Risk factors for heart disease include: Smoking High blood pressure High cholesterol Diabetes Family history Obesity Angina, shortness of breath, and sweating are just a few symptoms that may indicate a heart attack. Treatment of heart disease involves control of heart disease risk factors through lifestyle changes, medications, and/or stenting or bypass surgery. Heart disease can be prevented by controlling heart disease risk factors.
High Blood Pressure Treatment (Natural Home Remedies, Diet, Medications)
High blood pressure (hypertension) means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Treatment for high blood pressure include lifestyle modifications (alcohol, smoking, coffee, salt, diet, exercise), drugs and medications such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), alpha blockers, clonidine, minoxidil, and Exforge.
Cholesterol (Lowering Your Cholesterol)
High cholesterol and triglyceride levels increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Getting your cholesterol and triglyceride levels in an optimal range will help protect your heart and blood vessels. Cholesterol management may include lifestyle interventions (diet and exercise) as well as medications to get your total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides in an optimal range.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that may be reversible with diet and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, and an unusual odor to your urine. Most people don't know they have type 2 diabetes until they have a routine blood test. Treatment options include medications, a type 2 diabetes diet, and other lifestyle changes.
Insulin Resistance (Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Reversal))
Insulin resistance is the diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in transporting glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream into muscle and other tissues. There are no signs or symptoms of insulin resistance. Causes of insulin can include conditions such as stress, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and steroid use. Some of the risk factors for insulin resistance include fatty liver, heart disease, strokes, peripheral vascular disease, high cholesterol, and smoking. Treatment for insulin resistance are lifestyle changes and if necessary, medication.
Angina is chest pain due to inadequate blood supply to the heart. Angina symptoms may include chest tightness, burning, squeezing, and aching. Coronary artery disease is the main cause of angina but there are other causes. Angina is diagnosed by taking the patient's medical history and performing tests such as an electrocardiogram (EKG), blood test, stress test, echocardiogram, cardiac CT scan, and heart catheterization. Treatment of angina usually includes lifestyle modification, medication, and sometimes, surgery. The risk of angina can be reduced by following a heart healthy lifestyle.
Diabetes Treatment: Medication, Diet, and Insulin
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with: insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with: weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by: Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.) Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!) Lack of activity Exercise Stress Genetics While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include: Increased urination Increased hunger Increased thirst Unexplained weight loss. However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Prediabetes is a situation where a person's blood sugar levels are higher than they should be, but aren't high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. There are no signs or symptoms of prediabetes. Some of the risk factors for prediabetes are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, smoking, family history, poor diet, and lack of activity. Diet changes along with other healthy lifestyle changes are important in treating prediabetes.
Fatty Liver (NASH)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NASH occurs due to the accumulation of abnormal amounts of fat within the liver. Fatty liver most likely caused by obesity and diabetes. Symptoms of fatty liver disease are primarily the complications of cirrhosis of the liver; and may include mental changes, liver cancer, the accumulation of fluid in the body (ascites, edema), and gastrointestinal bleeding. Treatment for fatty liver includes avoiding certain foods and alcohol. Exercise, weight loss, bariatric surgery, and liver transplantation are treatments for fatty liver disease.
Sleep apnea is defined as a reduction or cessation of breathing during sleep. The three types of sleep apnea are central apnea, obstructive apnea (OSA), and a mixture of central and obstructive apnea. Central sleep apnea is caused by a failure of the brain to activate the muscles of breathing during sleep. OSA is caused by the collapse of the airway during sleep. OSA is diagnosed and evaluated through patient history, physical examination and polysomnography. There are many complications related to obstructive sleep apnea. Treatments are surgical and non-surgical.
What Is Metabolic Encephalopathy?
Metabolic encephalopathy or toxic metabolic encephalopathy is a condition in which brain function is disturbed either temporarily or permanently due to different diseases or toxins in the body. Metabolic encephalopathies may be reversible if the preexisting disorders are treated. If left untreated, they may result in brain damage.
Type 1 Diabetes (Symptoms, Causes, Diet, Treatment, Life Expectancy)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (juvenile) is an auto-immune disease with no known cause at this time, although there are a few risk factors. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include frequent urination, unintentional weight loss, dry and itchy skin, vision problems, wounds that heal slowly, and excessive thirst. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed with blood tests. A healthy lifestyle and controlling blood glucose levels can improve life expectancy.
How to Prevent Diabetes Naturally
Prediabetes is a condition in which a person has early symptoms of diabetes, but has not yet fully developed the condition. If prediabetes is not treated with lifestyle changes, the person could develop type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes can be prevented with lifestyle changes, for example, eating a healthy diet, getting more exercise, reducing stress, quitting smoking, reducing or managing blood pressure and cholesterol, and managing any other health conditions or risk factors that you may have for developing type 2 diabetes.
