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- What is levofloxacin? How does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What are the uses for levofloxacin?
- What are the side effects of levofloxacin?
- What are the serious side effects (adverse effects) of levofloxacin
- What is the dosage for levofloxacin? How is it taken?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with levofloxacin?
- Is levofloxacin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about levofloxacin?
What is levofloxacin? How does it work (mechanism of action)?
Levofloxacin is an antibiotic that is used for treating bacterial infections.
Many common infections in humans are caused by bacteria. Bacteria can grow and multiply, infecting different parts of the body. Drugs that control and eradicate these bacteria are called antibiotics. Levofloxacin is an antibiotic that stops multiplication of bacteria by preventing the reproduction and repair of their genetic material, DNA. It is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones, a class that includes:
- ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
- norfloxacin (Noroxin)
- ofloxacin (Floxin)
- trovafloxacin (Trovan)
- lomefloxacin (Maxaquin)
The FDA approved levofloxacin in December 1996.
What are the uses for levofloxacin?
- Levofloxacin is used to treat infections of the sinuses, skin, lungs, ears, airways, bones, and joints caused by susceptible bacteria.
- Levofloxacin is frequently used to treat urinary infections, including those resistant to other antibiotics, as well as prostatitis (infection of the prostate).
- Levofloxacin is effective in treating infectious diarrhea caused by E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and Shigella bacteria.
- Levofloxacin can be used to treat various obstetric infections, including mastitis (infection of the breast).
- Inhalational anthrax exposure also is treated with levofloxacin.
- Levofloxacin is used for preventing and treating plague caused by Yersinia pestis.
What are the side effects of levofloxacin?
Serious side effects and warnings include:
- Levofloxacin as well as other antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics have been associated with tendinitis and even rupture of tendons, particularly the Achilles tendon.
- Fluoroquinolones have neuromuscular blocking activity and can worsen muscle weakness in individuals with myasthenia gravis.
The most frequently reported side effects are:
Less common side effects include:
Rare allergic reactions have been described are:
What are the serious side effects (adverse effects) of levofloxacin
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Central nervous system effects
- Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
- Abnormal heart beats
- Liver dysfunction
- Sun sensitivity
Other serious side effects and adverse events of levofloxacin include:
- Levofloxacin should be used with caution in patients with central nervous system diseases such as seizures, because rare seizures have been reported in patients receiving Levaquin.
- Levofloxacin should be avoided in children and adolescents less than 18 years of age, as safe use in these patients has not been established.
- Many antibiotics, including levofloxacin, can alter the normal bacteria in the colon and encourage overgrowth of a bacterium responsible for the development of inflammation of the colon, (C. difficile or pseudomembranous colitis). Patients who develop signs of pseudomembranous colitis after starting Levaquin (diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and possibly shock) should contact their doctor immediately.
- Patients taking Levofloxacin can develop sensitivity of the skin to direct sunlight (photosensitivity) and should avoid exposure to sunlight or use sunblock.
- Fluoroquinolones worsen low blood glucose levels when combined with sulfonylureas (for example, glyburide [Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase, Prestab]).
- Because of serious side effects associate with fluoroquinolones, they should not be used for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infections, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis or acute bacterial sinusitis unless there are no other alternatives.
What is the dosage for levofloxacin? How is it taken?
- The usual dose is 250-750 mg given once daily for 3-14 days depending on the type of infection.
- Anthrax is treated with 500 mg daily for 60 days.
- It is important to take oral formulations at least 2 hours before or 2 hours after any antacid or mineral supplement containing iron, calcium, zinc, or magnesium since these bind Levaquin and prevent its absorption into the body.
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Which drugs or supplements interact with levofloxacin?
- Iron, calcium, zinc, or magnesium can attach to levofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones and prevent their absorption from the intestine into the blood. Therefore, products (for example, antacids) that contain iron, calcium, zinc, or magnesium should be taken at least 2 hours before or 2 hours after levofloxacin. Other drugs that contain these minerals and can similarly interact with levofloxacin include sucralfate (Carafate) and didanosine (Videx, Videx EC).
- Taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with levofloxacin may increase the risk of central nervous stimulation, resulting in over-excitation. There have been reports of changes in blood sugar (increases and decreases) in patients treated with fluoroquinolones and antidiabetic agents.
- Fluoroquinolones may increase the effect of warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven).
Is levofloxacin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
What else should I know about levofloxacin?
- Levofloxacin is available in generic form. you need a prescription from a doctor or pharmacist to obtain this antibiotic. The brand name for levofloxacin, Leviquin, has been discontinued.
- Preparations for levofloxacin are:
- Tablets: 250, 500 and 750 mg
- Oral solution: 25 mg/mL
- Injection: 500 mg/20 ml and 750 mg/30 ml
- Premix ready to use injection: 250 mg/50 ml, 500 mg/100 ml, and 750 mg/150 mll
- Levofloxacin should be stored at 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F)
Levofloxacin (Levaquin -- brand discontinued) is an antibiotic used for treating bacterial infections of the sinuses, skin, lungs, ears, bones, airways, and joints. Common side effects are rash, intestinal gas, vaginal itching or discharge, headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Review side effects, drug interactions, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information prior to taking this medication. Talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other health care professional if you have any questions about this drug.
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Related Disease Conditions
Sinus Infection (Sinusitis)
Sinus infection (sinusitis) is caused by allergies, infection, and chemicals or other irritants of sinuses. Signs and symptoms are headache, fever, and facial tenderness, pressure, or pain. Treatments of sinus infections are generally with antibiotics and at times, home remedies.
Jock itch is an itchy red rash that appears in the groin area. The rash may be caused by a bacterial or fungal infection. People with diabetes and those who are obese are more susceptible to developing jock itch. Antifungal shampoos, creams, and pills may be needed to treat fungal jock itch. Bacterial jock itch may be treated with antibacterial soaps and topical and oral antibiotics.
H. pylori (Helicobacter Pylori) Infection
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacteria that causes chronic inflammation (gastritis) of the inner lining of the stomach, and also is the most common cause of ulcers worldwide. About 50% of people in the world carries or is infected with H. pylori. Common symptoms of H. pylori infection are occasional abdominal discomfort, bloating, belching or burping, and nausea and vomiting. H. pylori infection is difficult to eradicate, and treatment is with two or more antibiotics.
Peptic Ulcer (Stomach Ulcer)
Peptic or stomach ulcers are ulcers are an ulcer in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Ulcer formation is related to H. pylori bacteria in the stomach, use of anti-inflammatory medications, and cigarette smoking. Symptoms of peptic or stomach ulcers include abdominal burning or hunger pain, indigestion, and abdominal discomfort after meals. Treatment for stomach ulcers depends upon the cause.
Diarrhea is a change is the frequency and looseness of bowel movements. Symptoms associated with diarrhea are cramping, abdominal pain, and the sensation of rectal urgency. Causes of diarrhea include viral, bacterial, or parasite infection, gastroenteritis, food poisoning, and drugs. Absorbents and anti-motility medications are used to treat diarrhea.
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the bladder, kidneys, ureters, or urethra. E. coli, a type of bacteria that lives in the bowel and near the anus, causes most UTIs. UTI symptoms include pain, abdominal pain, mild fever, urinary urgency and frequency. Treatment involves a course of antibiotics.
Pneumonia is inflammation of the lungs caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Symptoms and signs include cough, fever, shortness of breath, and chills. Antibiotics treat pneumonia, and the choice of the antibiotic depends upon the cause of the infection.
Folliculitis is a skin condition that causes small red bumps to form around the hair follicles. Skin bacteria such as Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas may infect the follicles. Treatment involves over-the-counter bacterial washes, topical antibiotics, and/or topical steroids.
Sepsis (blood poisoning) is a potentially deadly infection with signs and symptoms that include elevated heart rate, low or high temperature, rapid breathing and/or a white blood cell count that is too high or too low and has more than 10% band cells. Most cases of sepsis are caused by bacterial infections, and some cases are caused by fungal infections. Treatment requires hospitalization, IV antibiotics, and therapy to treat any organ dysfunction.
