Kidney stones are solid masses of crystalline material that form in the kidneys. Symptoms of kidney stones can include pain, nausea, vomiting, and even fever and chills. Kidney stones are diagnosed via CT scans and specialized X-rays. Treatment of kidney stones involves drinking lots of fluids and taking over-the-counter pain medications to medical intervention including prescription medications, lithotripsy, and sometimes even surgery.Read more: Kidney Stones (nephrolithiasis) Article
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Picture of Kidney Stone Crystal
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The diagnosis of kidney stones is suspected by the typical pattern of symptoms when other possible causes of the abdominal or...
Picture of Lithotripsy
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Picture of Kidney Stone
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Kidney Stones in Adults
Second Source article from Government
Lower Back Pain
There are many causes of back pain. Pain in the low back can relate to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis and abdomen, and the skin covering the lumbar area.
Dehydration is the excessive loss of body water. There are a number of causes of dehydration including heat exposure, prolonged vigorous exercise, and some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of dehydration include headache, lightheadedness, constipation, and bad breath. Treatment for dehydration is to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Fever in Adults and Children
Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37 C), in practice, a person is usually not considered to have a significant fever until the temperature is above 100.4 F (38 C). Fever is part of the body's own disease-fighting arsenal; rising body temperatures apparently are capable of killing off many disease-producing organisms.
Buildup of uric acid crystals in a joint causes gouty arthritis. Symptoms and signs include joint pain, swelling, heat, and redness, typically of a single joint. Gout may be treated with diet and lifestyle changes, as well as medication.
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms. Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure. The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater. If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
Blood in Urine (Causes, Pain, and Treatment in Men and Women)
Blood in the urine is termed hematuria. Hematuria, whether it be gross or microscopic, is abnormal and should be further investigated.
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the bladder, kidneys, ureters, or urethra. E. coli, a type of bacteria that lives in the bowel and near the anus, causes most UTIs. UTI symptoms include pain, abdominal pain, mild fever, urinary urgency and frequency. Treatment involves a course of antibiotics.
What Causes Abdominal Pain?
Abdominal pain can have many causes that range from mild to severe. Some of these causes include bloating, gas, colitis, endometriosis, food poisoning, GERD, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), ovarian cysts, abdominal adhesions, diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, gallbladder disease, liver disease, and cancers. Signs and symptoms of the more serious causes include dehydration, bloody or black tarry stools, severe abdominal pain, pain with no urination or painful urination. Treatment for abdominal pain depends upon the cause.
Hyperparathyroidism is a disorder of the parathyroid glands. There are two types of hyperparathyroidism, primary and secondary. When the parathyroid glands produce too much hormone, hyperparathyroidism is the resulting condition. Most cases of hyperparathyroidism have no evident cause. Signs and symptoms of hyperparathyroidism include fatigue, weakness, depression, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, constipation, or confusion. Increased calcium and phosphorous excretion may cause kidney stones. The main treatment of hyperparathyroidism is surgery (parathyroidectomy).
Hydronephrosis describes swelling of the kidney resulting from the inability of urine to drain from the kidney into the bladder. This may be a normal variant or it may be due to an underlying illness or medical condition. Symptoms of acute hydronephrosis may include: intense flank or back pain radiating to the groin, nausea, vomiting, bloody urine, sweating, and colicky pain, which may cause the person to writhe or roll around or pace in pain.
Blood in Semen
Blood in semen is also known as hematospermia. Blood in semen can be caused by many conditions affecting the tubes that distribute semen from the testicles (seminal vesicles) or the prostate gland. Symptoms that may accompany blood in semen include blood in the urine, fever, painful urination, pain with ejaculation, tenderness, and swelling in the testes or groin area. Urinalysis, ultrasound, and MRI may be used to diagnose blood in the semen. Treatment depends upon the underlying cause of blood in the semen.
Cystinuria is a common genetic condition that causes excess buildup of the cystine protein in the urine. Cystinuria leads to the formation of stones in the bladder, ureter, and kidney. Signs and symptoms of cystinuria include: hematuria, flank pain, renal colic, obstructive uropathy, and urinary tract infections. Cystinuria may be treated with medication, shock wave therapy, and by increasing fluid intake.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Intestinal Problems of IBD)
The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The intestinal complications of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis differ because of the characteristically dissimilar behaviors of the intestinal inflammation in these two diseases.
Nausea and Vomiting
Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often precedes vomiting. Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms of many conditions. There are numerous cases of nausea and vomiting. Some causes may not require medical treatment, for example, motion sickness, and other causes may require medical treatment by a doctor, for example, heart attack, lung infections, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Some causes of nausea and vomiting may be life-threatening, for example, heart attack, abdominal obstruction, and cancers. Treatment of nausea and vomiting depends upon the cause.
