Liver disease can be cause by a variety of things including infection (hepatitis), diseases, for example, gallstones, high cholesterol or triglycerides, blood flow obstruction to the liver, and toxins (medications and chemicals). Symptoms of liver disease depends upon the cause and may include nausea, vomiting, upper right abdominal pain, and jaundice. Treatment depends upon the cause of the liver disease. Read more: Liver Disease Article
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What's Causing Your Abdominal Pain?
Abdominal pain is a symptom of many possible conditions including appendicitis, ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, indigestion,...
Anemia Symptoms and Signs, Types, Treatment and Causes
Anemia is a disease marked by low numbers of red blood cells. Low iron or underlying disease, like cancer, may be to blame....
Alcohol Abuse: 12 Health Risks of Chronic Heavy Drinking
Read about the health risks of chronic heavy or binge drinking. Anemia, cancer, gout, cardiovascular disease and many more...
Fatty Liver Disease: Nonalcoholic, Alcoholic Symptoms and Treatment
You can treat fatty liver disease with diet and exercise. Learn the signs and symptoms of fatty liver disease, whether it is...
Hepatitis C, Hep B, Hep A: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment
Hepatitis C, B, and A are viruses that cause liver inflammation. Hepatitis B vaccines and hepatitis A vaccines are available....
Symptoms of Mono: Infectious Mononucleosis Treatment
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Hepatitis C (Hep C): Symptoms, Treatments, Antivirals
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Hepatitis: How Do You Get Hepatitis A, B, and C?
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Your Face: A Window Into Your Health
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Digestive Health: Why Am I Bloated?
Bloating is a sign and symptom of gas in the stomach or GI tract. Certain foods or health problems like constipation may cause...
Foot Health: Causes of Swollen Feet and Ankles
Swollen feet and ankles may be associated with conditions like pregnancy, injury, heart failure, kidney disease, liver disease,...
The 18 Most Expensive U.S. Medical Conditions
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Hepatitis C Quiz: What is Hepatitis C?
How many Americans have hepatitis C? Take this quiz to learn the facts about this chronic disease.
Alcohol Quiz: Alcoholism & Health Effects
Take the Alcohol (Alcoholism) Quiz to learn how your alcohol is processed by your body and your brain.
Liver Disease Quiz: Fatty Liver Disease, Cirrhosis & Symptoms
What is liver disease? Take the Liver Disease Quiz and test your knowledge about this organ and its function.
Picture of Hepatitis B
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Related Disease Conditions
Common Medical Abbreviations List
Doctors, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals use abbreviations, acronyms, and other terminology for instructions and information in regard to a patient's health condition, prescription drugs they are to take, or medical procedures that have been ordered. There is no approved this list of common medical abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology used by doctors and other health- care professionals. You can use this list of medical abbreviations and acronyms written by our doctors the next time you can't understand what is on your prescription package, blood test results, or medical procedure orders. Examples include: ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease. ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure cap: Capsule. CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. A treatment for sleep apnea. DJD: Degenerative joint disease. Another term for osteoarthritis. DM: Diabetes mellitus. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes HA: Headache IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis JT: Joint N/V: Nausea or vomiting. p.o.: By mouth. From the Latin terminology per os. q.i.d.: Four times daily. As in taking a medicine four times daily. RA: Rheumatoid arthritis SOB: Shortness of breath. T: Temperature. Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
Gallbladder Pain: Relief, Causes, and Diet
Gallbladder pain (often misspelled "gall bladder") is generally produced by of five problems, biliary colic, cholecystitis, gallstones, and pancreatitis. Causes of gallbladder pain include intermittent blockage of ducts by gallstones or gallstone inflammation and/or sludge that also may involve irritation or infection of surrounding tissues, or when a bile duct is completely blocked. Treatment of gallbladder depends on the cause, which may include surgery.
Cirrhosis of the liver refers to a disease in which normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue caused by alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C. This disease leads to abnormalities in the liver's ability to handle toxins and blood flow, causing internal bleeding, kidney failure, mental confusion, coma, body fluid accumulation, and frequent infections. Symptoms include yellowing of the skin (jaundice), itching, and fatigue. The prognosis is good for some people with cirrhosis of the liver, and the survival can be up to 12 years; however the life expectancy is about 6 months to 2 years for people with severe cirrhosis with major complications.
What Causes Abdominal Pain?
Abdominal pain can have many causes that range from mild to severe. Some of these causes include bloating, gas, colitis, endometriosis, food poisoning, GERD, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), ovarian cysts, abdominal adhesions, diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, gallbladder disease, liver disease, and cancers. Signs and symptoms of the more serious causes include dehydration, bloody or black tarry stools, severe abdominal pain, pain with no urination or painful urination. Treatment for abdominal pain depends upon the cause.
Why Am I So Gassy and Bloated?
Bloating is a feeling that your abdomen is distended or larger than normal, but it does not necessarily mean that it is. Gas (flatulence) also can be a problem if you are bloated. Common, less serious causes of bloating are eating too fast, too much, or too many fatty foods; swallowing air; pregnancy; and menstruation. Cancer and IBD (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) are examples the more serious causes of bloating. Examples of foods and drinks that cause bloating are high fiber foods if you don't eat them regularly; eventually the bloating and gassiness will resolve if you eat them on a regular basis; fatty greasy foods, dairy products (for example, cheese, ice cream, milk, and yogurt); foods high in salt (for example, processed, frozen, and canned foods), and artificial sweeteners. Some doctors and other health care professionals recommend natural remedies like chamomile or peppermint tea, or pumpkin to relieve bloating. Examples of OTC medicine (medicine available without a prescription) and other products that may relieve bloating and gassiness are, Gas-X, Beano, Pepto Bismol, Metamucil, probiotics, and Ex-Lax for constipation associated with bloating. If you have persistent or severe gas and bloating, and if you have any of these symptoms see a doctor or other healthcare professional, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, chest pain, bloody diarrhea, fever, or if you think you are or may be pregnant.
