Early and later symptoms and signs of labor and delivery are unique to each woman. Early signs of labor are "lightning" and passing the mucus plug. Later symptoms and signs that labor that labor is are the woman's water breaking, and when contractions begin. There are three stages of labor, stage 1 is the longest and occurs when the cervix begins to thin and dilate. During stage 2 of labor the baby passes through the birth canal and remains there until delivery, and stage 3, is when the baby is delivered. Read more: Labor and Delivery Article
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Stages of Pregnancy: Week by Week
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Pregnancy: Multiple Births, Twins, Triplets, and More
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Fetal Development Stages: Embryo to Fetus, in Weeks
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Pregnancy Myths and Facts Quiz
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Picture of Third Trimester (32 Weeks)
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Picture of Third Trimester (36 Weeks)
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Picture of Third Trimester (37-40 Weeks)
The Baby at 37 to 40 Weeks. By the end of 37 weeks, your baby is considered full term. See a picture of Third Trimester (37-40...
Picture of Vagina
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Picture of Abdomen
The abdomen (commonly called the belly) is the body space between the thorax (chest) and pelvis. See a picture of the Abdomen and...
Sex After Birth: How Your Sex Life Changes
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Related Disease Conditions
Labor Symptoms (Early Signs)
Every woman's experience with labor and delivery is unique for each woman, and thus "Normal" labor varies from woman to woman. Some of the common signs and symptoms of normal labor include the "baby dropping," increase urination, back pain, contractions, and diarrhea.
Early Pregnancy Symptoms and Signs
Pregnancy symptoms can vary from woman to woman, and not all women experience the same symptoms. When women do experience pregnancy symptoms they may include symptoms include missed menstrual period, mood changes, headaches, lower back pain, fatigue, nausea, breast tenderness, and heartburn. Signs and symptoms in late pregnancy include leg swelling and shortness of breath. Options for relief of pregnancy symptoms include exercise, diet, and other lifestyle changes.
Pregnancy (Week by Week, Trimesters)
Signs and symptoms of pregnancy vary by stage (trimester). The earliest pregnancy symptom is typically a missed period, but others include breast swelling and tenderness, nausea and sometimes vomiting, fatigue, and bloating. Second trimester symptoms include backache, weight gain, itching, and possible stretch marks. Third trimester symptoms are additional weight gain, heartburn, hemorrhoids, swelling of the ankles, fingers, and face, breast tenderness, and trouble sleeping. Eating a healthy diet, getting a moderate amount of exercise, also are recommended for a healthy pregnancy. Information about the week by week growth of your baby in the womb are provided.
How Do Contractions Feel When They First Start?
Labor contractions, popularly known as contractions, refer to the tightening of a pregnant woman’s uterus (womb). Contractions feel like a gradual tightening of the abdominal muscles that increases in intensity and then relaxes.
Urinary retention (inability to urinate) may be caused by nerve disease, spinal cord injury, prostate enlargement, infection, surgery, medication, bladder stone, constipation, cystocele, rectocele, or urethral stricture. Symptoms include discomfort and pain. Treatment depends upon the cause of urinary retention.
Placenta previa is a condition during pregnancy when the placenta lies low in the uterus either partly or completely blocking the uterus. Women with placenta previa generally deliver their baby via cesarean delivery. There are several types of placenta previa: 1) a low-lying placenta, 2) a partial placenta previa, and 3) a total placenta previa, which covers and blocks the cervical opening. Women who are at risk of placenta previa are women who have delivered a previous baby by cesarean section, and are also at risk of placenta accreta, placenta increta, or placenta percreta.
Fetal Movement (Quickening): Feeling Baby Kick
Pregnancy can be one of the most joyous time in a couple's life. Learn what your baby's first movements may feel like week by week, how often you may feel them, what time of day the baby is most active, and what to do if you feel your baby is not moving as much as you feel it should be moving.
Childbirth Delivery Methods and Types
There are various childbirth delivery methods and types such as the Lamaze method, the Bradley method, water birth, and assisted births. Options for where a woman can deliver her baby include home birth, a birthing center, and a hospital. The method and type of labor and delivery options should be discussed with a woman's doctor.