Testicular pain, or pain in the testicle or testicles are caused by a variety of diseases or conditions such as testicular trauma, testicular torsion, varicoceles, testicular cancer, epididymitis caused by infections such as STDs, and orchitis. Common symptoms of pain in the testicle or testicles are abdominal pain, urinary pain or incontinence, fever, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the scrotum or testicle. Treatment depends on the cause of the testicular pain or pain in the testicles.
Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)
Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) usually is caused by E. coli and other bacteria that have spread from the bladder from a UTI (urinary tract infection), poor hygiene, sexual intercourse, pregnancy, catheter, cystoscope exam, surgery, kidney stones, or prostate enlargement. Symptoms of kidney infection include back pain, frequent urination, pain during urination, fever, and or pus or blood in the urine. Kidney infection can be cured with antibiotic treatment. Cranberry juice may prevent UTIs, but that hasn’t been proven in all research studies.
Hypercalcemia (Elevated Calcium Levels)
Hypercalcemia is a condition in which calcium levels in the blood are elevated. Hypercalcemia is associated with other conditions such as hyperparathyroidism, lung cancer, breast cancer, kidney failure, and elevated levels of vitamin D. Symptoms of hypercalcemia include constipation, nausea, abdominal pain, and kidney stones. Treatment depends on the cause of hypercalcemia.
Internal bleeding occurs when an artery or vein is damaged and blood to escapes the circulatory system and collects inside the body. Internal bleeding can be caused by a variety of situations such as blunt trauma, deceleration trauma, medications, fractures, and spontaneous bleeding. Treatment of internal bleeding depends on the cause of the bleeding.
High Red Blood Cell Count (Polycythemia)
Polycythemia (elevated red blood cell count) is a rare blood disease in which the body produces too many red blood cells. Causes of polycythemia are either primary (acquired or genetic mutations) or secondary (diseases, conditions, high altitude).
Bladder Infection (Cystitis)
Bladder infection is an infection of the bladder, usually caused by bacteria or, rarely, by Candida. Certain people, including females, the elderly, men with enlarged prostates, and those with chronic medical conditions are at increased risk for bladder infection. Bladder infections are treated with antibiotics, but cranberry products and adequate hydration may help prevent bladder infections.
Kidney Pain Symptoms, Treatment, and Cure
Kidney pain has a variety of causes and symptoms. Infection, injury, trauma, bleeding disorders, kidney stones, and less common conditions may lead to kidney pain. Symptoms associated with kidney pain may include fever, vomiting, nausea, flank pain, and painful urination. Treatment of kidney pain depends on the cause of the pain.
Pelvic Pain (in Women and Men)
Pelvic pain is described as pain, usually in the lower pelvic area. Causes of acute and chronic pelvic pain in women include endometriosis, ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, menstrual cramps, ovarian cysts, tumors, or fibroids, ovulation, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or congestion syndrome, vulva pain, and rarely cancer. Pelvic pain during pregnancy may be caused by miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy (tubal pregnancy), preterm or premature labor, and placental abruption. Causes of pelvic pain in men include prostate problems, testicular pain, and groin pain. Causes of pelvic pain in men and women include kidney stones, appendicitis, UTIs, IBD, and STDs. Signs and symptoms associated with pelvic pain depend on the cause, but man include pain during or after sexual intercourse, abdominal pain, distension, and tenderness, diarrhea, constipation, vaginal discharge or bleeding, blood, pus, in the urine, cloudy urine, blood in the stool, stool color changes, and low back pain. The cause of pelvic pain is diagnosed by a physical exam, blood tests, and imaging procedures. Treatment for pelvic pain depends on the cause.
Kidney Pain vs. Back Pain
The signs and symptoms of kidney pain and back pain depend upon the underlying cause. Doctors may use blood tests, X-rays, CT, and/or MRI to diagnose kidney pain and back pain. Treatment may include rest, ice, stretching, muscle strengthening, and pain-relieving medications.
Local ResourcesFind a local Urologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Abdominal Pain
- Lower Back Pain
- Blood in Urine
- Burning Urination (Dysuria)
- Frequent Urination
- Doctor: Getting the Most from Your Doctor's Appointment
- How to Choose a Doctor
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Dark Urine
- Cloudy Urine
- Stomach Cramps
- Testicular Pain (Pain in the Testicles)
- Kidney Stone
- Low Urine Output
- Pelvic Pain
- Groin Pain
- Diabetes FAQs
- Kidney Disease FAQs
- Abdominal Pain Causes
- Kidney Stones and Calcium
- What Is a Hospitalist?
- What Is Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy?
- What Is Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy?
- What Is a Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery (RIRS)?
