The lungs are primarily responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air we breathe and the blood. Eliminating carbon dioxide from the blood is important, because as it builds up in the blood, headaches, drowsiness, coma, and eventually death may occur. The air we breathe in (inhalation) is warmed, humidified, and cleaned by the nose and the lungs. Read more: Lung Anatomy (Structure and Function) Article
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) Quiz
COPD is a combination of three conditions? Take this quiz to learn the three conditions that make up the pulmonary disease called...
Asthma Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways of the lungs, which can be managed with proper treatment. Triggered by two main...
What happens within the body when a person develops bronchitis? Take this quick quiz to learn the causes, symptoms, treatments,...
Lung Cancer Quiz: Signs and Symptoms
Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the U.S. and worldwide. Get the facts about lung...
Picture of Bronchitis
Acute bronchitis usually comes on quickly and gets better after several weeks. See a picture of Acute Bronchitis and learn more...
Picture of Lung Cancer
Cancer of the lung, like all cancers, results from an abnormality in the body's basic unit of life, the cell. See a picture of...
Picture of Bronchioles
A tiny tube in the air conduit system within the lungs that is a continuation of the bronchi and connects to the alveoli (the air...
Picture of Lungs
The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest (thorax). See a picture of the Lungs and...
What is Asthma? Asthma Myths Debunked
There is currently no cure for asthma, and no specific, single cause for asthma has been identified. Take this quiz on asthma...
Bronchitis Symptoms and Treatments
Is bronchitis contagious? Learn about bronchitis, an inflammation of the lining of the lungs. Bronchitis can be aggravated from...
What Is Asthma? Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments
What is asthma? Learn information about asthma, a chronic disease of the bronchiole tubes. Discover information about asthma...
Effects of Secondhand Smoke: Facts
The effects of secondhand smoke can be hazardous to your health. Secondhand smoke can lead to lung cancer, heart disease, and...
COPD Foods to Boost Your Health - COPD Diet Tips
Boost your energy and combat COPD with these diet tips. Which foods can help patients with COPD? Which foods to avoid for COPD?...
Lung Cancer Symptoms, Stages, Treatment
Learn about lung cancer symptoms and treatments. Get more information on small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and...
Worst Smog Cities in Pictures: Air Pollution, Ozone, and Asthma
Learn the worst smog cities in America. See the 10 cities with the most polluted, unclean and smoggy air.
COPD Lung Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment
COPD is a pulmonary disorder caused by obstructions in the airways of the lungs leading to breathing problems. Learn about COPD...
Asthma Attacks: Triggers, Symptoms, and Treatment
Asthma symptoms include coughing, wheezing, headache, fatigue, dark circles under the eyes, trouble sleeping, and loss of...
Lung Cancer Risks: Myths and Facts
Learn about lung cancer myths and facts. Explore how cigar smoke, menthol, and pollution can increase your risk of lung cancer...
10 Smart Exercises for People With COPD: Pictures
The more you exercise, the better you'll feel with COPD. Breathe easier with these 10 exercises from WebMD.
IMAGESSee a medical illustration of the lungs plus our entire medical gallery of human anatomy and physiology See Images
Related Disease Conditions
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Symptoms, Treatment, Life Expectancy)
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene. People with the condition are at risk for developing serious lung and liver disease. Symptoms and signs of lung disease caused by this condition include:The earliest symptoms and signs of lung disease usually develop between 20 and 50 years of age, and are Wheezing The reduced ability to exercise Shortness of breath (dyspnea) following mild activity Other symptoms and signs of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency are: Fatigue Rapid heartbeat when going from sitting to standing Recurring respiratory infections Unintentional weight loss Lung disease: People with this condition often develop emphysema, with symptoms of a hacking cough, barrel-shaped chest, and difficulty breathing. If you have this condition and smoke or are exposed to tobacco smoke, it accelerates the appearance of emphysema symptoms and lung damage.Liver disease: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency also cause liver disease in some people with the condition, that include liver cancer, cirrhosis of the liver, an abnormally large liver (hepatomegaly), liver failure, and hepatitis. Liver damage from alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency causes symptom of a swollen abdomen, swollen legs or feet, and jaundice. Treatment of AATD depends upon the severity of symptoms. FDA approved drug for AATD is an orphan product called alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (human), sold under the brand name "Prolastin."
