Kidney stones are solid masses of crystalline material that form in the kidneys. Symptoms and signs of kidney stones can include pain, nausea, vomiting, and even fever and chills. Kidney stones are diagnosed via CT scans and specialized X-rays. Treatment of kidney stones involves drinking lots of fluids and taking over-the-counter pain medications to medical intervention including prescription medications, lithotripsy, and sometimes even surgery. Read more: Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis) Article
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Dehydration: Causes, Symptoms & Signs
Do you know the signs of dehydration? Dehydration can be mild or life-threatening. Learn causes, symptoms, treatments, and...
Kidney Stones: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
What causes kidney stones? Where is kidney stone pain located on your body? Learn the symptoms and signs of kidney stone pain....
Bladder Infections: UTI Causes, Symptoms, Treatments
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI's) can happen to anyone. Learn about symptoms, causes and home remedy treatments for bladder and...
Pelvic Pain: What's Causing Your Pelvic Pain?
There are many causes of pelvic pain and pain in the lower abdomen in women. Pelvic pain near the female lower abdomen has...
7 Ways Water Benefits the Body
Drinking water benefits digestion, metabolism, toxin elimination, and other functions. Water promotes weight loss and helps...
Kidney Disease Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Kidney disease is common. Take this kidney disease quiz to test your knowledge and learn the symptoms, causes and types of kidney...
Diabetes Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Take the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do...
Gout Attack Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, and Diet
Gout attacks (gouty arthritis) are caused by crystals of uric acid deposits. Learn about symptoms, causes, treatments and...
Picture of Kidney Stone Crystal
Kidney stones are made of salts and minerals in the urine that stick together, creating small "pebbles" formed within the kidney...
Picture of Kidney Stone Diagnosis
The diagnosis of kidney stones is suspected by the typical pattern of symptoms when other possible causes of the abdominal or...
Picture of Lithotripsy
For kidney stones that do not pass on their own, a procedure called lithotripsy is often used. See a picture of Lithotripsy and...
Picture of Kidney Stone
A stone in the kidney (or lower down in the urinary tract). See a picture of Kidney Stone and learn more about the health topic.
Picture of Kidneys
The kidneys are a pair of organs located in the back of the abdomen. See a picture of the Kidneys and learn more about the health...
Related Disease Conditions
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms. Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure. The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater. If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the bladder, kidneys, ureters, or urethra. E. coli, a type of bacteria that lives in the bowel and near the anus, causes most UTIs. UTI symptoms include pain, abdominal pain, mild fever, urinary urgency, and frequency. Treatment involves a course of antibiotics.
Testicular pain has many causes, including testicular torsion, cancer, injury and epididymitis. Treatment of pain in the testicles depends on the cause.
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Kidney pain has a variety of causes and symptoms. Infection, injury, trauma, bleeding disorders, kidney stones, and less common conditions may lead to kidney pain. Symptoms associated with kidney pain may include fever, vomiting, nausea, flank pain, and painful urination. Treatment of kidney pain depends on the cause of the pain.
Buildup of uric acid crystals in a joint causes gouty arthritis. Symptoms and signs include joint pain, swelling, heat, and redness, typically of a single joint. Gout may be treated with diet and lifestyle changes, as well as medication.
Internal bleeding is a serious consequence of trauma and can be life-threatening, requiring immediate medical attention. Learn about signs, causes, and treatment.
High Red Blood Cell Count (Polycythemia)
Polycythemia (elevated red blood cell count) is a rare blood disease in which the body produces too many red blood cells. Causes of polycythemia are either primary (acquired or genetic mutations) or secondary (diseases, conditions, high altitude).
Abdominal pain can have many causes that range from mild to severe. Some of these causes include bloating, gas, colitis, endometriosis, food poisoning, GERD, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), ovarian cysts, abdominal adhesions, diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, gallbladder disease, liver disease, and cancers. Signs and symptoms of the more serious causes include dehydration, bloody or black tarry stools, severe abdominal pain, pain with no urination or painful urination. Treatment for abdominal pain depends upon the cause.
Dehydration in Adults & Children
Dehydration is the excessive loss of body water. There are a number of causes of dehydration including heat exposure, prolonged vigorous exercise, and some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of dehydration include headache, lightheadedness, constipation, and bad breath. Treatment for dehydration is to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37 C), in practice, a person is usually not considered to have a significant fever until the temperature is above 100.4 F (38 C). Fever is part of the body's own disease-fighting arsenal; rising body temperatures apparently are capable of killing off many disease-producing organisms.