Impetigo: Treatment, Symptoms, and Complications
Impetigo is a contagious skin infection caused by staph and strep bacteria. There are two types of impetigo: nonbullous and bullous. Symptoms of nonbullous impetigo include small blisters on the nose, face, arms, or legs and possibly swollen glands. Bullous impetigo signs include blisters in various areas, particularly in the buttocks area. Treatment involves gentle cleansing, removing the crusts of popped blisters, and the application of prescription-strength mupirocin antibiotic ointment.
Prostatitis (Inflammation of the Prostate Gland)
Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland. Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include painful or difficulty urinating; fever; chills; body aches; blood in the urine; pain in the rectum, groin, abdomen, or low back; and painful ejaculation or sexual dysfunction. Causes of prostatitis include STDs, bacteria from urinary tract infections, or E. coli. Treatment for prostatitis depends on if it is a bacterial infection or chronic inflammation of the prostate gland.
Sinus Headache Pain, Symptoms, Treatments, Remedies, and Cures
Sinus headache is caused by a sinus infection or inflammation of the sinus cavities. Symptoms of a sinus headache include pain, runny or stuffy nose, and chronic cough. There are many causes of sinus headaches including sinusitis or sinus infection, allergies, smoke, infections, or colds. Treatment for sinus headache depends on the cause. Some home remedies may relieve sinus headache pain symptoms.
SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth)
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Sun-Sensitive Drugs (Photosensitivity to Drugs)
Sun sensitivity (photosensitivity) is an inflammation of the skin induced by the combination of medications or substances and sunlight. The effect on the skin is redness, which looks similar to a sunburn. Generally, these reactions are either phototoxic or photoallergic. Phototoxic drugs are more common than photoallergic drugs. Symptoms of phototoxic reactions are a burning and stinging sensation and then redness. Symptoms of photoallergic reactions are itching, redness, swelling, and blisters of the affected area. Treatment generally is discontinuation of the medication and topical application of creams.Treatment generally is discontinuation of the medication and topical application of creams.
Plague (Black Death)
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. Transmission to humans occurs via fleas that have bitten infected rodents. There are three forms of plague that infect humans: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic. Antibiotics are the standard treatment for plague.
E. coli (0157:H7) Infection
There are many types of E. coli (Escherichia coli). E. coli can cause urinary tract and bladder infections, or lead to sepsis. E coli O157:H7 (EHEC) causes bloody diarrhea and colitis. Complications of E. coli infection include hemorrhagic diarrhea, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Symptoms include severe abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. E coli O157:H7 commonly is due to eating raw or undercooked hamburger or raw milk or dairy products.
Chronic bronchitis is a cough that occurs daily with production of sputum that lasts for at least three months, two years in a row. Causes of chronic bronchitis include cigarette smoking, inhaled irritants, and underlying disease processes (such as asthma, or congestive heart failure). Symptoms include cough, shortness of breath, and wheezing. Treatments include bronchodilators and steroids. Complications of chronic bronchitis include COPD and emphysema.
Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis): Types, Treatment, and Symptoms
Pinkeye, also called conjunctivitis, is redness or irritation of the conjunctivae, the membranes on the inner part of the eyelids and the membranes covering the whites of the eyes. These membranes react to a wide range of bacteria, viruses, allergy-provoking agents, irritants, and toxic agents.
Is H. pylori Contagious?
H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) infection: Is it contagious? H. pylori infection is caused by fecal contamination in either food or water, and by poor hygiene practices such as not washing the hands often. Common symptoms of H. pylori are a discomfort or pain in the area of the stomach. Some individuals describe the pain as gnawing or burning. Treatment of H. pylori infection is antibiotic therapy.
Clostridium Difficile Colitis (C. diff, C. difficle Colitis)
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium, and is one of the most common causes of infection of the colon. C. difficile spores are found frequently in hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities, and nurseries for newborn infants.
Neck Pain and Dizziness
Neck pain is any degree of discomfort in the front or back of the neck between the head and the shoulders. Dizziness is characterized as either vertigo with disequilibrium or lightheadedness associated with feeling faint or the potential to lose consciousness. Causes of neck pain and dizziness vary, and treatment depends on the cause. With any unexplained or persisting neck pain or dizziness, consult with a health care professional, who can determine whether the symptoms are harmless and temporary or serious and threatening.