Asthma is a condition in which hyperreactive airways constrict and result in symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Causes of asthma include genetics, environmental factors, personal history of allergies, and other factors. Asthma is diagnosed by a physician based on a patient's family history and results from lung function tests and other exams. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting bronchodilators (LABAs) are used in the treatment of asthma. Generally, the prognosis for a patient with asthma is good. Exposure to allergens found on farms may protect against asthma symptoms.
Cystic fibrosis is a disease of the mucus and sweat glands. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. The outcome of the disease leaves the body malnourished, with bulky and fouls smelling stools, vitamin insufficiency, gas, painful or swollen abdomen, infertility, susceptible to heat emergencies, and respiratory failure. There is no cure for cystic fibrosis, treatment of symptoms is used to manage the disease.
Lung cancer kills more men and women than any other form of cancer. Eight out of 10 lung cancers are due to tobacco smoke. Lung cancers are classified as either small-cell or non-small-cell lung cancers.
Marfan syndrome is hereditary (genetic) condition affecting connective tissue. A person with Marfan syndrome may exhibit the following symptoms and characteristics: Dislocation of one or both lenses of the eye A protruding or indented breastbone Scoliosis Flat feet Aortic dilatation Dural ectasia (a problem with the sac surrounding the spinal cord) Stretch marks Hernia Collapsed lung Though there is no cure for Marfan syndrome, there are treatments that can minimize and sometimes prevent some complications.
Pneumonia (Symptoms, Causes, Types, Treatment, and Recovery)
Pneumonia is inflammation of the lungs caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Symptoms and signs include cough, fever, shortness of breath, and chills. Antibiotics treat pneumonia, and the choice of the antibiotic depends upon the cause of the infection.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB). Symptoms and signs of TB include bloody sputum, fever, cough, weight loss, and chest pain. Treatment depends upon the type of TB infection.
Pulmonary hypertension is elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries that carry blood from the lungs to the heart. The most common symptoms are fatigue and difficulty breathing. If the condition goes undiagnosed, more severe symptoms may occur. As pulmonary hypertension worsens, some people with the condition have difficulty performing any activities that require physical exertion. While there is no cure for pulmonary hypertension, it can be managed and treated with medications and supplemental oxygen to increase blood oxygen levels.
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a lung condition caused by smoking tobacco, exposure to secondhand smoke, and/or air pollutants. Conditions that accompany COPD include chronic bronchitis, chronic cough, and emphysema. Symptoms of COPD include shortness of breath, wheezing, and chronic cough. Treatment of COPD includes GOLD guidelines, smoking cessation, medications, and surgery. The life expectancy of a person with COPD depends on the stage of the disease.
Chronic cough is a cough that does not go away and is generally a symptom of another disorder such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, sinus infection, cigarette smoking, GERD, postnasal drip, bronchitis, pneumonia, medications, and less frequently tumors or other lung disease. Chronic cough treatment is based on the cause, but may be soothed natural and home remedies.
Collapsed Lung (Pneumothorax)
A pneumothorax is free air in the chest outside the lung, that causes the lung to collapse (collapsed lung). There are two types of pneumothorax, spontaneous or primary pneumothorax and secondary pneumothorax. Symptoms include sudden chest pain, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, rapid breathing, cough, and fatigue.
Pulmonary fibrosis is scarring throughout the lungs. Pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by many conditions including chronic inflammatory processes, infections, environmental agents, exposure to ionizing radiation, chronic conditions, and certain medications. Symptoms include shortness of breath, coughing, and diminished exercise tolerance. Treatment options are dependent on the type of pulmonary fibrosis; lung transplant and/or medications are options.
Sarcoidosis, a disease resulting from chronic inflammation, causes small lumps (granulomas) to develop in a great range of body tissues and can appear in almost any body organ. However, sarcoidosis most often starts in the lungs or lymph nodes.
Asthma: Over the Counter Treatment
Patients who have infrequent, mild bouts of asthma attacks may use over-the-counter (OTC) medications to treat their asthma symptoms. OTC asthma medicines are limited to epinephrine and ephedrine. These OTC drugs are best used with the guidance of a physician, as there may be side effects and the drugs may not be very effective.
