Kidney failure can occur from an acute event or a chronic condition or disease. Prerenal kidney failure is caused by blood loss, dehydration, or medication. Some of the renal causes of kidney failure include sepsis, medications, rhabdomyolysis, multiple myeloma, and acute glomerulonephritis.
Post renal causes of kidney failure include bladder obstruction, prostate problems, tumors, or kidney stones.Treatment options included diet, medications, or dialysis.Read more: Kidney (Renal) Failure Article
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Type 2 Diabetes: Signs, Symptoms, Treatments
Learn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Find out why thirst, headaches, and...
Diabetes: What Raises and Lowers Your Blood Sugar Level?
Want to lower your blood sugar? Learn to better control your glucose levels by preventing blood sugar spikes and swings to avoid...
Type 1 Diabetes (T1D): Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, Vs. Type 2
What is type 1 diabetes? There are new treatments for juvenile diabetes, and more people with diabetes can be treated than ever...
Dehydration: Causes, Symptoms & Signs
Do you know the signs of dehydration? Dehydration can be mild or life-threatening. Learn causes, symptoms, treatments, and...
Kidney Disease Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Kidney disease is common. Take this kidney disease quiz to test your knowledge and learn the symptoms, causes and types of kidney...
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Quiz: Symptoms, Signs & Causes
Take this quiz and test your IQ of high blood pressure (hypertension), the cardiovascular disease that causes most strokes and...
Diabetes Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Take the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do...
Diabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating
Discover the best and worst meals for diabetes-savvy dining. See how to avoid carbs and control your blood sugar with healthier...
Picture of Abdomen
The abdomen (commonly called the belly) is the body space between the thorax (chest) and pelvis. See a picture of the Abdomen and...
Picture of Kidneys
The kidneys are a pair of organs located in the back of the abdomen. See a picture of the Kidneys and learn more about the health...
Diabetes: 15 Famous Celebrities With Diabetes
See pictures of celebrities that have been diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes including Mary Tyler Moore, Salma Hayek, and...
Slideshow: Diabetes Management in 10 Minutes
Learn 10 simple ways to better manage your diabetes. See tips for controlling blood sugar, diet and exercise and other helpful...
10 Muscle-Building Exercises for Diabetes
Watch this slideshow on Diabetes and Exercise. If you have diabetes, see how strengthening your muscles with these 10 weight...
Related Disease Conditions
What Foods Help Repair Kidneys?
If you have chronic kidney disease, it is crucial to track food and fluid intake because diseased kidneys can’t remove waste products from the body like healthy kidneys can. Good foods that help repair your kidneys include apples, blueberries, fish, kale, spinach and sweet potatoes.
Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)
Low blood pressure, also referred to as hypotension, is blood pressure that is so low that it causes symptoms or signs due to the low flow of blood through the arteries and veins. Some of the symptoms of low blood pressure include light-headedness, dizziness, and fainting if not enough blood is getting to the brain. Diseases and medications can also cause low blood pressure. When the flow of blood is too low to deliver enough oxygen and nutrients to vital organs such as the brain, heart, and kidneys; the organs do not function normally and may be permanently damaged.
What Level of BUN Indicates Kidney Failure?
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is one of the parameters measured to ascertain kidney function. BUN indicates the urea nitrogen produced in the body during protein breakdown. There is no definite value of BUN that would diagnose kidney failure.
Kidney pain has a variety of causes and symptoms. Infection, injury, trauma, bleeding disorders, kidney stones, and less common conditions may lead to kidney pain. Symptoms associated with kidney pain may include fever, vomiting, nausea, flank pain, and painful urination. Treatment of kidney pain depends on the cause of the pain.
Anemia is the condition of having less than the normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. The oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is, therefore, decreased. There are several types of anemia such as iron deficiency anemia (the most common type), sickle cell anemia, vitamin B12 anemia, pernicious anemia, and aplastic anemia. Symptoms of anemia may include fatigue, malaise, hair loss, palpitations, menstruation, and medications. Treatment for anemia includes treating the underlying cause for the condition. Iron supplements, vitamin B12 injections, and certain medications may also be necessary.