- Side Effects of Zyloprim (Allopurinol) for Kidney Damage Prevention
- How Are Kidney Stones Diagnosed?
- Kidney Stone Causes
- Abdominal Pain: Questions to Ask Your Doctor
- What Are the Symptoms and Signs of Kidney Stones?
- Kidney Stone Treatment
- Kidney Stones: Symptoms and Prevention Podcast
Medications & Supplements
- allopurinol - oral, Zyloprim
- penicillamine - oral, Cuprimine, Depen
- probenecid, (Benemid - brand no longer available)
- penicillamine (Cuprimine, Depen)
- hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide, Hydrodiuril)
- ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Nuprin)
- nifedipine (Procardia, Adalat, Afeditab)
- Allopurinol (Zyloprim, Aloprim)
- Over-the-Counter Products
- Flomax (tamsulosin)
- Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs)
- citric acid/potassium-sodium citrates - oral, Cytra-3, Polycitra
- ketorolac - injection, Toradol
- ketorolac (Toradol)
- citric acid/sodium citrate
- potassium/sodium phosphate - oral, K-Phos
- tiopronin - oral, Thiola
- potassium acid phosphate - oral, K-Phos Original
- Veltassa (patiromer)
- Albuminar (albumin) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Side Effects of Prograf (tacrolimus)
- Side Effects of Urocit-K (potassium citrate)
- NephrAmine (essential amino acid)
- Feraheme (ferumoxytol injection)
- Monoferric (ferric derisomaltose)
- Injectafer (ferric carboxymaltose)
- Jynarque (tolvaptan)
Prevention & Wellness
- Health Tip: Preventing Kidney Stones
- Health Tip: Understanding Kidney Stones
- AHA News: Opioid Meds Pose Danger to Kidney Disease Patients
- Health Tip: Symptoms of Kidney Stones
- Too Many Kidney Disease Patients in the Dark About Diet
- 850 Million People Worldwide Have Kidney Disease
- Antibiotics Tied to Higher Kidney Stone Risk
- Surgeons Safely Transplant Kidneys From Donors With Hep C
- Kidney Stones on the Rise Among Women
- Premature Calcium Deposits May Trigger Premature Births: Study
- Review Says Calcium Supplements Won't Harm the Heart
- Calcium Supplements May Not Be Heart Healthy
- Kidney Stone? Try a Roller Coaster Ride
- Diet Supplement May Help Prevent Kidney Stones: Study
- Rise in Kidney Stones in Teens a Cause for Concern: Study
- Kidney Patients Without Online Access Face Additional Burden
- Calcium Supplements Tied to Kidney Stone Risk in Study
- Drug May Ease Passage When Kidney Stone Strikes
- For Women, No Link Between Kidney Stones, Osteoporosis
- Health Tip: Are You at Risk for Kidney Stones?
- Health Tip: Know the Signs of Kidney Stones
- Prompt Treatment of Kidney Stones Keeps Costs Down: Study
- Little Risk of Vitamin D Toxicity, Study Says
- Man's Iced Tea Habit May Have Swamped His Kidneys
- Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones
- Health Tip: Keeping Kidney Stones at Bay
- Kidney Stones Can Send Patients to Hospital More Than Once
- Some With Kidney Stones Might Have Calcium Buildup in Blood Vessels: Study
- Study Finds Kidney Stones Linked to Weakened Bones
- Will Kidney Stones Recur? New Test Might Tell
- Will a Warmer Climate Mean More Kidney Stones?
- Ultrasound Trumps CT Scan for Diagnosing Kidney Stones in Study
- Complications Common, Costly With Some Kidney Stone Treatments
- Diet to Reduce Blood Pressure May Also Stave Off Kidney Stones
- Vitamin D Supplements: FAQ
- Light Exercise Might Reduce Risk of Kidney Stones
- Kidney Stones Tied to Raised Heart Disease Risk in Women
- Sugary Sodas, Fruit Punches May Raise Kidney Stone Risk: Study
- Exercise May Lower Older Women's Risk for Kidney Stones
- Health Tip: Keep Kidney Stones Away
- Complications From Kidney Stone Surgery Rising, Study Finds
- High Doses of Vitamin C May Raise Risk of Kidney Stones
- Could Chemical in Dishware Raise Your Risk for Kidney Stones?
- Millions May Be Taking Vitamin D Unnecessarily, Analysis Suggests
- Calcium May Help Prevent Hormone Disorder
- Kidney Stones May Be Tied to Later Kidney Problems
- Drinking Iced Tea Raises Kidney Stone Risk: Study
- Vitamin D With Calcium May Boost Survival
- Are the Benefits of Vitamin D Overhyped?
- Group Calls on FDA to Pull Alli, Xenical
- FDA Panel Says 'No' to Weight Loss Drug Qnexa
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