Smoking (How to Quit Smoking)
Smoking is an addiction. More than 430,000 deaths occur each year in the U.S. from smoking related illnesses. Secondhand smoke or "passive smoke" also harm family members, coworkers, and others around smokers. There are a number of techniques available to assist people who want to quit smoking.
Mesothelioma is a form of cancer that forms in the chest lining (pleural mesothelioma), abdomen (peritoneal mesothelioma), and the heart sac (pericardial mesothelioma) in rare cases. Chest pain, shortness of breath, weight loss, and night sweats are symptoms and signs of mesothelioma. Treatment depends upon the stage and type of mesothelioma.
Asbestos (Exposure Dangers, Testing, Symptoms)
Asbestos is a mineral fiber that is found in soil and rock. Asbestos exposure occurs when asbestos fibers are disturbed and released into the air then and inhaled. Inhaling asbestos fibers causes three lung diseases; asbestosis, lung cancer, and noncancerous lung disease. In asbestosis, the asbestos fibers scar the lungs. Asbestosis and lung cancer have the same symptoms of cough and shortness of breath.Asbestosis progresses slowly, frequently even 20 to 40 years after asbestos exposure. Asbestos exposure include can come from a variety of products, for example, drinking water due to the decay of asbestos cement in water mains and erosion of natural deposits (which increases your risk of developing benign intestinal polyps), insulation, vinyl floor tiles, some paints and patching compounds, oil and coal furnaces and doors, heat-resistant fabrics, and automobiles brakes and clutches. Some uses of asbestos are banned; however, most are not. Examples of products banned from using asbestos are commercial, corrugated, and specialty paper, flooring felt, and artificial fireplace embers that contain asbestos. Examples of products not banned from using asbestos include vinyl flooring, clothing, roof and non-roof coatings, friction materials, and some car components.Cancers of the larynx, throat, kidney, esophagusand gallbladder have been linked to asbestos exposure. Treatment is dependent upon the type of condition related to asbestos exposure.
There are many unusual symptoms of asthma, including sighing, difficulty sleeping, anxiety, chronic cough, recurrent walking pneumonia, and rapid breathing. These symptoms may vary from individual to individual. These asthma complexities make it difficult to accurately diagnose and treat asthma.
Pleurisy, an inflammation of the lining around the lungs, is associated with sharp chest pain upon breathing in. Cough, chest tenderness, and shortness of breath are other symptoms associated with pleurisy. Pleurisy pain can be managed with pain medication and by external splinting of the chest wall.
Smoker's Lung: Pathology Photo Essay
Smoker's lung photo essay is a collection of pictures and microscopic slides of lung disease caused by cigarette smoking. Smoker's lung refers to the diseases and structural abnormalities in the lung caused by cigarette smoking.
Asthma in Children
Asthma in children manifests with symptoms such as coughing and wheezing. Rates of asthma in children are increasing. Asthma in children is usually diagnosed based on the description of symptoms. Lung function tests may also be used. A variety of medications are used for the treatment of childhood asthma.
Carcinoid Syndrome (Carcinoid Tumor)
A carcinoid tumor is a tumor that develops from enterochromaffin cells. The important characteristic of carcinoid tumors that sets them apart from other gastrointestinal tract tumors, is their potential to cause the carcinoid syndrome. Local symptoms may include abdominal pain, intestinal bleeding, flushing., gastrointestinal bleeding, and diarrhea. Often, symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome can be more devastating than the local symptoms. There are many options for the treatment of carcinoid tumors and carcinoid syndrome.
Bronchitis (Acute) Contagoius Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, and Recovery Time
Bronchitis is inflammation of the airways in the lung. Acute bronchitis is is short in duration (10 to 20 days) in comparison with chronic bronchitis, which lasts for months to years. Causes of acute bronchitis include viruses and bacteria, which means it can be contagious. Acute bronchitis caused by environmental factors such as pollution or cigarette smoke is not contagious. Common symptoms for acute bronchitis include nasal congestion, cough, headache, sore throat, muscle aches, and fatigue. Acute bronchitis in children also my include runny nose, fever, and chest pain. Treatment for acute bronchitis are OTC pain relievers, cough suppressants (although not recommended in children), and rest. Infrequently antibiotics may be prescribed to treat acute bronchitis.