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Cirrhosis of the liver refers to a disease in which normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue caused by alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C. This disease leads to abnormalities in the liver's ability to handle toxins and blood flow, causing internal bleeding, kidney failure, mental confusion, coma, body fluid accumulation, and frequent infections. Symptoms include yellowing of the skin (jaundice), itching, and fatigue. The prognosis is good for some people with cirrhosis of the liver, and the survival can be up to 12 years; however the life expectancy is about 6 months to 2 years for people with severe cirrhosis with major complications.
10 Foods to Eat If You Have Addison's Disease
What is Addison's disease and how can you manage it? Learn which 10 foods can help manage your Addison's disease symptoms.
Buildup of uric acid crystals in a joint causes gouty arthritis. Symptoms and signs include joint pain, swelling, heat, and redness, typically of a single joint. Gout may be treated with diet and lifestyle changes, as well as medication.
Flakka (also known as "bath salts" or several other slang names) is a dangerous synthetic or "designer" drug. Users take it to experience euphoria, but it can often lead to dangerous delusions, paranoia, and bizarre behaviors. Dehydration, hyperthermia, and a dangerous condition that affects the kidneys called rhabdomyolysis can occur as a result of using Flakka.
How to Get Rid of Hiccups
Hiccups are involuntary spasms of the diaphragm that may be caused by medications, certain foods, surgery, strokes, brain tumors, and noxious fumes. Get tips for curing hiccups in infants and babies.
Peripheral neuropathy is a problem with the functioning of the nerves outside of the spinal cord. Symptoms may include numbness, weakness, burning pain (especially at night), and loss of reflexes. Possible causes may include carpel tunnel syndrome, shingles, vitamin or nutritional deficiencies, and illnesses like diabetes, syphilis, AIDS, and kidney failure. Peripheral neuropathy is diagnosed with exams and tests. Treatment for the condition depends on the cause. Usually, the prognosis for peripheral neuropathy is good if the cause can be successfully treated or prevented.
Edema is swelling caused by fluid accumulation in the tissues of the body and occurs most often in the legs, feet, ankles, or hands. Learn about different types, symptoms, causes, and treatment.
Ascites: Fluid Retention
Ascites (fluid retention) are an accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, often caused by liver disease or cirrhosis, cancers, or heart failure. Learn about symptoms, types, and treatment.
Encephalopathy refers to brain disease, damage, or malfunction. Learn about what causes encephalopathy as well as types, symptoms, stages, and treatment.
What Is the Best Kidney Disease Treatment?
There is no cure for chronic kidney disease, but treatment can help relieve the symptoms and prevent them from worsening. Here are the five best treatments for kidney disease.
Dehydration in Adults & Children
Dehydration is the excessive loss of body water. There are a number of causes of dehydration including heat exposure, prolonged vigorous exercise, and some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of dehydration include headache, lightheadedness, constipation, and bad breath. Treatment for dehydration is to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
Dry skin (xeroderma) may be caused by external factors, like cold temperatures, low humidity, harsh soaps, and certain medications, or internal factors, such as thyroid disease, diabetes, psoriasis, or Sjogren's syndrome. Symptoms and signs of dry skin include itching and red, cracked, or flaky skin. The main treatment for dry skin is frequent, daily lubrication of the skin.
How Can I Improve My Kidney Health? Nine Tips
Kidneys are vital organs involved in performing several important functions in the body. Almost a third of the adults in the United States are at risk of developing kidney diseases. People who are on long-term medications or suffering from conditions such as diabetes and hypertension have a higher risk of kidney diseases.
Pulmonary edema, or fluid in the lungs, can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath. Learn about causes, diagnosis complications, treatment, and prevention.
Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or SLE)
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a condition characterized by chronic inflammation of body tissues caused by autoimmune disease. Lupus can cause disease of the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, joints, and nervous system. When only the skin is involved, the condition is called discoid lupus. When internal organs are involved, the condition is called systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
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Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)
Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) usually is caused by E. coli and other bacteria that have spread from the bladder from a UTI (urinary tract infection), poor hygiene, sexual intercourse, pregnancy, catheter, cystoscope exam, surgery, kidney stones, or prostate enlargement. Symptoms of kidney infection include back pain, frequent urination, pain during urination, fever, and or pus or blood in the urine. Kidney infection can be cured with antibiotic treatment. Cranberry juice may prevent UTIs, but that hasn’t been proven in all research studies.