Smoking (How to Quit Smoking)
Smoking is an addiction. More than 430,000 deaths occur each year in the U.S. from smoking related illnesses. Secondhand smoke or "passive smoke" also harm family members, coworkers, and others around smokers. There are a number of techniques available to assist people who want to quit smoking.
Lipodystrophy (Acquired, Generalized, Inherited)
Lipodystrophy is a syndrome in which fat deposits accumulate all over the body, or sometimes just portions of it, like just the upper or lower body, or places on the skin where you give yourself daily allergy or insulin shots). You can be born with the generalized congenital or inherited type, or you can acquire it from HIV treatment drugs, infections, autoimmune diseases, trauma, or from repeated injections in the same place on the skin. The symptoms, treatment, and management depend upon the patient's type of lipodystrophy.
What Are Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Symptoms?
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), also known by the name Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a hormonal problem that causes women to have a variety of symptoms including irregular or no menstrual periods, acne, obesity, and excess hair growth. Treatment of PCOS depends partially on the woman's stage of life and the symptoms of PCOS.
Carotid Artery Disease
The term carotid artery disease refers to the narrowing of the carotid arteries and can also be called carotid stenosis. Fatty substance buildup and cholesterol deposits, called plaque are the cause of the narrowing arteries. Carotid artery disease can be treated by following recommended lifestyle changes, taking prescription medications, and considering a procedure to improve blood flow, if your doctor believes it could help.
A diabetic diet, or diabetes diet helps keep blood glucose levels in the target range for patients. Exercise and medication may also help stabilize blood glucose levels. Keeping track of when you take your diabetic medicine, keeping track of food choices, eating the proper amount of fruits, vegetables, carbohydrates, and fats will also help maintain proper blood glucose levels.
Cushing's syndrome, sometimes referred to as hypercortisolism, is a hormonal disorder caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of the hormone cortisol. Symptoms may include obesity, thinning arms and legs, a rounded face, and increased fat around the neck. Some causes of Cushing's syndrome is from taking glucocorticoid hormones such as prednisone for inflammatory diseases. Treatment for Cushing's syndrome depends on the cause.
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH or Forestier's disease) is a form of degenerative arthritis. It is characterized by calcification along the sides of the vertebrae of the spine. Symptoms include stiffness and pain in the upper and lower back. Anti-inflammatory medications are used to treat DISH.
Stretch marks occur in the dermis, the elastic middle layer of skin that allows it to retain its shape. When the skin is constantly stretched, the dermis can break down, leaving behind stretch marks.
High Cholesterol: Frequently Asked Questions
Cholesterol occurs naturally in the body. High blood cholesterol levels increase a person's risk of developing heart disease, heart attacks, strokes, TIAs, and more. In addition to medication (fibrates, statins, bile acid sequestrants, and niacin), lifestyle changes can be made to lower blood cholesterol levels
Regular physical activity can reduce the risk of disease. Regular exercise can also reduce the symptoms of stress and anxiety. There are fitness programs that fit any age or lifestyle.
Can Metabolic Syndrome Be Reversed?
Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of health conditions that increase the risk of heart diseases, stroke, and diabetes. It is known by several other names such as syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, and obesity syndrome.
Local ResourcesFind a local Internist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
- ACE Inhibitors (Side Effects, List of Names, Uses, and Dosage)
- metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Fortamet, Riomet)
- Insulin for Diabetes Treatment (Types, Side Effects, and Preparations)
- Oxycodone vs. Vicodin (hydrocodone/acetaminophen) for Pain
- Fibrates (Fibric Acid)
- Actos (pioglitazone)
- rosiglitazone (Avandia)
- Cerdelga (eliglustat)
Prevention & Wellness
- 4 Superfoods to Put on Your Menu Today
- Health Tip: Understanding Metabolic Syndrome
- Few Americans Have Optimal 'Metabolic Health'
- Could a Natural Protein Help Fight Obesity?
- What Did Americans Eat Today? A Third Would Say Fast Food
- Sugary Drinks Could Break Your Heart
- The Benefits of Simply Moving More
- Are You at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome?
- Health Tip: Managing Metabolic Syndrome
- Common Virus May Be Linked to Heart Disease, Diabetes in Some Women
- Heart Risks May Boost Women's Colon Cancer Risk, Too
- Secrets of Metabolism
- Low-Carb Diet May Aid Your Metabolism
- Can Protein, Probiotics Help With Blood Sugar Control?
- Skip Dinner and Maybe Boost Your Metabolism
- Are Vegetarian Diets Heart-Healthier?