High Red Blood Cell Count (Polycythemia)
Polycythemia (elevated red blood cell count) is a rare blood disease in which the body produces too many red blood cells. Causes of polycythemia are either primary (acquired or genetic mutations) or secondary (diseases, conditions, high altitude).
STDs in Men
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections transmitted during sexual contact. They may be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites. STDs in men cause no symptoms or symptoms like genital burning, itching, sores, rashes, or discharge. Common infections that are sexually transmitted in men include gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, hepatitis C and B, genital warts, human papillomavirus (HPV), and genital herpes. Some STDs in men are treatable while others are not. STDs are diagnosed with tests that identify proteins or genetic material of the organisms causing the infection. The prognosis of an STD depends on whether the infection is treatable or not. Use of latex condoms can help reduce the risk of contracting an STD but it does not eliminate the risk entirely.
Cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and is not contagious. Cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, a treatment of drugs that destroy cancer cells.
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Congestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathies are just a few potential causes of congestive heart failure. Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure may include fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, angina, and edema. Physical examination, patient history, blood tests, and imaging tests are used to diagnose congestive heart failure. Treatment of heart failure consists of lifestyle modification and taking medications to decrease fluid in the body and ease the strain on the heart. The prognosis of a patient with congestive heart failure depends on the stage of the heart failure and the overall condition of the individual.
Bilirubin is a waste product of the normal breakdown of red blood cells in the liver. Normal bilirubin levels vary from lab to lab, and range from around 0.2 to 1.2 mg/dL. High levels of bilirubin can be diagnosed with a bilirubin blood test. Causes of elevated levels of bilirubin in the blood can be caused by infections, viral hepatitis, anemia, genetic diseases, and liver problems. Symptoms of elevated bilirubin levels depend on the cause; however, jaundice is a common sign. Treatment for elevated bilirubin levels depend on the cause.
Ascites, the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity is most commonly caused by cirrhosis of the liver. Some of the other causes of ascites include portal hypertension, congestive heart failure, blood clots, and pancreatitis. The most common symptoms include increased abdominal girth and size, abdominal bloating, and abdominal pain. Treatment depends on the cause of ascites.
Itch (Itching or Pruritus)
Itching can be a common problem. Itches can be localized or generalized. There are many causes of itching to include: infection (jock itch, vaginal itch), disease (hyperthyroidism, liver or kidney), reactions to drugs, and skin infestations (pubic or body lice). Treatment for itching varies depending on the cause of the itch.
Infectious Mononucleosis (Mono)
Infectious mononucleosis is a virus infection in which there is an increase of white blood cells that are mononuclear (with a single nucleus) "Mono" and "kissing disease" are popular terms for this very common illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
Enlarged Spleen (Splenomegaly) Symptoms, Signs, Causes,Treatment
An enlarged spleen or splenomegaly, is generally caused by other diseases or conditions such as infections, cancers, blood disorders, or decreased blood flow. Symptoms of an enlarged spleen are often unnoticed. A feeling of fullness after eating a small amount of food and not being able to eat large meals may be a symptom of an enlarged spleen. Treatment for an enlarged spleen depends upon the cause.
Blood Clots (in the Leg)
Blood clots can occur in the venous and arterial vascular system. Blood clots can form in the heart, legs, arteries, veins, bladder, urinary tract and uterus. Risk factors for causes of blood clots include high blood pressure and cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and family history. Symptoms of a blood clot depend on the location of the clot. Some blood clots are a medical emergency. Blood clots are treated depending upon the cause of the clot. Blood clots can be prevented by lowering the risk factors for developing blood clots.
Liver (Anatomy and Function)
The liver is the largest gland and organ in the body. There are a variety of liver diseases caused by liver inflammation, scarring of the liver, infection of the liver, gallstones, cancer, toxins, genetic diseases, and blood flow problems. Symptoms of liver disease generally do not occur until the liver disease is advanced. Some symptoms of liver disease include jaundice, nausea and vomiting, easy bruising, bleeding excessively, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, shortness of breath, leg swelling, impotence, and confusion. Treatment of diseases of the liver depends on the cause.
What Are Signs That Your Liver Is Not Functioning Properly?
Liver pain can be a sign that you have a serious health problem like cirrhosis or liver cancer. Find out more about what could be causing your liver pain and how to treat it.
Jaundice (Hyperbilirubinemia) in Adults
Jaundice (hyperbilirubinemia) in adults may be caused by a variety of medical diseases or conditions. Some cases of jaundice can be managed at home with a doctor's supervision, while other causes of jaundice may be life-threatening. Symptoms of jaundice are yellow skin, yellowing of the whites of the eyes, pale colored stools, dark urine, itchy skin, vomiting, nausea, and rectal bleeding. Treatment of jaundice is focused on the disease or condition that is causing jaundice.
Liver cancer is cancer of the liver cells (hepatocellular carcinoma) or of the ducts in the liver (cholangiocarcinoma). Liver cancer often arises due to liver damage, cirrhosis (scarring) caused by alcohol use/abuse, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. Liver cancer may not cause any symptoms. Liver cancer is diagnosed with blood tests, imaging tests, and a liver biopsy. Treatment for liver cancer may include surgery, ablation, embolization, radiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.