Symptoms of 12 Serious Diseases and Health Problems
Learn how to recognize early warning signs and symptoms of serious diseases and health problems, for example, chronic cough, headache, chest pain, nausea, stool color or consistency changes, heartburn, skin moles, anxiety, nightmares, suicidal thoughts, hallucinations, delusions, lightheadedness, night sweats, eye problems, confusion, depression, severe pelvic or abdominal pain, unusual vaginal discharge, and nipple changes. The symptoms and signs of serious health problems can be caused by strokes, heart attacks, cancers, reproductive problems in females (for example, cancers, fibroids, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, and sexually transmitted diseases or STDs), breast problems (for example, breast cancer and non-cancer related diseases), lung diseases (for example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, lung cancer, emphysema, and asthma), stomach or digestive diseases (for example, cancers, gallbladder, liver, and pancreatic diseases, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn's disease), bladder problems (for example, urinary incontinence, and kidney infections), skin cancer, muscle and joint problems, emotional problems or mental illness (for example, postpartum depression, major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mania, and schizophrenia), and headache disorders (for example, migraines, or "the worst headache of your life), and eating disorders and weight problems (for example, anorexia or bulimia).
ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a lung condition in which trauma to the lungs leads to inflammation of the lungs, accumulation of fluid in the alveolar air sacs, low blood oxygen, and respiratory distress. ARDS can be life-threatening. Signs and symptoms of are shortness of breath and low levels of oxygen in the blood, which can cause your organs to fail. Causes of ARDS include: Pneumonia Aspiration into the lungs Severe blow to the chest Sepsis Severe injury with shock Drug overdose Inflamed pancreas Other lung conditions and infections Burns Sepsis Near drowning Fractures There have been genetic factors linked to ARDS. Treatment for includes supplemental oxygen, and/or medication. According to some studies, survival rates for ARDS depend upon the cause associated with it, but can vary from 48% to 68%.REFERENCES: Harman, EM, MD. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Presentation." Medscape. Updated: Aug 11, 2016. Harman, EM, MD. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome." Medscape. Updated: Aug 11, 2016. PubMed Health. "ARDS." Updated: Jun 11, 2014. Reynolds, HN. et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: estimated incidence and mortality rate in a 5 million-person population base. Crit Care. 1998; 2(1): 29–34. Published online 1998 Mar 12. doi: 10.1186/cc121
Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis, and Colds
If you have a COPD such as emphysema, avoiding chronic bronchitis and colds is important to avoid a more severe respiratory infection such as pneumonia. Avoiding cigarette smoking, practice good hygeine, stay away from crowds, and alerting your healthcare provider if you have a sinus infection or cold or cough that becomes worse. Treatment options depend upon the severity of the emphysema, bronchitis, or cold combination.
Emphysema is a COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) that often occurs with other obstructive pulmonary problems and chronic bronchitis. Causes of emphysema include chronic cigarette smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, air pollution, and in the underdeveloped parts of the world. Symptoms of emphysema include chronic cough, chest discomfort, breathlessness, and wheezing. Treatments include medication and lifestyle changes.
Nicotine is delivered to the brain through smoking, chewing, or sniffing tobacco. Nicotine is an addictive agent. Common names for nicotine products include smokes, cigs, butts, chew, dip, spit, or snuff. Habitual nicotine use leads to many debilitating medical conditions.
Adult-onset asthma is asthma that is diagnosed in people over 20 years of age. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath and difficulty breathing. Treatment may involve anti-inflammatory medications or bronchodilators.
Exercise-induced asthma is asthma triggered by vigorous exercise. Symptoms include coughing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, wheezing, and fatigue while exercising. Preventing exercise-induced asthma attacks involves using inhaled medicines before exercising, performing warm-up exercises and cooling down afterward, avoiding exercising outdoors when pollen counts are high, restricting exercise when you have a viral infection, and wearing a mask over your nose and mouth when exercising in cold weather.
