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What is mannitol, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Mannitol is a naturally occurring substance that causes the body to lose water (diuresis) through osmosis. Mannitol promotes diuresis in kidneys by increasing the concentration of filtrates in the kidney and blocking reabsorption of water by kidney tubules. The FDA approved mannitol in June 1964.
What brand names are available for mannitol-injectable?
Is mannitol-injectable available as a generic drug?
Do I need a prescription for mannitol-injectable?
What are the side effects of mannitol?
Side effects of Mannitol are:
What is the dosage for mannitol?
- Prevention of acute renal railure (oliguria): 50 to100 g of mannitol given as 5%, 10%, or 15% solution depending on the patient's fluid requirements.
- Treatment of oliguria: 100 g administered as a 15 or 20% solution.
- Reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass: 0.25 g/kg given every 6 to 8 hours.
- Reduction of intraocular pressure: 1.5 to 2 g/kg body weight, as 15% to 25% solution administered over 30 to 60 minutes.
- Adjunctive therapy for intoxications: Adults may receive a 5% to 25% solution for as long as urinary output remains high.
Which drugs or supplements interact with mannitol?
Mannitol should not be used with tobramycin, because mannitol increases tobramycin levels significantly through an unknown mechanism.
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Is mannitol safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
There are no adequate studies done on mannitol to determine safe and effective use in pregnant women.
What else should I know about mannitol?
What preparations of mannitol-injectable are available?
Mannitol intravenous injections are available in following strengths and sizes: 5% and 10% in 1000 ml containers; 15% in 500 ml containers, 20% in 250 ml and 500 ml containers; and 25% in 50 ml flip-top vials.
How should I keep mannitol-injectable stored?
Store mannitol injections at room temperature between 20 C to 25 C (68 F to 77 F).
Mannitol (Osmitrol) is an injection medication used for diuresis for treatment and prevention of decreased urine production in acute kidney failure. Mannitol is also used to decrease intracranial pressure and brain mass with patients with swelling in the brain. Side effects, drug interactions, dosing, storage, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to administering this medication.
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Related Disease Conditions
Glaucoma is a common eye condition in which the fluid pressure inside the eye rises because of slowed fluid drainage from the eye. If untreated, glaucoma may damage the optic nerve and other parts of the eye, causing the loss of vision or even blindness.
Kidney (Renal) Failure
Kidney failure can occur from an acute event or a chronic condition or disease. Prerenal kidney failure is caused by blood loss, dehydration, or medication. Some of the renal causes of kidney failure include sepsis, medications, rhabdomyolysis, multiple myeloma, and acute glomerulonephritis. Post renal causes of kidney failure include bladder obstruction, prostate problems, tumors, or kidney stones.Treatment options included diet, medications, or dialysis.
Edema is the swelling of tissues as a result of excess water accumulation. Peripheral edema occurs in the feet and legs. There are two types of edema, non-pitting edema and pitting edema. Causes of pitting edema is caused by systemic diseases (most commonly involving the heart, liver, and kidneys), and medications. Local conditions that cause edema are thrombophlebitis and varicose veins. Edema or swelling of the legs, feet, ankles, and face are common during pregnancy. Idiopathic edema is edema in which the cause is not known. Pitting edema is scored on pitting edema measurement scales. Edema is generally treated with medication.
Hypertensive Kidney Disease
High blood pressure can damage the kidneys and is one of the leading causes of kidney failure (end-stage renal kidney disease). Kidney damage, like hypertension, can be unnoticeable and detected only through medical tests. If you have kidney disease, you should control your blood pressure. Other treatment options include prescription medications.
Head Injury (Brain Injury)
In the United States, head injuries are one of the most common causes of death and disability. Head injuries due to bleeding are generally classified by the location of the blood within the skull, these include epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid bleed, intracranial bleed, sheer injury, edema, and skull fracture. Some common symptoms of a head injury include vomiting, bleeding from the ear, speech difficulties, paralysis, difficulty swallowing, and body numbness. Treatment of a head injury depends on the type and severity of the injury.
Diabetes and Kidney Disease
In the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose increase the risk that a person with diabetes will eventually progress to kidney failure. Kidney disease in people with diabetes develops over the course of many years. albumin and eGFR are two key markers for kidney disease in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood pressure, blood pressure medications, a moderate protein diet, and compliant management of blood glucose can slow the progression of kidney disease. For those patients who's kidneys eventually fail, dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only option.
A brain hemorrhage is a type of stroke caused when an artery bursts in the brain, causing localized bleeding in the surrounding tissue. Causes of brain hemorrhage include aneurysm, liver disease, brain tumor, head trauma, high blood pressure, and blood vessel abnormalities. Symptoms include sudden severe headache, nausea, vomiting, loss of balance, tingling, numbness, vision changes, loss of consciousness, and loss of fine motor skills. Treatment depends upon the cause, location, and size of the brain hemorrhage.
Brain Damage: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment
Brain damage causes destruction or deterioration of brain cells. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and acquired brain injury (ABI) are two kinds of brain damage. Symptoms may include headaches, confusion, memory problems, nausea, and more. Treatment includes patient stabilization and ensuring that blood and oxygen are flowing to the brain. Adequate blood pressure control is also necessary. In cases of severe brain damage, surgery and rehabilitation may be required.
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