Drug-Induced Liver Disease
Drug-induced liver diseases are diseases of the liver that are caused by: physician-prescribed medications, OTC medications, vitamins, hormones, herbs, illicit (recreational) drugs, and environmental toxins. Read about the signs and symptoms of drug-induced liver disease like hepatitis (inflammation of the liver cells), liver disease treatment, and types.
Nausea and Vomiting
Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often precedes vomiting. Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms of many conditions. There are numerous cases of nausea and vomiting. Some causes may not require medical treatment, for example, motion sickness, and other causes may require medical treatment by a doctor, for example, heart attack, lung infections, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Some causes of nausea and vomiting may be life-threatening, for example, heart attack, abdominal obstruction, and cancers. Treatment of nausea and vomiting depends upon the cause.
What Causes Swollen Feet and Swollen Ankles?
Swollen ankles and swollen feet is a symptom of an underlying disease or condition such as edema, medications, pregnancy, injuries, diseases, infections, lymphedema, or blood clots.
A brain hemorrhage is a type of stroke caused when an artery bursts in the brain, causing localized bleeding in the surrounding tissue. Causes of brain hemorrhage include aneurysm, liver disease, brain tumor, head trauma, high blood pressure, and blood vessel abnormalities. Symptoms include sudden severe headache, nausea, vomiting, loss of balance, tingling, numbness, vision changes, loss of consciousness, and loss of fine motor skills. Treatment depends upon the cause, location, and size of the brain hemorrhage.
What Does It Mean When You Have Liver Pain After Drinking Alcohol?
What is liver pain after drinking alcohol? Learn the signs of liver disease and what to do if you have a painful liver after drinking alcohol.
Ulcerative Colitis Diet Plan
An ulcerative colitis diet plan can help a person with the disease avoid foods and drinks that trigger flares. There also are foods that can soothe ulcerative colitis symptoms during a flare. Types of ulcerative colitis plans include a high-calorie diet, a lactose-free diet, a low-fat diet, a low-fiber diet (low-residue diet), or a low-salt diet. Self-management of ulcerative colitis using healthy lifestyle habits and a nutrient rich diet can be effective in management of the disease. Learn what foods to avoid that aggravate, and what foods help symptoms of the disease and increase bowel inflammation.
Fatigue can be described in various ways. Sometimes fatigue is described as feeling a lack of energy and motivation (both mental and physical). The causes of fatigue are generally related to a variety of conditions or diseases, for example, anemia, mono, medications, sleep problems, cancer, anxiety, heart disease, and drug abuse.Treatment of fatigue is generally directed toward the condition or disease that is causing the fatigue.
Encephalopathy means brain disease, damage, or malfunction. Causes of encephalopathy are varied and numerous. The main symptom of encephalopathy is an altered mental state. Other symptoms include: lethargy, dementia, seizures, tremors, and coma. Treatment of encephalopathy depends on the type of encephalopathy (anoxia, diabetic, Hashimoto's, hepatic, hyper - hypotensive, infectious, metabolic, infections, uremic, or Wernicke's) are examples of types of encephalopathy.
Hepatitis (Viral Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G)
Hepatitis is most often viral, due to infection with one of the hepatitis viruses (A, B, C, D, E, F (not confirmed), and G) or another virus (such as those that cause infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus disease). The main nonviral causes of hepatitis are alcohol and drugs. Many patients infected with hepatitis A, B, and C have few or no symptoms of illness. For those who do develop symptoms of viral hepatitis, the most common are flu-like symptoms including: loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever, weakness, tiredness, and aching in the abdomen. Treatment of viral hepatitis is dependent on the type of hepatitis.
Insulin resistance is the diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in transporting glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream into muscle and other tissues. There are no signs or symptoms of insulin resistance. Causes of insulin can include conditions such as stress, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and steroid use. Some of the risk factors for insulin resistance include fatty liver, heart disease, strokes, peripheral vascular disease, high cholesterol, and smoking. Treatment for insulin resistance are lifestyle changes and if necessary, medication.
Tylenol Liver Damage
Tylenol liver damage (acetaminophen) can occur from accidentally ingesting too much acetaminophen, or intentionally. Signs and symptoms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage may include: nauseau, vomiting, kidney failure, bleeding disorders, coma, and death. Acetaminophen is a drug contained in over 200 OTC and prescription medications from NyQuil to Vicodin. Avoiding unintentional overdoses include reading medication labels, write down the dosages of medications you are taking, do not drink excessive alcohol while taking acetaminophen. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Pleural Effusion (Fluid in the Pleural Space)
Pleural effusion is a buildup of fluid in the chest or on the lungs. There are two types of pleural effusion, transudate and exudate. Causes of transudate pleural effusion include congestive heart failure, kidney failure, and cirrhosis. Exudate pleural effusion can be caused by malignancy (cancer) or lung infection. Typically, transudate pleural effusion is more easily treatable. Symptoms of pleural effusion include chest pain, pain when breathing, difficulty breathing, and cough. Treatment depends on the source or cause of the pleural effusion.
SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth)
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) refers to a condition in which abnormally large numbers of bacteria (at least 100,000 bacteria per ml of fluid) are present in the small intestine, but they are more like the bacteria that are found in the colon. There are many conditions associated with SIBO, including: Diabetes Scleroderma Crohn's disease Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) It has been theorized that SIBO may be responsible for the symptoms of at least some patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Symptoms of SIBO include: Excess gas Abdominal bloating Abdominal pain Treatment for SIBO can include: Antibiotics Probiotics Low FODMAP Diet
A bruise, or contusion, is caused when blood vessels are damaged or broken as the result of a blow to the skin. The raised area of a bump or bruise results from blood leaking from these injured blood vessels into the tissues as well as from the body's response to the injury. Treatments include applying an ice pack and pressure to the area by hand.