Urinary Incontinence in Women
Millions of women suffer from urinary incontinence (UI). UI occurs twice as often in women as in men. There are many types of urinary incontinence: stress incontinence, urge incontinence, overactive bladder, functional incontinence, overflow incontinence, transient incontinence, and mixed incontinence.
Braxton Hicks Contractions (False Labor)
Braxton Hicks contractions are also known as false labor pains. Though these irregular uterine contractions may occur in the second trimester, they're more likely to occur during the third trimester of pregnancy. Unlike true labor pains, false labor pains are often irregular, may stop when you walk, rest, or change positions, and the contractions do not get closer together or stronger.
Pregnancy Planning (Tips)
Pregnancy planning is an important step in preparation for starting or expanding a family. Planning for a pregnancy includes taking prenatal vitamins, eating healthy for you and your baby, disease prevention (for both parents and baby) to prevent birth defects and infections, avoiding certain medications that may be harmful to your baby, how much weight gain is healthy exercise safety and pregnancy, travel during pregnancy.
Preeclampsia and Eclampsia
Preeclampsia is a condition in pregnant women marked by high blood pressure and a high level of protein in the urine. Eclampsia occurs when preeclampsia goes untreated. Eclampsia can cause coma and death of the mother and baby. Preeclampsia symptoms include rapid weight gain, abdominal pain, headaches, blood in the urine, dizziness, and excessive vomiting and nausea. The only real cure for preeclampsia and eclampsia is the birth of the baby.
Doula vs. Midwife
A midwife and doula are not the same thing. A doula's job is to provide non-medical, emotional, and personal support to a woman throughout her pregnancy, labor, delivery, and postpartum experience. A certified nurse midwife is a medical health care professional that manages the overall general health of the mother and baby; for example, performs exams, orders laboratory tests, and procedures, and performs fetal monitoring from the pregnant woman's first prenatal visit to post-partum and aftercare. A midwife can deliver the baby, whereas a doula cannot. A midwife usually tries to minimize the use of unnecessary technological interventions. A midwife cannot perform C-sections, use vacuums or forceps during labor and delivery.
What Are the Steps in Neonatal Resuscitation?
Neonatal resuscitation is a series of emergency procedures performed by a doctor to support newborn babies who are not breathing, are gasping or have a weak heartbeat at birth. These skills allow a doctor to save the lives of newborn babies.
What Does the Bloody Show Look Like?
The bloody show commonly occurs at the end of pregnancy. Learn the signs of a bloody show, what causes it, how doctors diagnose it, and what you can expect.
Braxton Hicks vs. True Labor: How to Tell the Difference
Some pregnant women may mistake Braxton Hicks contractions (false labor) for real labor contractions, especially in the first pregnancy. Real labor contractions occur at regular intervals that become progressively shorter; more painful as labor progresses; are described as a tightening, pounding, or stabbing pain. Braxton Hicks contractions do not occur in regular intervals; do not become longer over time; and may disappear for a period of time and then return. Braxton Hicks contractions occur in third trimester of pregnancy, however, sometimes can occur in the second trimester. True labor contractions begin around your due date (unless your baby is preterm, in which you will be in preterm labor). So how can you tell the difference? Here are a few similarities and differences between Braxton Hicks contractions and True or real labor contractions. Braxton Hicks contractionsBraxton Hicks contractions tend to become more frequent toward the end of pregnancy, and are not as painful as real labor contractions; do not occur in regular intervals; do not become longer over time; and may disappear for a period of time and then return.Labor contractions Frequently one of the early symptoms and signs of true labor is when the contractions begin to occur less than 10 minutes apart. Real labor Real labor contractions occur at regular intervals that become progressively shorter; more painful as labor progresses; are described as a tightening, pounding, or stabbing pain; may feel similar to menstrual cramps; and sometimes Braxton Hicks contractions can be triggered by dehydration, sexual intercourse, increased activity of the mother or baby, touching of the pregnant woman's abdomen, or a distended bladder. Natural and home remedies to soothe and provide comfort for Braxton Hicks contractions include relaxation exercises like deep breathing or mental relaxation; change positions or take a walk if you have been active and rest; drink a glass of herbal tea or water; eat; or soak in a warm bath for 30 minutes (or less). Preterm labor signs and symptomsWhen you have reached 37 weeks, and the contractions are more painful and are increasing in frequency you will have abdominal pain or menstrual-like cramping, an increase in pelvic pressure or back pain, and the contractions are more than four contractions an hour.