Lower Back Pain (Lumbar Spine Pain)
There are many causes of back pain. Pain in the low back can relate to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis, and abdomen, and the skin covering the lumbar area.
Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)
Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) usually is caused by E. coli and other bacteria that have spread from the bladder from a UTI (urinary tract infection), poor hygiene, sexual intercourse, pregnancy, catheter, cystoscope exam, surgery, kidney stones, or prostate enlargement. Symptoms of kidney infection include back pain, frequent urination, pain during urination, fever, and or pus or blood in the urine. Kidney infection can be cured with antibiotic treatment. Cranberry juice may prevent UTIs, but that hasn’t been proven in all research studies.
Bladder Infection (Cystitis)
Bladder infection is an infection of the bladder, usually caused by bacteria or, rarely, by Candida. Certain people, including females, the elderly, men with enlarged prostates, and those with chronic medical conditions are at increased risk for bladder infection. Bladder infections are treated with antibiotics, but cranberry products and adequate hydration may help prevent bladder infections.
Nausea and Vomiting
Nausea and vomiting are symptoms of many conditions including motion sickness, pregnancy, emotional stress, gallbladder disease, and other illnesses. Learn about causes, treatment, and when to be concerned.
What Dissolves Kidney Stones Fast?
One of the best and easiest ways to prevent kidney stones is to drink plenty of water. Generally, health experts recommend drinking about 12 glasses per day to help flush stones out of the urinary system. Sipping water throughout the day will help people stay hydrated and reduce their risk of kidney stone formation.
What Are the Most Common Kidney Diseases?
The most common type of kidney disease is chronic kidney disease (CKD). Other diseases include acute kidney injury, stones, infections, cysts, and cancer.
Hydronephrosis describes swelling of the kidney resulting from the inability of urine to drain from the kidney into the bladder. This may be a normal variant or it may be due to an underlying illness or medical condition. Symptoms of acute hydronephrosis may include intense flank or back pain radiating to the groin, nausea, vomiting, bloody urine, sweating, and colicky pain, which may cause the person to writhe or roll around or pace in pain.
What Should You Not Eat With Kidney Stones?
Here are the foods you should avoid when you have kidney stones, which include salt-rich foods, oxalate-rich foods, fatty foods, and more than 3-ounces of meat daily.
Hypercalcemia (Elevated Calcium Levels)
Hypercalcemia is a condition in which calcium levels in the blood are elevated. Hypercalcemia is associated with other conditions such as hyperparathyroidism, lung cancer, breast cancer, kidney failure, and elevated levels of vitamin D. Symptoms of hypercalcemia include constipation, nausea, abdominal pain, and kidney stones. Treatment depends on the cause of hypercalcemia.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The intestinal complications of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis differ because of the characteristically dissimilar behaviors of the intestinal inflammation in these two diseases.
What Happens if Uric Acid Is High?
A high uric acid level may occur when your kidneys don't eliminate uric acid efficiently and may result in the following health issues.
Blood in Urine
Blood in the urine is termed hematuria. Hematuria, whether it be gross or microscopic, is abnormal and should be further investigated.
Blood in Semen
Blood in semen is also known as hematospermia. Blood in semen can be caused by many conditions affecting the tubes that distribute semen from the testicles (seminal vesicles) or the prostate gland. Symptoms that may accompany blood in semen include blood in the urine, fever, painful urination, pain with ejaculation, tenderness, and swelling in the testes or groin area. Urinalysis, ultrasound, and MRI may be used to diagnose blood in the semen. Treatment depends upon the underlying cause of blood in the semen.
Can a Kidney Infection Cause Back Pain?
Many people are affected by lower back pain. Learn how to tell if lower back pain is due to a kidney infection or the result of other causes.
Pelvic Pain (in Women and Men)
Pelvic pain is described as pain, usually in the lower pelvic area. Causes of acute and chronic pelvic pain in women include endometriosis, ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, menstrual cramps, ovarian cysts, tumors, or fibroids, ovulation, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or congestion syndrome, vulva pain, and rarely cancer. Pelvic pain during pregnancy may be caused by miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy (tubal pregnancy), preterm or premature labor, and placental abruption. Causes of pelvic pain in men include prostate problems, testicular pain, and groin pain. Causes of pelvic pain in men and women include kidney stones, appendicitis, UTIs, IBD, and STDs. Signs and symptoms associated with pelvic pain depend on the cause, but man include pain during or after sexual intercourse, abdominal pain, distension, and tenderness, diarrhea, constipation, vaginal discharge or bleeding, blood, pus, in the urine, cloudy urine, blood in the stool, stool color changes, and low back pain. The cause of pelvic pain is diagnosed by a physical exam, blood tests, and imaging procedures. Treatment for pelvic pain depends on the cause.