Sickle Cell Disease (Anemia)
Sickle cell anemia (sickle cell disease), a blood disease which shortens life expectancy, is caused by an inherited abnormal hemoglobin. Symptoms of sickle cell anemia may include bacterial infections, painful swelling of the hands and feet, fever, leg ulcers, fatigue, anemia, eye damage, and lung and heart injury. Treatment for sickle cell anemia aims to manage and prevent the worst manifestations of the disease and focuses on therapies that block red blood cells from stacking together, which can lead to tissue and organ damage and pain.
Gynecomastia (Enlarged Male Breasts)
Gynecomastia, an enlargement of the gland tissue in the male breast is caused by an imbalance of hormones. Certain medical conditions may also lead to gynecomastia such as cirrhosis, malnutrition, disorders of the male sex organs, kidney failure, thyroid disorders, and medications. Gynecomastia is generally treated with medication, and if necessary, surgery.
Symptoms of 12 Serious Diseases and Health Problems
Learn how to recognize early warning signs and symptoms of serious diseases and health problems, for example, chronic cough, headache, chest pain, nausea, stool color or consistency changes, heartburn, skin moles, anxiety, nightmares, suicidal thoughts, hallucinations, delusions, lightheadedness, night sweats, eye problems, confusion, depression, severe pelvic or abdominal pain, unusual vaginal discharge, and nipple changes. The symptoms and signs of serious health problems can be caused by strokes, heart attacks, cancers, reproductive problems in females (for example, cancers, fibroids, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, and sexually transmitted diseases or STDs), breast problems (for example, breast cancer and non-cancer related diseases), lung diseases (for example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, lung cancer, emphysema, and asthma), stomach or digestive diseases (for example, cancers, gallbladder, liver, and pancreatic diseases, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn's disease), bladder problems (for example, urinary incontinence, and kidney infections), skin cancer, muscle and joint problems, emotional problems or mental illness (for example, postpartum depression, major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mania, and schizophrenia), and headache disorders (for example, migraines, or "the worst headache of your life), and eating disorders and weight problems (for example, anorexia or bulimia).
Gallstones are stones that form when substances in the bile harden. Gallstones (formed in the gallbladder) can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. There can be just one large stone, hundreds of tiny stones, or any combination. The majority of gallstones do not cause signs or symptoms; however, when they do occur the primary sign is biliary colic. Symptoms of biliary colic are constant pain for 15 minutes to 4-5 hours, and it may vary in intensity; nausea, severe pain that does not worsen with movement; and pain beneath the sternum. Treatment of gallstones depends upon the patient and the clinical situation.
Cholesterol (Lowering Your Cholesterol)
High cholesterol and triglyceride levels increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Getting your cholesterol and triglyceride levels in an optimal range will help protect your heart and blood vessels. Cholesterol management may include lifestyle interventions (diet and exercise) as well as medications to get your total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides in an optimal range.
Erectile Dysfunction (ED, Impotence)
Erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence) is the failure to achieve or maintain an erection. There are many potential underlying causes of erectile dysfunction, including stress and emotional problems, brain dysfunction, problems with blood supply to the penis, and structural problems with the penis.
Hemochromatosis (Iron Overload)
Hereditary hemochromatosis (iron overload) is an inherited disorder in which there is excessive accumulation of iron in the body. Individuals may have no symptoms or signs, or they can have severe symptoms and signs of iron overload. The most effective treatment for hemochromatosis is therapeutic phlebotomy.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The intestinal complications of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis differ because of the characteristically dissimilar behaviors of the intestinal inflammation in these two diseases.
Cystic fibrosis is a disease of the mucus and sweat glands. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. The outcome of the disease leaves the body malnourished, with bulky and fouls smelling stools, vitamin insufficiency, gas, painful or swollen abdomen, infertility, susceptible to heat emergencies, and respiratory failure. There is no cure for cystic fibrosis, treatment of symptoms is used to manage the disease.
Hepatitis C (HCV, Hep C)
Hepatitis C is an inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is usually spread by blood transfusion, hemodialysis, and needle sticks, especially with intravenous drug abuse. Symptoms of chronic hepatitis include fatigue, fever, muscle aches, loss of appetite, and fever. Chronic hepatitis C may be cured in most individuals with drugs that target specific genomes of hepatitis C.
Fatty Liver (NASH)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NASH occurs due to the accumulation of abnormal amounts of fat within the liver. Fatty liver most likely caused by obesity and diabetes. Symptoms of fatty liver disease are primarily the complications of cirrhosis of the liver; and may include mental changes, liver cancer, the accumulation of fluid in the body (ascites, edema), and gastrointestinal bleeding. Treatment for fatty liver includes avoiding certain foods and alcohol. Exercise, weight loss, bariatric surgery, and liver transplantation are treatments for fatty liver disease.
Hyponatremia (Low Blood Sodium)
Hyponatremia is a condition in which the levels of sodium in the blood is too low. Some of the symptoms of hyponatremia include headaches, muscle cramps or spasm, seizures, weakness, restlessness, and confusion. Hyponatremia can occur from excess fluid in the body, or a loss of sodium in body fluid. Causes of low levels of sodium in the blood include chronic diseases like kidney or congestive heart failure, adrenal gland problems, hypothyroidism, and liver cirrhosis, and some medications. Diet and other lifestyle changes in addition to treatment with electrolyte replacement with an IV. Other treatments for hyponatremia depend upon the cause.
Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse
Alcoholism is a disease that includes alcohol craving and continued drinking despite repeated alcohol-related problems, such as losing a job or getting into trouble with the law. It can cause myriad health problems, including cirrhosis of the liver, birth defects, heart disease, stroke, psychological problems, and dementia. Counseling and a few medications can be effective for alcoholism treatment.