What Does Losing Your Mucus Plug Mean During Pregnancy?
What is a mucus plug and how do you know you have lost yours? Learn when to see the doctor about losing your mucus during pregnancy.
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
AIDS is the advanced stage of HIV infection. Symptoms and signs of AIDS include pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jiroveci, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, seizures, weakness, meningitis, yeast infection of the esophagus, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is used in the treatment of AIDS.
How Is Postpartum Preeclampsia Treated?
Postpartum preeclampsia is a condition that affects mothers after giving birth. Learn what it is and how to identify it so you can get immediate help.
Pregnancy Diet (Menu Plans)
When a woman is pregnant, she needs more vitamins, minerals, and other foods in her diet to stay healthy and deliver a healthy baby. A healthy pregnancy diet menu plan should consist of lots of fruits, vegetables, lean meats (unless you are vegan or vegetarian), and dairy. Examples of healthy pregnancy diet meal plans include holistic pregnancy diet, vegan or vegetarian diet, and low-carb diets. Begin your healthy eating plan around three months before you begin trying to conceive, and follow the same eating plan until after you have stopped breastfeeding. If you are overweight or obese, being pregnant is not the right time to try to lose weight. Discuss your options with your health care professional.
Conjoined twins are identical twins. In both types of twins, the embryo is supposed to separate during the first two weeks after conception; however, in conjoined twins the embryo does not separate in two. The types of conjoined twins are based on the location of the fusion, and include thoracopagus or xiphopagus, omphalopagus, craniopagus, parapagus, pygopagus, ischiopagus, and rachipagus or rachiopagus. The possibility of surgery for separation, prognosis, and life expectancy of conjoined twins depend on the type.
How Do You Know if You Have a Prolapsed Uterus?
Many women with a prolapsed uterus don't even notice it. Learn the symptoms of uterine prolapse, what causes a prolapsed uterus, when to see the doctor, and the treatment options you have for a uterine prolapse.
Pregnancy Changes and Body Discomforts
Pregnancy can bring challenges like weight gain, stretch marks, varicose veins, heartburn, constipation, hemorrhoids, problems sleeping, and wondering if it is safe to have sex while pregnant. Learn how to manage and move through these challenges during pregnancy.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Pregnancy
Multiple sclerosis or MS is a central nervous system disease in which the immune system attacks the myelin sheath (the protective coating around nerves). Symptoms of MS include pain, sexual problems, fatigue, numbness and tingling, emotional changes, and depression.Women who are pregnant and have multiple sclerosis may have more difficulty carrying a pregnancy. Multiple sclerosis does not affect ability to conceive, and does not seem to affect fertility. MS symptoms during pregnancy may stay the same or get better; however, they may worsen after giving birth. Pregnancy decreases the number of relapses, but flares increase in the first 3-6 months after delivery. Pregnant women with MS may carrying a pregnancy more difficult to tell when labor starts, and there is an increased need to use forceps or vacuum to assist with delivery or b7 C-section (Cesarean birth) increases. Some treatment MS drugs may be safe to use during pregnancy; however, some drugs should not be taken, for example, baclofen (Gablofen, Lioresal), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), or solifenacin succinate (VESIcare), and most disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). Talk with your healthcare team about vitamins, supplements, and medications that you are taking if you are pregnant and have MS.
Postpartum depression is a form of depression that occurs within a year after delivery. It is thought that rapid hormone changes after childbirth may lead to depression. Symptoms of postpartum depression include crying a lot, headaches, chest pains, eating too little or too much, sleeping too little or too much, withdrawal from friends and family, and feeling irritable, sad, hopeless, worthless, guilty, and overwhelmed. Treatment typically involves talk therapy and medication.
Pregnancy and Drugs (Prescription and OTC)
Taking prescription medications or over-the-counter drugs or supplements should be discussed with your doctor. There are some medications that have been found to cause no problems in pregnancy, however, medications such as Accutane for acne, should never be taken during pregnancy.
