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- What is losartan and hydrochlorothiazide, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for losartan and hydrochlorothiazide?
- Is losartan and hydrochlorothiazide available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for losartan and hydrochlorothiazide?
- What are the side effects of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide?
- What is the dosage for losartan and hydrochlorothiazide?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with losartan and hydrochlorothiazide?
- Is losartan and hydrochlorothiazide safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about losartan and hydrochlorothiazide?
What is losartan and hydrochlorothiazide, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Hyzaar is a combination of losartan (Cozaar) and hydrochlorothiazide and is used for treating high blood pressure. Losartan is an oral medication that belongs to a class of drugs called angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Other ARBs include irbesartan (Avapro), valsartan (Diovan), and candesartan (Atacand). Angiotensin, formed in the blood by the action of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), is a powerful chemical that attaches to angiotensin receptors found in many tissues but primarily on smooth muscle cells surrounding blood vessels. Angiotensin's attachment to the receptors causes the muscles to contract and the blood vessels to narrow (vasoconstrict) which leads to an increase in blood pressure (hypertension). Losartan (more specifically, the chemical formed when the liver converts the inactive losartan into an active chemical) blocks the angiotensin receptor. By blocking the action of angiotensin, losartan relaxes the muscles, dilates blood vessels and thereby reduces blood pressure.
Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a diuretic (water pill) used for treating high blood pressure (hypertension) and accumulation of fluid. It works by blocking salt and fluid reabsorption in the kidneys, causing an increased amount of urine containing salt (diuresis). The mechanism of its action in lowering high blood pressure is not well understood. The combination of losartan and HCTZ reduces blood pressure better than either drug alone. Losartan increases potassium levels while HCTZ reduces potassium levels; the combination of both drugs has less effect on potassium levels. The FDA approved Hyzaar in April 1995.
What are the side effects of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide?
Common side effects of Hyzaar are:
Other important side effects that may be caused by Hyzaar include:
- persistent cough,
- severe hypotension,
- changes in electrolyte concentrations,
- impotence, and
Hyzaar may reduce kidney function in some patients and should not be used by patients who have bilateral renal artery stenosis (narrowing of both arteries going to the kidneys). Rare cases of rhabdomyolysis (muscle breakdown), hepatitis, ,reduced number of platelets, and pancreatitis have been reported.
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What is the dosage for losartan and hydrochlorothiazide?
The usual starting dose is 12.5/50 mg of Hyzaar once daily for patients not controlled on losartan or HCTZ treatment alone. The dose may be increased after 3 weeks to 2 tablets of 12.5/50 mg or one tablet of 25/100 mg daily. Patients who have not been controlled on losartan 100 mg alone should be switched to Hyzaar 12.5/100 mg.
Which drugs or supplements interact with losartan and hydrochlorothiazide?
Losartan may increase levels of blood potassium which can lead to serious heart problems (arrhythmias). Therefore, concomitant use of other substances that increase blood potassium-such as potassium-sparing diuretics (for example, spironolactone (Aldactone), triamterene, and amiloride), potassium supplements, or salt substitutes containing potassium may lead to dangerous increases in serum potassium.
Combining losartan or other ARBs with nonsteroidal anti-Inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with poor kidney function may result in reduced kidney function, including kidney failure. These effects usually are reversible. The antihypertensive effect of losartan may be reduced by aspirin and other NSAIDs such as ibuprofen (Advil, Children's Advil/Motrin, Medipren, Motrin, Nuprin, PediaCare Fever, etc.), indomethacin (Indocin, Indocin-SR), and naproxen (Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn, Aleve). HCTZ reduces the elimination of lithium (Lithobid, Eskalith) by the kidneys and can lead to lithium toxicity. NSAIDs, for example, ibuprofen, may reduce the blood pressure effects of hydrochlorothiazide.
Combining HCTZ with corticosteroids may increase the risk for low levels of blood potassium and other electrolytes. Low blood potassium (hypokalemia) can increase the toxicity of digoxin (Lanoxin). Cholestyramine (Questran, Questran Light) and colestipol (Colestid) bind to hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by 43%-85%.
Is losartan and hydrochlorothiazide safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
It is not known whether losartan is excreted in breast milk , but losartan and its active metabolite are excreted in rat milk. Due to the possibility of harm to the nursing infant, if possible, losartan should be discontinued by women who are breastfeeding. HCTZ is excreted in breast milk.
What else should I know about losartan and hydrochlorothiazide?
What preparations of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide are available?
Tablets (HCTZ/losartan): 12.5/50 mg, 12.5/100 mg, and 25/100 mg
How should I keep losartan and hydrochlorothiazide stored?
Tablets should be stored at room temperature, between 15 C - 30 C (59 F - 86 F) and protected from excessive light and humidity. They should be kept in a tightly-closed, light-resistant container.
Losartan and hydrochlorothiazide (Hyzaar) is a combination drug ( losartan [Cozaar] and hydrochlorothiazide prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
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candesartanCandesartan cilexetil (Atacand) is a medication prescribed to treat high blood pressure. It is also used for reducing the chance of death or hospitalization due to heart failure. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy safety should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Drug InteractionsDrug interactions occur frequently. Get facts about the types of drug interactions, what substances or other things that may interact with drugs such as OTC drug and prescription drugs, vitamins, food(s) (grapefruit), and laboratory tests. Find out how to protect yourself from potential drug interactions.
Drugs: What You Should Know About Your DrugsImportant information about your drugs should be reviewed prior to taking any prescription drug. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precauctions, dosage, what the drug is used for, what to do if you miss a dose, how the drug is to be stored, and generic vs. brand names.
High Blood Pressure Hypertension
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms.
Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure.
The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater.
If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.
REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
High Blood Pressure TreatmentHigh blood pressure (hypertension) means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Treatment for high blood pressure include lifestyle modifications (alcohol, smoking, coffee, salt, diet, exercise), drugs and medications such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), alpha blockers, clonidine, minoxidil, and Exforge.
Hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide, Hydrodiuril, Ezide, and Hydro-Par have been discontinued) is a diuretic drug prescribed to treat
- high blood pressure,
- edema caused by heart failure,
- chronic kidney failure,
- nephrotic syndrome, and
- corticosteroid medications.
Drug interactions, side effects, dosage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
irbesartanIrbesartan (Avapro) is a drug prescribed to treat high blood pressure and diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease). Side effects, drug interactions, dosage, and pregnancy safety should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
losartanLosartan (Cozaar) is a medication prescribed fro the treatment of high blood pressure. Losartan (Cozaar) belongs to a class of drugs referred to as ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers). Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
ParathyroidectomyParathyroidectomy is the removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands to treat hyperparathyroidism. Risks of parathyroidectomy include:
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- damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve,
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Stroke Symptoms and Treatment
A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding (hemorrhagic).
Symptoms of a stroke may include:
- double vision or vision loss,
- difficulty speaking or understanding speech.
A physical exam, imaging tests, neurological exam, and blood tests may be used to diagnose a stroke. Treatment may include administration of clot-busting drugs, supportive care, and in some instances, neurosurgery. The risk of stroke can be reduced by controlling high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and stopping smoking.
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