Celiac disease is a condition in which a person has inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa when exposed to gluten in the diet. Symptoms of celiac disease include bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. Treatment is a gluten free diet. Some individuals may have refractory celiac disease in which they do not respond to a gluten free diet.
Portal hypertension is most commonly caused by cirrhosis, a disease that results from scarring of the liver. Other causes of portal hypertension include blood clots in the portal vein, blockages of the veins that carry the blood from the liver to the heart, and a parasitic infection called schistosomiasis. Symptoms of portal hypertension include varices (enlarged veins), vomiting blood, blood in the stool, black and tarry stool, ascites (abnormal fluid collection within the peritoneum, the sac that contains the intestines within the abdominal cavity), confusion and lethargy, splenomegaly or enlargement of the spleen, and decreased white blood cell counts.
Newborn Jaundice (Neonatal Jaundice)
Jaundice in newborns and babies (neonatal jaundice) usually occurs because of a normal increase in red blood cell breakdown and the fact that their immature livers are not efficient at removing bilirubin from the bloodstream. Symptoms of jaundice are fever, poor feeding, and looking ill. Newborn jaundice is very common and is caused because the newborns liver isn’t mature enough to remove bilirubin from the blood. Treatment of jaundice in newborns include phototherapy, tanning booths, and other treatments.
Is Hepatitis Contagious?
Hepatitis means "inflammation of the liver," and there are several different types of such as A, B, C, D, and E. Some types of hepatitis are contagious and some types are not. Hepatitis symptoms vary upon the type of disease; however, the following symptoms may develop in someone with hepatitis: fatigue, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain and discomfort, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), and loss of appetite. Treatment for hepatitis depends upon the cause. Some types of hepatitis have a vaccine to prevent spread of disease such as hepatitis A and B.
Pulmonary hypertension is elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries that carry blood from the lungs to the heart. The most common symptoms are fatigue and difficulty breathing. If the condition goes undiagnosed, more severe symptoms may occur. As pulmonary hypertension worsens, some people with the condition have difficulty performing any activities that require physical exertion. While there is no cure for pulmonary hypertension, it can be managed and treated with medications and supplemental oxygen to increase blood oxygen levels.
Hepatitis B (HBV, Hep B)
The hepatitis B virus (HBV, hep B) is a unique, coated DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. The course of the virus is determined primarily by the age at which the infection is acquired and the interaction between the virus and the body's immune system. Successful treatment is associated with a reduction in liver injury and fibrosis (scarring), a decreased likelihood of developing cirrhosis and its complications, including liver cancer, and a prolonged survival.
Hepatitis A and B Vaccinations
Hepatitis A and hepatitis B are the two most commnon viruses that infect the liver. Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B can be prevented and treated with immunizations (vaccinations) such as Havrix, Vaqta, Twinrix, Comvax, Pediarix, and hepatitis b immune globulin (HBIG).
Lipodystrophy (Acquired, Generalized, Inherited)
Lipodystrophy is a syndrome in which fat deposits accumulate all over the body, or sometimes just portions of it, like just the upper or lower body, or places on the skin where you give yourself daily allergy or insulin shots). You can be born with the generalized congenital or inherited type, or you can acquire it from HIV treatment drugs, infections, autoimmune diseases, trauma, or from repeated injections in the same place on the skin. The symptoms, treatment, and management depend upon the patient's type of lipodystrophy.
Is Hepatitis C Contagious?
Hepatitis C or hep C causes acute and chronic liver disease. Hep C is a form of liver disease with symptoms like fatigue, jaundice, nausea and vomiting, anorexia, and abdominal discomfort. Hepatitis C is a contagious viral infection caused by persons sharing drug needles, surgical instruments that have not been properly sanitized, and organ transplantation.
Toxoplasmosis (toxo) is a parasitic infection that causes flu-like symptoms, swollen lymph nodes, and muscle aches and pains that may last from a few days to several weeks. Toxoplasmosis can be contracted by touching the hands to the mouth after gardening, cleaning a cat's litter box, or anything that came into contact with cat feces. Toxoplasmosis can also be contracted by eating raw or partly cooked meat, especially pork or lamb, or touching the hands to the mouth after contact with raw or undercooked meat
Gaucher disease is caused by an inherited (genetic) defect in an enzyme glucocerebroside. Signs and symptoms for Gaucher disease include anemia (low blood cell count), easy bruising, easy bleeding, bone pain, fatigue, low platelet count (thrombocytopenia), and enlarged liver and spleen. There are different types of Gaucher disease. Treatment for Gaucher disease depends on type, and symptoms of the disease.
Is Hepatitis B Contagious?
Hepatitis B is a type of liver infection. Hepatitis B is spread through person-to-person contact or through personal items like razors, toothbrushes, etc. Symptoms of hepatitis B include fever, yellowish skin (jaundice), dark urine, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. There is no drug to cure hepatitis B; however, there is a hepatitis B vaccine available.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tick-borne disease that causes symptoms and signs such as fever, rash, headache, and muscle aches. The antibiotic doxycycline is the standard treatment for Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) Treatment
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is thought to be an autoimmune disorder that involves the deterioration of the liver's small bile ducts. These ducts are crucial to transport bile to the small intestine, digesting fats and removing wastes. Symptoms of PBC are edema, itching, elevated cholesterol, malabsorption of fat, liver cancer, gallstones, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and hypothyroidism. Treatments include ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA); colchicine (Colcrys); and immunosuppressive medications, such as corticosteroids; obeticholic acid (Ocaliva); and medications that treat PBC symptoms. For PBC that is associated with cirrhosis of the liver, liver transplantation may be indicated in extreme cases.