Sepsis (Blood Poisoning)
Sepsis (blood poisoning) is a potentially deadly infection with signs and symptoms that include elevated heart rate, low or high temperature, rapid breathing and/or a white blood cell count that is too high or too low and has more than 10% band cells. Most cases of sepsis are caused by bacterial infections, and some cases are caused by fungal infections. Treatment requires hospitalization, IV antibiotics, and therapy to treat any organ dysfunction.
Swollen Ankles and Swollen Feet
Swollen ankles and swollen feet is a symptom of an underlying disease or condition such as edema, medications, pregnancy, injuries, diseases, infections, lymphedema, or blood clots.
High Potassium (Hyperkalemia)
Hyperkalemia is an abnormally high level of potassium in the blood. Hyperkalemia symptoms include nausea, fatigue, tingling sensations, or muscle weakness. Hyperkalemia may also cause no symptoms. Hyperkalemia treatment may include a low-potassium diet, medications, and intravenous glucose and insulin. Causes of hyperkalemia include kidney dysfunction, certain medications, adrenal gland diseases, and potassium shifts.
Multiple myeloma is a form of cancer that develops in plasma cells, the white blood cells that make antibodies. Symptoms include bone pain, weakness, extreme thirst, nausea, frequent urination, and broken bones. Treatment of multiple myeloma depends upon the staging and symptoms of the disease.
Restless Leg Syndrome
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common cause of painful legs that typically eases with motion, and becomes worse and more noticeable at rest. This characteristic nighttime worsening can frequently lead to insomnia. Treatment of the symptoms of restless leg syndrome is generally with medication as well as treating any underlying condition causing restless leg syndrome.
How Long Can a Person Live With Stage V Kidney Failure Without Dialysis?
Life expectancy for stage V kidney failure without dialysis varies from person to person. However, death is inevitable within a few weeks.
Lymphedema is a condition in which one or more extremities become swollen as the result of an impaired flow of the lymphatic system. There are two types of lymphedema: primary and secondary. Filariasis is the most common cause of lymphedema worldwide. In the U.S., breast cancer surgery is the most common cause. Symptoms include swelling of one or more limbs, cracked and thickening skin, and secondary bacterial or fungal infections of the skin. There is no cure for lymphedema.
Thrombocytopenia (Low Platelet Count)
Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) refers to a decreased number of platelets in the blood. Symptoms of thrombocytopenia include: Increased bruising Spontaneous bleeding Small, purple spots under the skin called purpura There are many causes of thrombocytopenia such as decreased platelet production (viral infections for example rubella, mumps, chickenpox, hepatitis C, and HIV); increased platelet destruction or consumption (for example sulfonamide antibiotics, heparin, blood transfusions, and lupus); or increased splenic sequestration (enlarged spleen due to conditions, for example, liver disease, blood cancers, and more). Treatment of thrombocytopenia depends on the cause.
How Long Can You Live With Stage 5 Kidney Disease?
Although the lifespan of stage 5 kidney disease depends on certain factors, the average length of time a patient lives ranges from 5-10 years.
Symptoms of 12 Serious Diseases and Health Problems
Learn how to recognize early warning signs and symptoms of serious diseases and health problems, for example, chronic cough, headache, chest pain, nausea, stool color or consistency changes, heartburn, skin moles, anxiety, nightmares, suicidal thoughts, hallucinations, delusions, lightheadedness, night sweats, eye problems, confusion, depression, severe pelvic or abdominal pain, unusual vaginal discharge, and nipple changes. The symptoms and signs of serious health problems can be caused by strokes, heart attacks, cancers, reproductive problems in females (for example, cancers, fibroids, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, and sexually transmitted diseases or STDs), breast problems (for example, breast cancer and non-cancer related diseases), lung diseases (for example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, lung cancer, emphysema, and asthma), stomach or digestive diseases (for example, cancers, gallbladder, liver, and pancreatic diseases, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn's disease), bladder problems (for example, urinary incontinence, and kidney infections), skin cancer, muscle and joint problems, emotional problems or mental illness (for example, postpartum depression, major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mania, and schizophrenia), and headache disorders (for example, migraines, or "the worst headache of your life), and eating disorders and weight problems (for example, anorexia or bulimia).