There are two types of asthma medications: long-term control with anti-inflammatory drugs and quick relief from bronchodilators. Asthma medicines may be inhaled using a metered-dose inhaler or nebulizer or they may be taken orally. People with high blood pressure, diabetes, thyroid disease, or heart disease shouldn't take OTC asthma drugs like Primatene Mist and Bronkaid.
Chronic Bronchitis (Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Remedies)
Chronic bronchitis is a cough that occurs daily with production of sputum that lasts for at least three months, two years in a row. Causes of chronic bronchitis include cigarette smoking, inhaled irritants, and underlying disease processes (such as asthma, or congestive heart failure). Symptoms include cough, shortness of breath, and wheezing. Treatments include bronchodilators and steroids. Complications of chronic bronchitis include COPD and emphysema.
Secondhand smoke can cause illness and disease in nonsmokers. Some of these conditions include lung cancer, heart disease, respiratory illnesses such as asthma, SIDS, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Learn how you can protect yourself and your family from secondhand smoke exposure in the home environment and workplace.
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a disease transmitted by rodents. Symptoms include fever and muscle pain. HPS can be prevented by sealing up rodent entry holes, trapping rats and mice with an appropriate snap trap, and cleaning up rodent food sources.
Bronchiectasis has three types, 1) cylindrical bronchiectasis, 2) saccular or varicose bronchiectasis, and 3) cystic bronchiectasis. Causes of bronchiectasis includeinfection, environmental exposure, drug or alcohol abuse, and alpha-1 antitrypsin (congenital). Symptoms of bronchiectasis include shortness of breath, fatigue, chronic cough, bloody sputum, and wheezing. Treatment for bronchiectasis include antibiotics and possibly surgery.
Occupational asthma is a type of asthma caused by exposure to a substance in the workplace. Symptoms and signs include wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. The usual treatment for occupational asthma involves removal from exposure and the use of bronchodilators and inhaled anti-inflammatory medicines.
Vaping: e-Cigarette and Marijuana Vape Risks
Vaping or e-cigarettes are smokable products that use refillable or replaceable cartridges or containers that contain a liquid composed of nicotine, chemical flavors, and other compounds. The cartridges used during vaping contains nicotine, therefore vaping is addictive. In low doses vaping, can cause side effects like nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In higher doses, vaping can cause more serious side effects like popcorn lung, seizures, coma, cancer, and death. The FDA regulates the manufacturing, import, packaging, labeling, advertising, promotion, sale, and distribution of electronic delivery systems like e-cigarettes.
Interstitial Pneumonitis (Interstitial Lung Disease)
Interstitial lung disease refers to a variety of diseased that thicken the tissue between the lungs' air sacks. Viruses, bacteria, tobacco smoke, environmental factors, cancer, and heart or kidney failure can all cause interstitial lung disease. Shortness of breath, cough, and vascular problems are symptoms caused by interstitial lung disease, and their treatment depends on the underlying cause of the tissue thickening.
Bronchiolitis is an illness caused by a variety of viruses that is most common during the winter season. Bronchiolitis symptoms are nasal congestion and moderate nasal discharge accompanied by mild to severe pulmonary distress. Bronchioitis usually can be treated at home. Some patients may require hospitalization.
What Is Mucus?
Mucus is a normal substance produced by lining tissues in the body. Excess mucus or mucus that is yellow, green, brown, or bloody may indicate a problem. Mucus production may increase when allergies, a cold, flu, cough, or sore throat are present. Antihistamines and cold and flu medications may help alleviate excess mucus. A neti pot may be used to decrease nasal congestion and clear mucus.
Cough: 19 Tips on How to Stop a Cough
Coughing is a reflex that helps a person clear their airways of irritants. There are many causes of an excessive or severe cough including irritants like cigarette and secondhand smoke, pollution, air fresheners, medications like beta blockers and ACE inhibitors, the common cold, GERD, lung cancer, and heart disease.Natural and home remedies to help cure and soothe a cough include stay hydrated, gargle saltwater, use cough drops or lozenges, use herbs and supplements like ginger, mint, licorice, and slippery elm, and don't smoke. Over-the-counter products (OTC)to cure and soothe a cough include cough suppressants and expectorants, and anti-reflux drugs. Prescription drugs that help cure a cough include narcotic medications, antibiotics, inhaled steroids, and anti-reflux drugs like proton pump inhibitors or PPIs, for example, omeprazole (Prilosec), rabeprazole (Aciphex), and pantoprazole (Protonix).