What Causes Metabolic Acidosis?
Metabolic acidosis develops when the body has too much acidic ions in the blood. Metabolic acidosis can be caused by vomiting and diarrhea, carbon monoxide poisoning, drug overdose, liver failure, low blood sugar, alcohol, seizures and other disorders.
Hepatitis E Viral Infection
Hepatitis E (hep E) is a type of hepatitis viral infection that includes hepatitis A, B, C, D, F, which is caused by the hepatitis E virus. Usually, you get (transmitted) hepatitis E from eating or drinking dirty or contaminated water. Hepatitis E can be very serious, especially if a woman is pregnant. Up to ¼ of women who are pregnant with the hep E virus can die from the infection. The signs and symptoms of hepatitis E infection are nausea and vomiting, brown or dark urine, stool changes jaundice (yellow eyes and skin), pain in the right side of the abdomen, dark or brown urine, and light-colored stool. Some people with hep E don’t have any symptoms so they don’t know that they are contagious. It takes about 6 weeks to recover from hep E. A person who has any type of hepatitis, including hepatitis E, should not drink any alcohol. Hep E complications are rare, but when they do occur they include severe (“fulminant”) hepatitis, liver failure, and death. Currently, no specific drugs or treatments are available for hepatitis E. Moreover, the only hepatitis E vaccine currently is available in China. Avoid alcohol, keep hydrated, and getting rest are home remedies for hepatitis E. Talk to your doctor before taking any over-the-counter (medications), especially those containing acetaminophen (Tylenol and others). Usually, the prognosis and life expectancy for hepatitis E after recovery is good. Most people do not have long term liver problems from the infection.
Hepatitis C Cure (Symptoms, Transmission, Treatments, and Cost)
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. There are a variety of toxins, diseases, illicit drugs, medications, bacterial and viral infections, and heavy alcohol use can case inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) is one type of hepatitis. According to the CDC, in 2014 there were an estimated 30,500 cases of acute hepatitis C infections in the US. An estimated 2.7-3.9 million people in the US have chronic hepatitis C. The virus is spread from person-to-person via blood-to-blood contact. Symptoms of HCV infection include joint pain, jaundice, dark urine, nausea, fatigue, fever, loss of appetites, clay colored stool. Hepatitis C can be cured with medications in most people. There is no vaccine against the hepatitis C virus.
Hospice is a service that offers support, resources, and assistance to terminally ill patients and their families. In such late stages of diseases, especially when there is "nothing left to do," hospice can offer help for patients and families. There are many aspects of a patient's well-being that can be addressed. Hospice can play a key role in managing physical symptoms of a disease (palliative care) and supporting patients and families emotionally and spiritually.
Varices are dilated blood vessels usually in the esophagus or stomach. Symptoms of bleeding varices include vomiting blood, black stools, low blood pressure, shock, and rapid heart rate. Bleeding varices are a medical emergency. Treatment may involve liver transplant, devascularization, distal splenorenal shunt, banding, sclerotherapy, or transjugular intrahepatic protosystemic shunt.
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene. People with the condition are at risk for developing serious lung and liver disease.
Fast-food consumption and lack of exercise are just a couple of causes of childhood obesity. Health effects of childhood obesity include type 2 diabetes, heart attack, stroke, high cholesterol, asthma, sleep apnea, gallstones, fatty liver disease, GERD, depression, and eating disorders.
Jaundice (Newborn, Kernicterus)
Jaundice in infants occur when the baby's liver may not be developed enough to efficiently rid the body of bilirubin. Symptoms of jaundice include yellowish colored eyes, and yellowing of the skin. Some babies are more at risk to develop jaundice. Kernicterus is a type of brain damage that occurs when a baby has jaundice and is not treated. Treatment of infant jaundice is generally with phototherapy so that kernicterus should not develop.
Local ResourcesFind a local Gastroenterologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Liver Blood Tests
- Ferritin Blood Test
- Complete Blood Count (CBC): Test, Types, Ranges, and Chart
- Triglycerides (Tests and Lowering Your Triglyceride Levels)
- CT Scan vs. MRI
- MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scan)
- How Long Can You Live With Liver Cancer?
- Does Liver Cancer Spread Quickly?
- CT Scan (Computerized Tomography)
- What Is a Hepaticojejunostomy?
- How Is a Transjugular Liver Biopsy Done?
- Liver Biopsy
- What Is the Pringle Maneuver Procedure?
- What Can a Liver Biopsy Diagnose?
- TIPS (Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt)
- Liver Transplant
- What Is the Difference Between a Phlebotomy and Phlebotomist?
- How Does a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) Work?
- What Is Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors?