Anthrax is a deadly infectious disease that may be transmitted to humans by infected animals or by biological warfare. There are three types of anthrax: cutaneous, inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Symptoms of cutaneous anthrax include a swollen glands, muscle ache, headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, and a red-brown raised spot that enlarges, blisters, and hardens, forming an ulcer crater with black crust. Symptoms of inhalation anthrax are flu-like and may progress to respiratory distress, shock, coma, and death. Symptoms of gastrointestinal anthrax include loss of appetite, bloody diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Treatment for cutaneous anthrax involves penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and ciprofloxin. Inhalation anthrax necessitates treatment with IV therapy with antibiotics.
Travelers' diarrhea is generally contracted by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Food is the primary source of travelers' diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli is the cause of up to 70% of all cases of travelers' diarrhea. There are five unique classes of E. coli that causes gastroenteritis. Other bacteria responsible for travelers' diarrhea include Campylobacter, jejuni, shigella, and salmonella. Viruses such as rotavirus and Norwalk virus (norovirus) and giardia lamblia a parasite may cause travelers' diarrhea. Prevention is careful eating and drinking of water.
Bioterrorism is a form of terrorism where there is the intentional release of biological agents such as viruses, germs, or bacteria. Diseases caused by bioterrorism agents include anthrax, botulism, plague, smallpox, tularemia, brucellosis, food poisoning, Q fever, ricin toxin poisoning, cholera, epidemic typhus, viral encephalitis, XDR TB, and MDR TB.
Legionellosis is an infection caused by the Legionella pneumophila bacterium. There are two forms of legionellosis: Pontiac fever and Legionnaires' disease, which is the more severe of the two infections. Symptoms of Pontiac fever include fever, headache, muscle aches, and chills. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease include cough, chills, fever and sometimes muscle aches, headaches, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and severe pneumonia. While Pontiac fever resolves on its own, Legionnaires' disease must be treated with antibiotics.
Travelers should prepare for their trip by visiting their physician to get the proper vaccinations and obtain the necessary medication if they have a medical condition or chronic disease. Diseases that travelers may pick up from contaminated water or food, insect or animal bites, or from other people include: malaria, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, polio, and cholera.
Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis, and Colds
If you have a COPD such as emphysema, avoiding chronic bronchitis and colds is important to avoid a more severe respiratory infection such as pneumonia. Avoiding cigarette smoking, practice good hygeine, stay away from crowds, and alerting your healthcare provider if you have a sinus infection or cold or cough that becomes worse. Treatment options depend upon the severity of the emphysema, bronchitis, or cold combination.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Urinary Urgency
- Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)
- Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO)
- Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Acute Sinusitis
- Traveler's Diarrhea
- Legionnaires' Disease
- Bronchitis FAQs
- How To Reduce Your Medication Costs
- Pharmacy Visit, How To Get The Most Out of Your Visit
- Indications for Drugs: Approved vs. Non-approved
- Drugs: Buying Prescription Drugs Online Safely
- Drugs: The Most Common Medication Errors
- Medication Disposal
- Dangers of Mixing Medications
- Generic Drugs, Are They as Good as Brand-Names?
Medications & Supplements
- Cipro, Cipro XR (ciprofloxacin) Antibiotic Side Effects
- Cipro vs. Flagyl
- Amoxicillin vs. Levaquin
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- norfloxacin (Noroxin)
- Drugs: Questions to Ask Your Doctor or Pharmacist about Your Drugs
- Drug Interactions
- Levaquin (levofloxacin) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- ofloxacin (Floxin Discontinued Brand)
- ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution (Ciloxan)
- Doxycycline vs. Levaquin
- Ofloxacin (Ocuflox) vs. Levofloxacin (Levaquin)
- Side Effects of Vancomycin Injection
- Levaquin (levofloxacin) vs. Keflex (cephalexin)
- ciprofloxacin ointment - ophthalmic, Ciloxan
- Levaquin vs. Zosyn
- trovafloxacin mesylate, Trovan
- ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone suspension - otic, Ciprodex
- What Is Intravenous-to-Oral Switch Therapy?
- ciprofloxacin/hydrocortisone suspension - otic, Cipro HC
Prevention & Wellness
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