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or IPF is a progressive lung disease. There is no known cause of IPF. Symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, mild fevers, muscle pain, clubbing fingers, and ankle swelling. Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is directed at managing the signs and symptoms of the disease. The prognosis and life expectancy of idiopathic fibrosis is poor.
Small Cell Lung Cancer vs. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) consist of large cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) usually starts in the bronchi and typically appears in those who smoke. SCLC and NSCLC are staged in different manners, and SCLC tends to metastasize more quickly than NSCLC. Signs and symptoms of NSCLC and SCLC include shortness of breath, coughing up blood, recurring lung infections, and chest pain. Treatment may involve radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.
Hookahs vs. Cigarette Smoking (Addiction and Health Dangers)
A hookah is a water pipe that's used to smoke flavored tobacco like watermelon, licorice, coconut, chocolate, cherry, mint, apple, and cappuccino. The use of this type of tobacco smoking began in ancient India and Persia centuries ago. You can find hookah cafes all over the world, for example, the U.S., France, Russia, Britain, and the Middle East. New forms of electronic hookah are now available. Some people who smoke tobacco think that hookahs are less dangerous to their health because the smoke is filtered through water, but the smoke from hookahs contain the same cancer-causing chemicals that cigarette smoke does. Smoking tobacco via cigarettes or hookah are both dangerous to your health.
COPD vs. Asthma (Differences and Similarities)
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and asthma both have common symptoms like coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. COPD is caused by tobacco smoking, while asthma is caused by your inherited genetic makeup and their interactions with the environment. Risk factors for asthma are obesity, exposure to cigarette smoke (even secondhand smoke), and personal history of hay fever. There is no cure for either disease, but symptoms can be managed with medication. A person with asthma has a better prognosis and life expectancy than someone with COPD.
COPD vs. Emphysema
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is the term doctors and other healthcare professionals use to describe a group of serious, progressive (worsens over time), chronic lung diseases that include emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and sometimes asthma. The number one cause of COPD or emphysema, is smoking, and smoking is the third leading cause of death in the US.
Popcorn Lung (Bronchiolitis Obliterans)
Popcorn lung is a term for the lung disease bronchiolitis obliterans. Popcorn lung is caused by diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, chemicals used when manufacturing flavorings for food certain products like popcorn, coffee. E-cigarettes also may cause popcorn lung. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione damage lung tissue that is irreversible. Symptoms of popcorn lung develop gradually over time. The main symptoms are chronic cough and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include night sweats, weight loss, and fever. Symptoms of severe exposure to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione include inflammation of the skin, eyes, nose, and/or throat. Popcorn lung often resembles tobacco-related COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) so it often is difficult to diagnose. Lung biopsy and surgery may be necessary. There is no cure for popcorn lung. Life expectancy for a person with (bronchiolitis obliterans) depends upon how early the disease was diagnosed and level of exposure to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione.
Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease (NTM, Symptoms, Treatment, Side Effects)
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), most commonly, M. avium complex or MAC, is a mycobacteria that causes lung infections and disease. Nontuberculous mycobacteria are commonly found in soil, air, and water. Examples of how NTM lung infection are transmitted include swimming, using a hot tub (NTM bacteria are aerosolized), or playing with or handling soil. The most common symptoms of NTM lung infection are chronic, dry cough, and shortness of breath. Sometimes the cough may have mucous or blood. Other symptoms of NTM lung disease include fatigue, chest pain, malaise, and weakness. As NTM lung disease progresses, fevers, night sweats, and appetite loss may occur. Treatment guidelines for NTM lung disease depend upon the type and extent of the infection, and the person's health.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta (Brittle Bone Disease)
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) or brittle bone disease, is an inherited (genetic) disorder that results in abnormal bone formation, which causes the bones to break (fracture) easily. There are eight types of osteogenesis imperfecta. Osteogenesis imperfecta symptoms include skeletal deformity, frequent broken bones, and hearing problems. Tests diagnose osteogenesis imperfecta. Treatment for brittle bone disease is to manage symptoms. There is no cure for osteogenesis imperfecta.