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that may be reversible with diet and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, and an unusual odor to your urine. Most people don't know they have type 2 diabetes until they have a routine blood test. Treatment options include medications, a type 2 diabetes diet, and other lifestyle changes.
What Are the Most Common Kidney Diseases?
The most common type of kidney disease is chronic kidney disease (CKD). Other diseases include acute kidney injury, stones, infections, cysts, and cancer.
Pleural Effusion (Fluid in the Pleural Space)
Pleural effusion is a buildup of fluid in the chest or the lungs. There are two types of pleural effusion, transudate, and exudate. Causes of transudate pleural effusion include congestive heart failure, kidney failure, and cirrhosis. Exudate pleural effusion can be caused by malignancy (cancer) or a lung infection. Typically, transudate pleural effusion is more easily treatable. Symptoms of pleural effusion include chest pain, pain when breathing, difficulty breathing, and cough. Treatment depends on the source or cause of the pleural effusion.
Palpitations are uncomfortable sensations of the heart beating hard, rapidly, or irregularly. Some types of palpitations are benign, while others are more serious. Palpitations are diagnosed by taking the patient history and by performing an EKG or heart monitoring along with blood tests. An electrophysiology study may also be performed. Treatment of palpitations may include lifestyle changes, medication, ablation, or implantation of a pacemaker. The prognosis if palpitations depends on the underlying cause.
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) refers to diseases of the blood vessels (arteries and veins) located outside the heart and brain. While there are many causes of peripheral vascular disease, doctors commonly use the term peripheral vascular disease to refer to peripheral artery disease (peripheral arterial disease, PAD), a condition that develops when the arteries that supply blood to the internal organs, arms, and legs become completely or partially blocked as a result of atherosclerosis. Peripheral artery disease symptoms include intermittent leg pain while walking, leg pain at rest, numbness in the legs or feet, and poor wound healing in the legs or feet. Treatment for peripheral artery disease include lifestyle measures, medication, angioplasty, and surgery.
Hydronephrosis describes swelling of the kidney resulting from the inability of urine to drain from the kidney into the bladder. This may be a normal variant or it may be due to an underlying illness or medical condition. Symptoms of acute hydronephrosis may include intense flank or back pain radiating to the groin, nausea, vomiting, bloody urine, sweating, and colicky pain, which may cause the person to writhe or roll around or pace in pain.
Rhabdomyolysis is a rapid deterioration and destruction of skeletal muscle. Some of the causes of rhabdomyolysis include severe burns, muscle trauma, coma, seizures, electrolyte imbalance, medications (statins), viruses, and bacteria. Treatment of rhabdomyolysis depends on the cause.
Can a Damaged Kidney Repair Itself?
Kidney damage in acute kidney failure can be reversed with prompt hospitalization and lifestyle modifications. However, chronic kidney failure is often irreversible.
Hypercalcemia (Elevated Calcium Levels)
Hypercalcemia is a condition in which calcium levels in the blood are elevated. Hypercalcemia is associated with other conditions such as hyperparathyroidism, lung cancer, breast cancer, kidney failure, and elevated levels of vitamin D. Symptoms of hypercalcemia include constipation, nausea, abdominal pain, and kidney stones. Treatment depends on the cause of hypercalcemia.
Hyponatremia (Low Blood Sodium)
Hyponatremia is a condition in which the levels of sodium in the blood is too low. Some of the symptoms of hyponatremia include headaches, muscle cramps or spasm, seizures, weakness, restlessness, and confusion. Hyponatremia can occur from excess fluid in the body, or a loss of sodium in body fluid. Causes of low levels of sodium in the blood include chronic diseases like kidney or congestive heart failure, adrenal gland problems, hypothyroidism, and liver cirrhosis, and some medications. Diet and other lifestyle changes in addition to treatment with electrolyte replacement with an IV. Other treatments for hyponatremia depend upon the cause.
Burn types are based on their severity: first-degree burns, second-degree burns, and third-degree burns. First-degree burns are similar to a painful sunburn. The damage is more severe with second-degree burns, leading to blistering and more intense pain. The skin turns white and loses sensation with third-degree burns. Burn treatment depends upon the burn location, total burn area, and intensity of the burn.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complication of type 1 diabetes that is life threatening. If a person thinks they may have diabetic ketoacidosis they should seek medical care immediately. Diabetic ketoacidosis happens when a person's insulin levels in the blood become dangerously low. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include dehydration, abdominal pain, confusion, and nausea and vomiting. Diabetic ketoacidosis needs medical treatment. It cannot be treated at home.