- 'Spare Tire' May Be Tougher on Your Heart Than 'Love Handles'
- Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause
- FDA to Re-examine What Makes a Food 'Healthy'
- The Health Risks Posed by Mindless Munching
- Daytime Sleepiness, Long Naps Linked to Heart Risks: Study
- Head Injuries May Explain Henry VIII's Erratic Behavior, Study Suggests
- NFL Linemen Keep Growing, Putting Their Health at Risk, Experts Say
- Scientists Identify Sugar-Busting Enzyme in Rats
- Cutting Sugar From Diet Boosts Kids' Health Immediately: Study
- New Drug Lowers Levels of Triglyceride Blood Fats: Study
- Chronic Ills May Add Up to a Shortened Life Span
- Heart Risk Factors May Harm Black Women More Than Whites
- One-Third of Americans Have Dangerous Mix of Heart Risk Factors
- Night Owls Run Higher Risk of Health Problems, Study Finds
- Nuts Linked to Better Heart Health for Teens
- Cluster of Heart Risk Factors Tied to Uterine Cancer Risk
- Dieters May Be Thwarted by Absence of Healthy Foods
- Another Study Links Mediterranean Diet to Better Heart Health
- Preemies' Thinking Skills May Catch Up by Adolescence
- Health Tip: Understand Your Risk of Heart Disease
- Another Win for the Mediterranean-Style Diet
- Women More Open to Weight-Loss Surgery
- Study: Black Women Lose Less Weight Than White Women on Same Diet
- Light Exercise Might Reduce Risk of Kidney Stones
- Weight Loss Can Combat Irregular Heart Beat, Study Says
- More Evidence Ties Obesity to Disability in Older Women
- Gardening, Housework May Help Boost Your Heart Health
- Study Links Americans' Low Fiber Intake to Higher Heart Risk
- Weight-Loss Surgery Seems to Beat Diet and Exercise
- Could Artificial Sweeteners Cause Weight Gain?
- Pain Reliever Lowers Blood Sugar in Type 2 Diabetics, Study Says
- Some Slightly Obese May Gain From Weight-Loss Surgery, Guidelines Say
- Health Tip: Should I Be Screened for Prediabetes?
- Long-Term Use of Some Antipsychotics Not Warranted in Older Adults: Study
- Millions May Be Taking Vitamin D Unnecessarily, Analysis Suggests
- Heart Disease Risk Factors Also Tied to Death From Prostate Cancer
- Sleepless Nights Might Raise Odds for Diabetes
- Fast Walking May Slash at Heart Disease, Diabetes
- 'Junk Food' May Significantly Hike Risk of Stroke, Researchers Say
- Statins Tied to Reduced Glaucoma Risk
- Gout Management Is Focus of New Guidelines
- Can Childhood Obesity Hinder the Brain?
- Obesity Might Lower Teens' Thinking Skills, Study Suggests
- Obesity in Middle Age Tied to More Rapid Mental Decline: Study
- Statin Diabetes Risk Limited to Those at High Risk
- Child Abuse Might Alter Onset of Menstruation in Girls
- Childhood Abuse Linked to Diabetes, Heart Disease in Middle-Aged Women
- Police Work Takes Heavy Health Toll: Study
- Teens' Peer Problems May Affect Health Later
- Sleep Apnea May Spur Carb Cravings in Diabetics
- Will Dark Chocolate a Day Keep the Doctor Away?
- Could Bloodletting Ease Heart Risks for the Obese?
- Women Less Apt Than Men to Get Recommended Daily Exercise
- Insulin Resistance May Lead to Kidney Disease in the Elderly: Study
- Mediterranean Diet May Protect Brain
- Even for the Overweight, Exercise Helps the Heart
- High-Normal Blood Pressure Raises Heart Risks in Men
- Apnea Treatment Might Reduce Signs of Heart Disease Risk
- High Uric Acid Linked to Both Gout and Diabetes
- Sugar-Sweetened Drinks May Pose Heart Risks to Women, Study Suggests
- Experimental Drug Slims Obese Monkeys
- Being Heavier May Mean Fewer Hot Flashes for Women Over 60
- Tool Helps Decide When to Get Weight Loss Surgery
- Excess TV Time Linked to Early Death
- Experts Say Stroke Care Differs for U.S. Minorities
- New Guidelines on Women's Heart Risk
- Metabolic Syndrome Linked to Memory Loss
- Flu Is Widespread in 11 States
- Psoriasis, Heart Disease, and Diabetes: What's the Link?
- Child's Waist Size Indicates Future Health Risks
- Study: BPA Linked to Higher Testosterone Levels
- Weight Loss Pill Also Lowers Blood Pressure
- New Way to Predict Women's Heart Risk
- Aerobic Exercise
- Weight Loss
- Weight Lifting (Resistance Exercise)
- Senior Exercise
- Alcohol and Nutrition
- Tai Chi
- Weight Management
- Benefits of Exercise
- Disease Prevention & Awareness
- Special Diets & Recipes
- Workout Routines & Ideas
- Food & Cooking Tips
- Holiday Weight Management