Kidney Pain vs. Back Pain
The signs and symptoms of kidney pain and back pain depend upon the underlying cause. Doctors may use blood tests, X-rays, CT, and/or MRI to diagnose kidney pain and back pain. Treatment may include rest, ice, stretching, muscle strengthening, and pain-relieving medications.
How Long Does it Take to Pass a Kidney Stone?
What are kidney stones and what do they feel like? Learn the signs of kidney stones and what to do if you have kidney stone pain.
Is Banana Good for Kidney Stones?
Bananas may be a particularly helpful remedy against kidney stones, as they are rich in potassium and magnesium and low in oxalates.
Which Method Is Best to Remove Kidney Stones?
Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is the best procedure for removing kidney stones and consists of the following steps.
Cystinuria is a common genetic condition that causes excess buildup of the cystine protein in the urine. Cystinuria leads to the formation of stones in the bladder, ureter, and kidney. Signs and symptoms of cystinuria include hematuria, flank pain, renal colic, obstructive uropathy, and urinary tract infections. Cystinuria may be treated with medication, shock wave therapy, and by increasing fluid intake.
What Is IgA Nephropathy (Berger's Disease)?
Berger's disease or immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is a kidney disorder that presents with the passing of blood in the urine. This happens due to swelling of the glomeruli (filtering units of the kidney that produce urine). The swelling is usually caused due to a buildup of a substance called IgA in the kidneys.
What Does Blood in the Urine Mean?
When you see blood in the urine, it might be alarming. But it may not be a serious issue. Find out the essentials of what you need to know if it is something more serious.
What Is the Best Thing to Do If You Have a Kidney Stone?
If you have a kidney stone, the best thing you can do is to stay hydrated and follow your doctor’s recommendations. Learn about kidney stone treatment and prevention.
Local ResourcesFind a local Urologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Stomach Cramps
- Abdominal Pain
- Cloudy Urine
- Low Urine Output
- Frequent Urination
- Dark Urine
- Lower Back Pain
- Groin Pain
- Burning Urination (Dysuria)
- Blood in Urine
- Testicular Pain (Pain in the Testicles)
- Kidney Stone
- Pelvic Pain
- How to Choose a Doctor
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Doctor: Getting the Most from Your Doctor's Appointment
- Diabetes FAQs
- Kidney Disease FAQs
- Abdominal Pain Causes By Location
- Kidney Stones and Calcium
- What Is a Hospitalist?
- What Is Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy?
- What Is Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy?
- What Is a Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery (RIRS)?
- Side Effects of Zyloprim (Allopurinol) for Kidney Damage Prevention
- How Are Kidney Stones Diagnosed?
- Kidney Stone Causes
- Abdominal Pain: Questions to Ask Your Doctor
- What Are the Symptoms and Signs of Kidney Stones?
- Kidney Stone Treatment
Medications & Supplements
- allopurinol - oral, Zyloprim
- penicillamine - oral, Cuprimine, Depen
- Over-the-Counter Products
- ketorolac (Toradol)
- citric acid/sodium citrate
- Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs)
- ketorolac - injection, Toradol
- nifedipine (Procardia, Adalat, Afeditab)
- Allopurinol (Zyloprim, Aloprim)
- sodium citrate
- penicillamine (Cuprimine, Depen)
- probenecid, (Benemid - brand no longer available)
- potassium citrate
- trimagnesium citrate anhydrous
- NephrAmine (essential amino acid)
- Side Effects of Prograf (tacrolimus)
- tiopronin - oral, Thiola
- Veltassa (patiromer)
- Feraheme (ferumoxytol injection)
- Jynarque (tolvaptan)
- Monoferric (ferric derisomaltose)
- Side Effects of Urocit-K (potassium citrate)
- Fotivda (tivozanib)
- potassium/sodium phosphate - oral, K-Phos
- potassium acid phosphate - oral, K-Phos Original
- Albuminar (albumin) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Auryxia (ferric citrate)
- Injectafer (ferric carboxymaltose)
- Oxlumo (lumasiran)
- citric acid/potassium-sodium citrates - oral, Cytra-3, Polycitra
Prevention & Wellness
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