Mortality in Sarcoidosis: Changing Pattern of the Causes of Death
Sarcoidosis is a rare condition in which small patches of red and swollen tissues (granulomas) develop in organs in the body. Approximately 1% to 5% of patients with sarcoidosis die from its complications. Recent population studies have indicated that the mortality rate may be increasing over the past decade.
What Is the Life Expectancy of Someone With Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD or AATD) is an inherited genetic disorder that occurs due to the mutation of the gene, Serpina1. This results in insufficient levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT or AA), which is a protein that protects the lungs. With appropriate treatment, most patients would be able to live a good life with normal life expectancy, work, play sports and exercise.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Chest X-Ray
- Nasal Airway Surgery (Septoplasty) and Turbinectomy
- Endotracheal Intubation
- Nebulizer for Asthma
- CT Scan vs. MRI
- What Are the Different Types of Mechanical Ventilation?
- What Is a Nebulizer Used for?
- Why Is Decortication Performed?
- What Is Breath Sound Assessment?
- What Is Barotrauma in Mechanical Ventilation?
- What Conditions Are Treated With Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy?
- What Is Medical Thoracoscopy?
- What Is a Plication of the Diaphragm Procedure?
- What Are the Main Types of Thoracic Incisions?
- What Is Thoracoscopic Wedge Resection?
- What Is the Life Expectancy of Someone With COPD?
- Will a Chest X-Ray Show Lung Cancer?
- Side Effects of Orkambi (lumacaftor and ivacaftor)
- What Is Endotracheal Intubation Used For?
- Asthma FAQs
- COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) FAQs
- Bronchitis FAQs
- Lung Cancer FAQs
- Lung Cancer Signs and Symptoms
- 5 Causes of Lung Cancer in Non-Smokers
- Wildfires: Protect Yourself from Wildfire Smoke
- Emphysema from Crack Cocaine?
- Shortness of Breath & VP Cheney
- Doctors Answer Lung Condition Questions
- Lung Cancer - Health Beat Audio Segment
Medications & Supplements
- prednisone - oral, Deltasone
- prednisone concentrate solution - oral, Prednisone Intensol
- hydrochlorothiazide - oral, Microzide
- brimonidine solution - ophthalmic, Alphagan P
- modafinil - oral, Provigil
- furosemide - oral, Lasix
- metolazone - oral, Zaroxolyn
- albuterol (salbutamol) pre-mixed solution - inhalation, Proventil, Ventolin
- furosemide solution- oral, Lasix
- prednisolone liquid - oral, Orapred, Pediapred, Prelone
- albuterol (salbutamol) solution - inhalation, Proventil, Ventolin
- theophylline sustained-release - oral, Uniphyl
- pseudoephedrine/loratadine 24-hour tablet - oral, Claritin-D
- ipratropium/albuterol (salbutamol) solution - inhalation, DuoNeb
- dexamethasone - oral, Decadron
- cromolyn nebulizer solution - inhalation, Intal
- loratadine/pseudoephedrine sustained-release - oral, Claritin-D
- albuterol (salbutamol) inhaler - oral, Proventil, Ventolin
- cromolyn aerosol - inhalation, Intal
- triamterene/hydrochlorothiazide - oral, Dyazide, Maxzide
- salmeterol inhalation - oral, Serevent
- FLUTICASONE-ORAL AEROSOL INHALER, Flovent
- SALBUTAMOL (ALBUTEROL)-ORAL DISK INHALER
- bronchodilator-aerosol oral inhaler
- Corticosteroids (Systemic, Oral, Injections, Types)
- xanthine derivatives-oral
- Nicorette Gum (nicotine polacrilex, Habitrol)
- acetylcysteine - inhalation/oral
- metaproterenol inhaler - oral, Alupent
- epinephrine solution-inhalation, Adrenalin, Isuprel
- guaifenesin/theophylline/pseudoephedrine elixir - oral, Broncomar-1
- daptomycin - injection, Cubicin
- tiotropium capsule - inhalation
- fluticasone hfa inhaler - oral
- ephedrine (oral)
- ma-huang (Ephedra sp)-oral
- albuterol pediatric pre-mixed solution - inhalation, AccuNeb
- EpiPen (epinephrine auto-injector)
- fluticasone disk inhaler - oral, Flovent Rotadisk
- aminophylline (Norphyl)
- formoterol powder in capsule - oral inhalation, Foradil
- doxapram-injection, Dopram
- pirbuterol breath activated aerosol inhaler - oral, Maxair Autohaler
- dyphylline - oral, Dilor, Lufyllin
- beclomethasone dipropionate inhaler (Beconase AQ, QNASL)
- corticosteroids-oral aerosol inhaler
- caffeine citrate-injection, Cafcit
- dexamethasone injection (Baycadron, Decadron [Discontinued], Dexamethasone Intensol)
- hydrocodone/homatropine (Tussigon)
- caffeine citrate solution - oral, Cafcit
- Nasal Decongestants
- torsemide (Demadex)
- nicotine patch (Nicoderm CQ, Habitrol)
- vecuronium bromide-injection, Norcuron
- Cold Medicine and Cough Syrup for Adults
- Activase (alteplase) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- What Equipment and Medications Are Required for Endotracheal Intubation?
