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- What is lenalidomide Revlimid, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for lenalidomide Revlimid?
- Is lenalidomide Revlimid available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for lenalidomide Revlimid?
- What are the side effects of lenalidomide Revlimid?
- What is the dosage for lenalidomide Revlimid?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with lenalidomide Revlimid?
- Is lenalidomide Revlimid safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about lenalidomide Revlimid?
What is lenalidomide Revlimid, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Lenalidomide (Revlimid) is an oral anti-cancer medication. Lenalidomide is similar to thalidomide (Thalomid), an older cancer medicine that, although effective, was associated with serious side effects. The exact mechanism through which lenalidomide stops the growth of cancer cells is not understood. Lenalidomide stimulates or regulates the body's immune system to attack and kill cancer cells, reduces the formation of new blood vessels that supply nutrients to the cancer cells, and prevents or stops growth of the cancer. Laboratory studies have shown that lenalidomide inhibits cancer growth and causes programmed cell death in certain types of cancers, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, and del (5q) myelodysplastic syndromes. Lenalidomide was approved by the FDA Dec. 27, 2005.
What are the side effects of lenalidomide Revlimid?
Common side effects of lenalidomide are:
- neutropenia (a drop in white blood cell count),
- muscle cramp,
- peripheral edema (swelling in the ankles, feet, or legs),
- back pain,
- upper respiratory tract infection,
- shortness of breath,
- thrombocytopenia ( a drop in the platelet count),
- tremor, and
Lenalidomide may cause some other rare but serious side effects. These include:
- increase risk of death in patients who have chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL);
- risk of new cancers;
- severe liver problems;
- serious skin reactions;
- tumor lysis syndrome, or TLS (caused by the fast breakdown of cancer cells);
- formation of blood clots in the arteries, veins, and lungs;
- serious birth defects or death of an unborn baby;
- and worsening of tumors.
Quick GuidePancreatic Cancer Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
What is the dosage for lenalidomide Revlimid?
Lenalidomide capsules should be swallowed whole with water around the same time each day.
Multiple myeloma (MM): the recommended starting dose of lenalidomide is 25 mg by mouth once a day on day 1-21 of repeated 28-day cycles. The recommended dose of dexamethasone is 40 mg once daily on day 1-4, 9-12, and 17-20 of each 28-day cycle for the first 4 cycles of therapy, followed by 40 mg once daily on day 1-4 every 28 days thereafter.
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): the recommended starting dose of lenalidomide is 10 mg by mouth once a day.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL): the recommended starting dose of lenalidomide is 25 mg by mouth once a day on days 1-21 of repeated 28 cycles.
Which drugs or supplements interact with lenalidomide Revlimid?
When multiple doses of lenalidomide were administered with digoxin, the blood levels of digoxin were increased. Patients receiving both medications should be closely monitored to minimize the occurrence of unwanted side effects.
Due to the increased risk of forming blood clots in the arteries, veins, or lungs, lenalidomide should be used cautiously in patients using erythropoietin-stimulating agents and estrogen-containing therapies.
Is lenalidomide Revlimid safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Lenalidomide is similar to thalidomide which is a known human teratogen that causes life-threatening human birth defects or embryo-fetal death. It should not be used during pregnancy. Lenalidomide is classified as FDA pregnancy risk category X (animal and human studies have demonstrated harm to the fetus). A program called Revlimid REMS was developed to prevent fetal exposure to lenalidomide. Patients, prescribers, and pharmacies must be registered in the Revlimid REMS programs to receive, prescribe, and dispense lenalidomide.
Females must not get pregnant for 4 weeks before starting lenalidomide, while taking lenalidomide, during any breaks in treatment, and for 4 weeks after stopping lenalidomide.
As lenalidomide may pass into human semen, all males taking lenalidomide must use a latex or synthetic condom during any sexual contact with a pregnant female or a female who can become pregnant. Male patients should not donate sperm while taking lenalidomide, during any breaks in treatment, and for 4 weeks after stopping lenalidomide.
What else should I know about lenalidomide Revlimid?
What preparations of lenalidomide Revlimid are available?
Oral capsules: 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mg.
How should I keep lenalidomide Revlimid stored?
Capsules should be stored at room temperature, between 15 C and 30 C (59 F to 86 F). It is extremely important to keep this medication away from children, pets, and pregnant females due to the high risk of serious side effects associated with accidental exposure.
REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information
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Castleman Disease is a group of related conditions. It is a rare disease with an unknown prevalence. Signs and symptoms of Castleman disease include:
- Weight loss
- Night sweats
Castleman disease is caused by an abnormal growth of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. There are two types of Castleman disease; 1) unicentric, and 2) multicentric. Castleman disease is diagnosed by biopsy of the suspected lymph nodes. Castleman disease is treated with medications (for example, corticosteroids, chemotherapy drugs, immunodilating drugs, interferon-alfa, and anti-viral medications), surgery, and radiation therapy. The life expectancy for a person with Castleman disease is difficult to determine because the condition is rare and takes different forms.
Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma ComparisonBoth Hodgkin's disease (sometimes referred to as Hodgkin's lymphoma) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are cancers that originate in a type of white blood cell known as a lymphocyte, an important component of the body's immune system.
Multiple MyelomaMultiple myeloma is a form of cancer that develops in plasma cells, the white blood cells that make antibodies. Symptoms include bone pain, weakness, extreme thirst, nausea, frequent urination, and broken bones. Treatment of multiple myeloma depends upon the staging and symptoms of the disease.
Non-Hodgkins LymphomasNon-Hodgkin's lymphoma is cancer of the lymphatic system, a vital part of the body's immune system. Symptoms and signs include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, coughing, weakness, chest pain, unexplained weight loss, and abdominal pain. Treatment depends on which type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma one has, the stage of the cancer, one's age, how fast the cancer is growing, and whether one has other health problems.