Why Do Doctors Tell You Not to Push During Labor?
Labor is the process that prepares a woman to deliver her baby into the world. Doctors tell a woman not to push during labor because she is not ready, there may be a problem with the baby or she may have had an epidural.
How Long Does Labor Last for First-Time Moms?
Labor is the process by which a baby is born. Labor for a first-time moms typically lasts for 12 to 18 hours.
Is Breech Extraction Safe?
A breech baby means that the baby is in a bottom-down position inside the uterus. The baby generally has enough room inside the uterus to change position. By 36, most babies are in the head-down position (vertex presentation), which is the best and safest position for delivery.
Can Pregnancy Cause Herpes to Flare Up?
There's no evidence that pregnancy causes herpes outbreaks, but approximately 75% of pregnant women with herpes will have an outbreak at some point during their pregnancy.
Pain Relief Options for Childbirth
Women experience and tolerate pain differently. For some pregnant women, focused breathing is all they need to get through labor and childbirth; but for others, numbing of the pain is desired. There are a number of different medications a woman can take during labor and childbirth. It is important for you to learn what pain relief options are available. Please discuss the options with your health care professional well before your "birth day" so that when you are in labor you understand the choices.
Why Is an Epidural So Bad?
An epidural is a form of regional anesthesia that blocks pain in a particular region of the body. Most epidural side effects are rare and may include soreness, nausea, shivering, drop in blood pressure, ear ringing, difficulty urinating, backache and soreness.
How Common Is Uterine Prolapse?
What is a uterine prolapse? Learn the symptoms of a uterine prolapse, what causes uterine prolapse, and when to see your doctor for uterine prolapse.
Preeclampsia (Pregnancy Induced Hypertension)
Preeclampsia is related to increased blood pressure and protein in the mother's urine. Preeclampsia typically begins after the 20th week of pregnancy. When preeclampsia causes seizures, it is termed "eclampsia" and is the second leading cause of maternal death of in the US. Preeclampsia is the leading cause of fetal complications. Risk factors for preeclampsia include high blood pressure, obesity, multiple births, and women with preexisting medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or scleroderma. Pregnancy planning and lifestyle changes may reduce the risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy.
How Common Are Complications During Childbirth?
Labor or childbirth is a physiologic process during which the fetus, membranes, umbilical cord and placenta are expelled from the uterus. The most common complications during childbirth include preeclampsia, eclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm labor, infections and uterine atony.
Nerve Disease and Bladder Control
A nerve problem might affect your bladder control if the nerves that are supposed to carry messages between the brain and the bladder do not work properly. Such problems include urine retention, poor control of sphincter muscles, and overactive bladder. Treatment depends upon the cause of the nerve damage and resulting type of bladder control problem.
How Long Does It Take to Get Your Body Back After Pregnancy?
Your body goes through a lot of changes during pregnancy. It takes anywhere from a few weeks to a few months to get your body back after pregnancy and delivery.
Is It Worth Banking Cord Blood?
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) do not recommend routinely banking cord blood with private banks. There is an exception of a sibling with a medical condition requiring stem cells for treatment. However, it is advisable to donate cord blood to a public cord blood bank to provide life-saving stem cells to a person in need.
Why Do Doctors Shave You Before Delivery of Your Baby?
Pregnancy labor shave of the perineum before delivery is usually a topic for debate. Doctors may shave you before delivery for hygiene reasons or to reduce the risk of infection due to a surgical incision or C-section incision.
True Labor vs. False Labor and the 5-1-1 Rule
?If you are in late pregnancy, it's hard to know when it is 'go' time. You may feel many different sensations and not know if it's true or false labor.
Do You Go into Labor Sooner with Twins? What to Expect
If you're pregnant with twins, chances are that you can expect to go into labor a little bit sooner than you would if you were carrying just one baby.
Is Natural Birth Better Than Epidural?
You might feel pressured to have a natural birth or an epidural, but the fact is that one isn’t necessarily better than the other.
Are C-Sections Really That Bad?
In most births, the baby exits the uterus through the birth canal after a period of labor. C-sections are more complex than vaginal births because they are a form of surgery.
What Does Labor and Giving Birth Feel Like?
