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- What is losartan, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What are the uses for losartan?
- What are the side effects of losartan?
- What is the dosage for losartan? How is it taken?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with losartan?
- Is losartan safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about losartan?
What is losartan, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Losartan is an oral medication that belongs to a class of drugs called angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Other ARBs include irbesartan (Avapro), valsartan (Diovan), and candesartan (Atacand). Angiotensin formed in the blood by the action of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a powerful chemical that attaches to angiotensin receptors found in many tissues but primarily on smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. Angiotensin's attachment to the receptors causes the muscle cells to contract and the blood vessels to narrow (vasoconstrict) which leads to an increase in blood pressure (hypertension). Losartan (more specifically, the chemical formed when the liver converts the inactive losartan into its active form) blocks the angiotensin receptor. By blocking the action of angiotensin, losartan relaxes muscle cells and dilates blood vessels thereby reducing blood pressure.
The FDA approved lorsartan in April 1995.
What are the uses for losartan?
Losartan is used for treating hypertension, reducing the risk of stroke in patients with hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy (over developed heart muscle), and treating people with type 2 diabetes, and hypertensive patients with diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease). Losartan may be used alone or in combination with other drugs.
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What are the side effects of losartan?
Side effects include:
- Chest pain
- Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
- Muscle cramps
- Nasal congestion
- Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
Losartan also may cause:
Losartan may reduce kidney function in some patients and should not be used by patients who have bilateral renal artery stenosis (narrowing of both arteries going to the kidneys).
Rare cases of rhabdomyolysis (muscle breakdown) have been reported.
What is the dosage for losartan? How is it taken?
- The starting dose of losartan for adults is 25-50 mg daily.
- The maximum dose is 100 mg daily. The total daily dose of losartan may be divided and administered two doses daily.
- The starting dose of losartan for pediatric patients 6 years of age or older is 0.7 mg/kg up to 50 mg once daily. Doses more than 1.4 mg/kg or 100 mg daily have not been
- Losartan may be given with or without food.evaluated in pediatric patients.
Which drugs or supplements interact with losartan?
Losartan may increase levels of blood potassium (hyperkalemia), which can lead to serious heart problems (arrhythmias). Therefore, concomitant use of other drugs or substances that increase blood-such as potassium-sparing diuretics (for example, spironolactone [Aldactone], triamterene, and amiloride), potassium supplements, or salt substitutes containing potassium may lead to dangerous increases in serum potassium.
Combining losartan or other ARBs with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients who are elderly, fluid-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with poor kidney function may result in reduced kidney function, including kidney failure. These effects usually are reversible.
The antihypertensive effect of losartan may be reduced by aspirin and other NSAIDs such as:
- ibuprofen (Advil, Children's Advil/Motrin, Medipren, Motrin, Nuprin, PediaCare Fever, etc.),
- indomethacin (Indocin, Indocin-SR), and
- naproxen (Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn, Aleve).
Combining ARBs, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren (Tekturna) increases risk of hypotension (low blood pressure), hyperkalemia, and reduces kidney function compared to each drug used alone and there is no additional benefit on preventing end stage kidney disease or death.
Aliskiren and losartan should not be combined in patients with diabetes or with renal impairment.
Is losartan safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
When used in the second or third trimester of pregnancy , ARBs can cause injury and even death to the fetus. Losartan should not be used during pregnancy. When pregnancy is first detected, losartan should be stopped.
It is not known whether losartan is excreted in breast milk, but losartan and its active form are excreted in rat milk. Due to the possibility of harm to the nursing infant, if possible, losartan should be discontinued by females who are nursing.
What else should I know about losartan?
What preparations of losartan are available?
- Tablets: 25, 50, and 100 mg
How should I keep losartan stored?
- Tablets should be stored at room temperature in a tightly closed, light resistant container.
Losartan is available in generic form. You need a prescription from your doctor to obtain losartan.
Losartan (Cozaar) is a medication prescribed fro the treatment of high blood pressure. Losartan (Cozaar) belongs to a class of drugs referred to as ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers). Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
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Heart Health Resources
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
FDA Prescribing Information
Top losartan Related Articles
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Diabetes MellitusDiabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
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The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with:
- and a diabetic diet.
Type 2 diabetes is first treated with:
- weight reduction,
- a diabetic diet,
- and exercise.
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High Blood Pressure Hypertension
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Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure.
The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater.
If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.
REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
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Stroke Symptoms and Treatment
A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding (hemorrhagic).
Symptoms of a stroke may include:
- double vision or vision loss,
- difficulty speaking or understanding speech.
A physical exam, imaging tests, neurological exam, and blood tests may be used to diagnose a stroke. Treatment may include administration of clot-busting drugs, supportive care, and in some instances, neurosurgery. The risk of stroke can be reduced by controlling high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and stopping smoking.