Prevention & Wellness
- Even 'Social Smokers' Up Their Odds of Death From Lung Disease
- Look Beyond Fossil Fuels to Curb Air Pollution
- Fireworks Release Toxic Metals That Are Bad News for Your Lungs
- AHA News: Amid 'Epidemic' of School Vaping, a Search for Solutions
- Cases of Severe Lung Injury After Vaping Reported in Minnesota, Illinois, Wisconsin
- Sen. Rand Paul Recovering From Lung Surgery
- Are Forests Now Playing a Role in Pollution?
- Move Over, Air Filter. Scientists Have a Greener Idea
- As Hurricane Michael Nears, Expert Warns of Gas-Powered Generator Dangers
- Plastic Trays in Airport Security Loaded with Respiratory Viruses
- Trump Plan to Relax Coal-Fired Power Plant Rules Could Lead to 1,400 Deaths a Year
- Health Tip: Protect Your Voice
- Lung Cancer Screening's Downside Not Discussed Enough
- Vaping Shuts Off Immune-Fighting Cells in the Lungs, Lab Study Finds
- Health Tip: How Drought Can Harm Your Health
- Bioengineered Lungs Successfully Transplanted Into Pigs
- Air Pollution at National Parks Keeps Visitors Away
- Even Once-a-Week Pot Smokers Have More Cough, Phlegm
- Even at 'Safe' Levels, Air Pollution May Boost Diabetes Risk
- Health Tip: Breathe Easier in a Volcano Zone
- Coal Miners Face Growing Wave of Black Lung Disease
- Health Concerns Rise Along With Hawaii Eruptions
- Berries and Grapes May Keep You Breathin' Easy
- U.S. Air Quality Improvements Are Lagging
- Gene Change May Have Helped Indonesia's Deep-Sea Divers
- COPD Is an Adult Killer, But Its Origins May Lie in Childhood
- Girl's Windpipe Replacement Still Works 4 Years Later
- Cluster of Lung Disease Cases Found Among Dentists
- Ban Menthols to Help Some Smokers Quit
- Clean Air Act May Be Saving More Lives Than Thought
- Protecting Your Health From Wildfire Smoke
- Respiratory Disease Death Rates Have Soared
- Steroid Pills Usually Ineffective Against Bronchitis, Study Finds
- Health Tip: Worried About Lung Disease?
- Pollution From Coal Burning Most Damaging to Health, Study Finds
- Shorter People Less Likely to Get Lung Transplants
- Lung Transplants From Heavy Drinkers Linked to Higher Complication Risk
- Teen Sisters Develop Ways to Measure Lung, Heart Damage
- Some Lung Patients Buy Cigarettes Along With Meds at Pharmacies: Study
- Living With a Smoker Like Living in a Polluted City: Study
- Traffic Pollution May Be a Risk While Pregnant
- EPA Sets Tougher Auto Fuel, Emissions Standards
- Indoor Incense Triggers Lung Cell Inflammation, Study Shows
- Bigger Lungs Improve Odds of Transplant Survival, Study Finds
- Sampling New York Subway Air for Science
- Man Dies After Parasitic Worms Invade Lungs
- Healthy Lungs May Keep Brain Running Smoothly