There are three stages of labor you'll progress through during and after a vaginal delivery.
Braxton-Hicks Contractions vs Real Contractions
Braxton-Hicks contractions are usually painless contractions that begin in the first trimester (usually around the 6th week) of pregnancy. Unlike Braxton-Hicks contractions, real labor contractions occur at regular intervals that decrease over time, they become stronger and longer over time and a change in position doesn't relieve the pain and discomfort.
How Do I Know If I Can Have a Vaginal Birth?
Some C-sections are medically necessary and can't be avoided. However, there are some things you can do to reduce your chances of needing a C-section if this is your first pregnancy.
What Happens During a C-Section?
A C-section or Cesarean section is a surgery in which a baby can be delivered through the abdomen and uterus.
What Is More Painful C-section or Natural Birth?
Ultimately, a natural birth may be more painful than a cesarean section. However, the pain after your cesarean section combined with the heightened risks to you and your baby may outweigh the initial pain of childbirth.
Local ResourcesFind a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
- oxytocin (Pitocin)
- terbutaline (Brethine)
- fentanyl patch (Duragesic)
- fentanyl injection (Sublimaze)
- Side Effects of Pitocin (oxytocin)
- carboprost tromethamine (Hemabate)
- nalbuphine (Nubain)
- Side Effects of Nubain (nalbuphine)
- butorphanol (Stadol)
- meperidine - injection, Demerol
- Side Effects of Stadol (butorphanol)
Prevention & Wellness
- Wildfire Smoke Could Raise Odds for Preterm Delivery
- No Sign COVID Raises Odds for Preterm Delivery, Stillbirths
- Epidural in Delivery Not Linked to Autism: Study
- Common Household Chemicals Tied to Preemie Births
- 'Birthing Girdle' Shows Traces of Medieval Women in Labor
- COVID in Pregnancy Tied to Higher Odds for 'Preemie' Delivery
- 'Awareness' Under C-Section Anesthesia May Be Less Rare Than Thought
- Women May Transmit Cancer to Infants in Childbirth, Reports Suggest
- Study Finds No Benefit From Supplemental Oxygen During Labor
- Pandemic Protocols Don't Stand in the Way of a Safe Delivery
- Gene Could Explain Why Some Women Don't Need Pain Relief in Childbirth
- New Moms Need to Watch Out for High Blood Pressure
- Another Possible Effect of Climate Change: More Preemie Babies
- Inducing Labor Safer Bet for Late-Term Pregnancies: Study
- Stress Takes Toll in Very Complicated Births
- Many U.S. Women Get Opioids After Giving Birth
- Quieter NICUs a Good Rx for Premature Babies
- C-Section Infection Risk Higher for Moms on Medicaid: Study
- Is There a Safer Choice Than Opioids After a C-Section?
- Postpartum Opioid Rx May Lead to Persistent Use: Study
- Wide Variation Seen in Pelvic Shapes: Study
- Push-Button Pain Meds Curb Need for Opioids After C-Section: Study
- C-Section Rates Have Nearly Doubled Since 2000: Study
- Do Dimmer Days in Pregnancy Raise Postpartum Depression Risk?
- Weight-Loss Surgery Linked to Fewer Delivery Complications
- Early Pushing in Childbirth Won't Hurt Mom or Baby, Study Finds
- Air Pollutants Reach Placenta, Might Harm Fetus: Study
- Large Rise Seen in Serious Birth Complications in U.S.
- Working Out After Baby
- Elective Labor Induction May Cut C-Section Risk
- Moms Who Smoked as Teens More Likely to Deliver Smaller Babies
- Better Sleep During Pregnancy May Cut Odds of Preemie Birth
- Know the Signs of Postpartum Depression
- Blood Test Might Predict Preterm Birth
- Most First-Time Moms Say Labor Pains Were Manageable
- Closing Fossil Fuel Plants Tied to Fewer Preterm Births
- Do Women Really Need to Starve Themselves During Labor?
- Serena Williams Shares Childbirth Ordeal
- Childbirth Deaths Declining in U.S., New Report Finds
- Hospital Midwives, Lower C-Section Rates?