- Fatigue, Tiredness, and Lethargy
- Nail Discoloration
- Liver Disease
- Fatty Liver Disease
- Low Testosterone (Low T)
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- How to Choose a Doctor
- Neonatal Jaundice
- Doctor: Getting the Most from Your Doctor's Appointment
- Drug-Induced Liver Disease
Medications & Supplements
- Birth Control Pills (List of Oral Contraceptives and Side Effects)
- nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin, Furadantin, Macrobid)
- acetaminophen (Tylenol, Tylenol Arthritis Pain, Tylenol Ext, Little Fevers Children's Fever/Pain)
- Augmentin (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, Augmentin XR, Augmentin ES-600, Amoclan
- codeine (for Pain)
- Antabuse (disulfiram) for Treating Alcoholism
- Aldactone (spironolactone)
- hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide, Hydrodiuril)
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. hydrochlorothiazide
- hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix, Vaqta)
- hydrocodone/acetaminophen (Vicodin, Norco)
- torsemide (Demadex)
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. bumetanide
- lactulose laxative (Enulose, Generlac)
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. thiazide diuretics
- mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept)
- Artemisia absinthium (Wormwood)
- OTC Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. Demadex (torsemide)
- methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall)
- niacin (Niacor, Niaspan)
- hepatitis b vaccine (Recombivax HB)
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)
- tacrolimus (Prograf, Astagraf XL, Envarsus XR)
- comfrey (Symphytum officinale)-topical
- kava (piper methysticum) - oral
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. Edecrin (ethacrynic acid)
- ma-huang (Ephedra sp)-oral
- boceprevir (Victrelis)
- sofosbuvir (Sovaldi)
- niacin and lovastatin, Advicor
- Givlaari (givosiran)
- Carbaglu (carglumic acid)
- Egaten (triclabendazole)
- Zepatier (elbasvir and grazoprevir)
- telaprevir (Incivek)
- Viekira Pak (ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir)
- Cholbam (cholic acid)
- Zavesca (miglustat)
- Doptelet (avatrombopag)
- daclatasvir (Daklinza)
Prevention & Wellness
- On Waitlist for Liver Transplants, Women Die More Often Than Men
- New Blood Test May Improve Liver Cancer Screening
- Liver Disease, Liver Damage, and COVID-19 Coronavirus
- They Thought She Drank, But Her Body Actually 'Auto-Brewed'
- Alcohol-Linked Deaths Soaring in U.S., Women Hit Hardest
- Machine Could Expand Pool of Livers for Donation
- Gene Therapy May Be Long-Term Cure for Type of Hemophilia
- Kratom May Cause Liver Damage: Study
- Tainted Fecal Transplant Killed One Patient -- More Vigilance Needed
- Woman's Suddenly Purple Pee Had Doctors Guessing
- Sooner Is Usually Better for Gallbladder Surgery
- Bald Eagles Across U.S. Infected With Newly Identified Virus
- Study: Home-Brew in Your Gut? 'Auto-Brewery' Syndrome Linked to Fatty Liver
- Kidney Transplants Safe When Donors Had Hepatitis C
- A 'Supercool' Breakthrough for Patients Awaiting Liver Transplant
- FDA Warns of Liver Problems for Some Taking Hep C Drugs
- Test All U.S. Adults for Hepatitis C, Expert Panel Says
- Go Easy on Caffeine During Pregnancy, for the Sake of Your Baby's Liver
- FDA Approves First Gene Therapy for Spinal Muscular Atrophy
- How Much Coffee Is OK?
- Study Reaffirms Safety of Hepatitis C Meds in Liver Cancer Patients
- Big Gains Against Hep C Possible With Big Investment
- Many Cancer Patients Have Undiagnosed Hepatitis
- As Opioid Crisis Continues, More Donor Organs Carry Hepatitis C
- Race May Matter for Liver Transplant Success
- Chocolates, Candies May be Contaminated With Hepatitis A: FDA
- Hepatitis C Screening Can Help Prevent Liver Disease
- Health Tip: Help Fight Fatty Liver Disease
- The Skinny on New Sugar Calorie Counts
- Newer Nonstick Coating May Pose Health Threat: EPA
- Age of Liver Transplant Donor Might Not Matter
- First Human Case of Rat Strain of Hepatitis E
- U.S. Deaths From Liver Disease Rising Rapidly
- Industrial Chemicals in Drinking Water More Toxic Than Thought
- Liver Cancer a Big Threat to U.S., Other Developed Nations
- Coffee May Do Your Liver Good
- Doptelet Approved for Liver Disease Patients Slated for a Medical Procedure
- Obesity Can Lead to Liver Damage by Age 8: Study
- Red and Processed Meats Linked to Liver Woes
- Teen Drinking Ups Risk for Liver Diseases Later
- Too Much Sugar Can Harm Livers of Even Healthy Men
- Dialysis Patients Often End Up Back in the Hospital
- Mexican-Americans at Higher Risk for Liver Cancer
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease May Raise Cancer Risk in Kids
- Researchers Grow Functioning Liver Tissue in Mice
- Can Coffee, Tea Protect the Liver From 'Western' Diet?
- Cirrhosis Could Raise Stroke Risk
- More Older Women Hitting the Bottle Hard
- Obesity in Youth Tied to Higher Odds for Liver Cancer in Men
- U.S. Vaccine Guidelines for Flu, HPV Updated
- Rates of Early Deaths Rise for Whites, Drop for Blacks
- Even One High-Fat Meal Can Harm Your Liver, Study Finds
- Newer Hepatitis C Drugs May Pose Health Risks: Study
- The Older the Drinking Age, the Lower the Illness Rates?
- Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later
- Ocaliva Approved for Rare Liver Disease
- Hepatitis C Patients More Likely to Drink, Study Finds
- Chronic Drinking Plus Binge Drinking Spurs Rapid Liver Damage in Mouse Study
- Pricey Hepatitis C Drugs Denied to Almost Half of Medicaid Patients: Study
- Illnesses, Deaths Spur FDA Warning on Hepatitis C Drugs
- Liver Damage From Hepatitis C More Widespread Than Thought
- Experimental Drug Combo Shows Promise Against Hepatitis C
- Hepatitis C Drugs Will 'Strain Budgets' at Current Prices: Study
- Hispanics May Develop Alcoholic Liver Disease Earlier
- New MRI Test May Help Diagnose Liver Condition in Kids
- Daily Drinking May Raise Risk of Liver Cirrhosis, Study Warns
- Report: Fewer U.S. Hospitalizations for Hepatitis A
- Pricey Hepatitis Drug a Good Bet in U.S. Prisons, Study Says
- If You Do Gain Weight, Polyunsaturated Fats May Prevent Some Damage
- Esbriet, Ofev Approved to Treat Deadly Lung Disease
- Even Decaf Coffee May Help the Liver
- Hepatitis C Could Become Rare Disease in 20 Years: Study
- 1 in 10 Deaths Among Adults Tied to Alcohol: CDC
- Alcohol Fuels Liver Disease in Those With HIV and Hepatitis C
- Study Finds Steroids May Not Be Helpful After Infant Liver Surgery
- Distance From VA Liver Transplant Center May Affect Vets' Survival
- Hepatitis C Patients With HIV May Face Higher Risk of Liver Disease
- Most With Hepatitis C May Soon Find Hope in New Treatments
- James Bond's Dirty Little Spy Secret: He's an Alcoholic
- Kids' Liver Transplant Success Varies by Race, Research Shows
- FDA Approves New Treatment for Hepatitis C Infection
- Acetaminophen and Alcohol a Bad Mix, Study Suggests
- Weight-Loss Surgery Safe for Very Obese Teens, Study Says
- Tylenol and Alcohol a Bad Mix, Study Suggests
- Shellfish Toxin Spreading to Eastern U.S., Report Says
- Alcoholism Treatment Can Help Some Liver Transplant Patients
- Health Tip: Can I Take an NSAID?
- Hepatitis B Vaccination Cuts Deaths From Liver Disease, Cancer: Study
- New Drug Combo Helps Hard-to-Treat Hepatitis C
- Baby Boomers Need Hepatitis C Test, CDC Study Confirms
- More Drugs Show Promise in Fighting Hepatitis C
- Psoriasis, Other Medical Conditions May Be Linked, Study Says
- Tylenol-Induced Liver Failure Presents Own Set of Problems: Study
- Liver Disease May Raise Risk of Heart Problems: Study
- Screen All Baby Boomers for Hepatitis C, Expert Panel Says
- Study Links Coffee to Lower Risk for Rare Liver Disease
- Too Much Drinking, Weight May Harm Liver
- Scarring May Raise Death Risk From Fatty Liver Disease
- Octaplas Approved for Blood-Clotting Disorders
- Cardiac Deaths May Lead to Shortage of Donor Livers
- Which Hospital Patients Need Drugs to Prevent Gastrointestinal Bleeding?
- One Man's Harrowing Battle With Hepatitis C
- 'Boomers' With Hepatitis C Boosting Demand for Liver Transplants
- Aspirin May Reduce Risk of Liver Cancer, Death From Liver Disease
- U.S. Task Force: Baby Boomers Should Be Tested for Hepatitis C
- Muscle-Building Teens May Go to Extremes, Study Finds
- Black Women With Both HIV, Hep C Less Likely to Die From Liver Disease
- Death Rates Drop for 5 Top Causes of Death
- Diets High in Fructose May Harm Liver in Some, Scientists Warn
- Quitting Drinking May Help Alcoholics' Bone Loss
- 'Excellent' Survival Seen for Liver Transplant From Live Donor
- CDC: All Baby Boomers Should Get Screened for Hepatitis C
- Two Antibiotics Linked to Liver Injury in Elderly
- Hepatitis C Treatment May Hamper Kids' Growth
- Vitamin B12 May Boost Hep C Treatment
- Milk Thistle Doesn't Help Hepatitis C
- Hepatitis C Virus Levels Higher in Certain Injection Drug Users
- Surgeons Seek Repeal of Transplant Ban Between HIV-Positive People
- Task Force to Doctors: Obesity Screening for All
- First Stem Cell Vein Implant Helps Young Girl
- Hepatitis B Infection Rates in U.S. Higher Than Thought
- Hepatitis C Causing Liver Damage in Greater Numbers: Study
- U.S. Liver Transplants Declining
- Body Building, Diet Supplements Linked to Liver Damage: Study
- CDC: All Baby Boomers Should Get Tested for Hepatitis C
- 'Fish Pedicure' a Recipe for Bacterial Infection, Researchers Warn
- Childhood Obesity May Raise Odds of Adult Liver Cancer
- It's 'Buyer Beware' When Getting Statins Off the Internet
- Statins May Stave Off Liver Cancer in People With Hepatitis B
- Many U.S. Adults Not Vaccinated for Hepatitis B
- Do Grapes or Alcohol Make Red Wine Good for the Heart?
- New Drug Combo for Hepatitis C Shows Promise
- CDC: Americans Living Longer as Death Rate Drops
- One in Six Americans Binge Drink: CDC
- Researchers Identify Liver Cancer Risk Factors
- Novel Hepatitis C Vaccine Shows Some Early Promise
- CDC Warning: Deadly Listeria in Cantaloupe
- 6 Steps to Improved Nail -- and Overall -- Health
- Breast Cancer Plus Other Health Issues Linked to Worse Outcomes
- Researchers Find Cousin of Hepatitis C Virus in Dogs
- Experts Propose Age-Based Hepatitis C Testing
- FDA Panel Backs 2 Hepatitis C Drugs
- FDA Panel Urges Approval of Hepatitis C Drug
- Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rates Rising in U.S.
- Diabetes Risks Go Beyond Heart Attacks, Strokes
- Fatty Liver May Be Linked to Diabetes Risk
- Moderate Alcohol Drinking May Boost Heart Health
- CDC: Binge Drinking 'Huge U.S. Health Problem'
- Vitamin E Helps Treat Common Liver Disease
- Liver Disease May Go Undetected in Children
- Xifaxan Approved for People With Liver Disease
- Obese Children Twice as Likely to Die Young?
- New Imaging Identifies Types of Liver Disease
- IBD, Liver Disease Patients Show Vitamin D Deficits
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