- U.S. Preemie Birth Rates Rise 2 Years in a Row
- Ob/Gyns Warn Against 'Vaginal Seeding' Trend for Newborns
- Incision Length Linked to Pain After Cesarean
- Lying Down After an Epidural: A Smart Idea?
- Study Debunks Notion That Epidurals Prolong Labor
- Increasing Numbers of Pregnant Women Also Have Heart Disease
- Birthing Pool Not the Place to Deliver, New Guidelines Say
- Prior C-Section Raises Risk of Complications With Home Birth
- More U.S. Women Delivering Babies at Home or Birth Centers
- Severe Migraines Linked to Complications During Pregnancy, Childbirth
- Inducing Labor May Not Boost C-Section Risk
- Mistakes During Delivery Rarely Cause Newborn Brain Damage, Study Contends
- Study Links Home Births to Slightly Higher Infant Death Risk
- Home Births May Be Safe for 'Low-Risk' Pregnancies: Study
- Doctors Can Fine-Tune Estimates of Delivery Dates, Study Finds
- Light Meal During Labor May Be Safe for Most Women: Study
- Cesarean Delivery Won't Harm Kids' Health: Study
- Family Doctor Can Safely Assist Many Births
- Cost of Hospital Birth Varies by Nearly $10,000 Across U.S.
- Unsupervised Home Births on the Rise: Study
- C-Section Rates Drop Slightly With Hospital Review Program
- No Link Seen Between Oxytocin-Assisted Labor and ADHD
- Preterm Delivery Linked to Heart Disease, Stroke Risk in Mothers
- Could Nutrients in Fish Shield Fetus From Mercury's Harms?
- Preterm-Birth Complications Leading Global Killer of Young Children
- Whooping Cough Vaccine Seems Safe in Pregnancy, Study Finds
- Peak Pain Level Main Factor in Negative Childbirth Memories: Study
- Health Tip: Relieving Pain During Delivery
- Rely on Mom-to-Be When Epidural Is Needed
- Almost Everyone Needs a Flu Shot: CDC
- Health Tip: Healing After Baby is Born
- Too Many U.S. Babies Still Delivered Early Without Medical Need
- Number of Induced Labors Falling in U.S., CDC Says
- Induced Labor May Lower Risk for C-Section, Study Finds
- No Connection Between Induced Labor, Autism: Obgyns
- Spotting Cause of Newborn Brain Injury Could Aid Prevention, Report Says
- Cardiac Arrest During Childbirth More Common Than Thought: Study
- U.S. Home Births Continued Steady Increase in 2012: CDC
- Having a Baby? Price Tag for Delivery Varies Widely
- Health Tip: Considering a Birthing Class?
- Natural Delivery After a C-Section Often Successful: Study
- Health Risks, Costs Much Higher With Multiple Births: Study
- Women in Labor May Be Fine Taking in Nourishment, Study Finds
- Severe Blood Infections During Childbirth on Rise in U.S. Women
- Scientists Shed New Light on Cerebral Palsy, Early Infant Death
- Induced Labor Linked to Raised Risk of Autism, Study Suggests
- Bacteria Infection Risk May Be Higher for Pregnant Women With Diabetes
- Later Clamping of Umbilical Cord May Benefit Newborns: Study
- Health Tip: Taking a Birthing Class
- Combo Treatment Might Beat Epidural to Ease Labor: Study
- Patients More Likely to Survive In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Today: Study
- Language Barrier Blocks Epidural Use in Childbirth: Study
- Fear of Childbirth Linked to Longer Labor, Study Says
- C-Section Babies May Be More Likely to Fail First Hearing Test
- 'Cooling' Helps Oxygen-Deprived Newborns: Study
- C-Section May Hike Risk for Toddlers' Obesity, Study Suggests
- Induced Labor Late in Pregnancy Has Pros, Cons
- Are Repeat C-Sections Safer Than Natural Birth?
- When Unneeded, Induced Labor May Increase Complications
- Study Weighs Pros, Cons of Home or Hospital Birth
- Home Births in the U.S. on the Rise
- Antibiotics in Pregnancy May Shield Newborns From Strep B
- Timing of Delivery May Affect Cerebral Palsy Risk
- Study: Diet Sodas May Raise Risk of Preterm Delivery