Is E. coli Contagious? (Symptoms and Cure)
E. coli is an infection found worldwide. There are several subtypes of the E. coli species. E. coli spreads from person to person via contaminated food or water. Symptoms and signs of E. coli infection include diarrhea, stomach cramps, and sometimes fever. Antibiotics treat E. coli infection.
Gynecomastia (Enlarged Male Breasts)
Gynecomastia, an enlargement of the gland tissue in the male breast is caused by an imbalance of hormones. Check out the center below for more medical references on gynecomastia, including multimedia (slideshows, images, and quizzes), related disease conditions, treatment and diagnosis, medications, and prevention or wellness.
Renal Artery Stenosis
Renal artery stenosis is a narrowing of the diameter of the renal arteries. When the renal arteries narrow, the result is restricted blood flow to the kidneys, which may lead to impaired kidney function and high blood pressure (referred to as renovascular hypertension (RVHT). Renal artery stenosis can occur in one or both kidneys. The primary cause of renal artery stenosis is atherosclerosis. Symptoms of renal artery stenosis include high blood pressure that does not respond to treatment and severe high blood pressure in individuals younger than 30 or greater than 50 years of age. Renal artery stenosis is diagnosed with imaging and functional tests. Treatment for renal artery stenosis include medication or surgery.
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a disease transmitted by rodents. Symptoms include fever and muscle pain. HPS can be prevented by sealing up rodent entry holes, trapping rats and mice with an appropriate snap trap, and cleaning up rodent food sources.
Things to Know About High Blood Pressure Treatment
High blood pressure (hypertension) means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Treatment for high blood pressure include lifestyle modifications (alcohol, smoking, coffee, salt, diet, exercise), drugs and medications such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), alpha blockers, clonidine, minoxidil, and Exforge.
How Do I Get Rid of a Cyst on My Kidney?
Learn what medical treatments can help get rid of your kidney cysts and speed up your recovery.
Arsenic comes in two forms: inorganic and organic. Organic arsenic poisoning is usually not poisonous to humans; however, inorganic arsenic in large enough amounts can lead to shock and death. Symptoms of arsenic poisoning include nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dehydration, dark urine, vertigo, delirium, shock, and death. Treatment for arsenic poisoning includes hemodialysis and a variety of drugs.
Amyloidosis is a group of diseases resulting from abnormal deposition of certain proteins (amyloids) in various bodily areas. The amyloid proteins may either be deposited in one particular area of the body (localized amyloidosis) or they may be deposited throughout the body (systemic amyloidosis). There are three types of systemic amyloidosis: primary (AL), secondary (AA), and familial (ATTR). Primary amyloidosis is not associated with any other diseases and is considered a disease entity of its own. Secondary amyloidosis occurs as a result of another illness. Familial Mediterranean Fever is a form of familial (inherited) amyloidosis. Amyloidosis treatment involves treating the underlying illness and correcting organ failure.
How Does Addison's Disease Affect the Skin?
Addison's disease is a rare and serious condition involving the adrenal glands. These glands sit above the kidneys and make hormones like cortisol and sex hormones.
Preeclampsia and Eclampsia
Preeclampsia is a condition in pregnant women marked by high blood pressure and a high level of protein in the urine. Eclampsia occurs when preeclampsia goes untreated. Eclampsia can cause coma and death of the mother and baby. Preeclampsia symptoms include rapid weight gain, abdominal pain, headaches, blood in the urine, dizziness, and excessive vomiting and nausea. The only real cure for preeclampsia and eclampsia is the birth of the baby.
Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue. It is characterized by the formation of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the skin and organs of the body, leading to thickness and firmness of involved areas. Scleroderma is also referred to as systemic sclerosis, and the cause is unknown. Treatment of scleroderma is directed toward the individual features that are most troubling to the patient.
E. coli (0157:H7) Infection
There are many types of E. coli (Escherichia coli). E. coli can cause urinary tract and bladder infections, or lead to sepsis. E coli O157:H7 (EHEC) causes bloody diarrhea and colitis. Complications of E. coli infection include hemorrhagic diarrhea, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Symptoms include severe abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. E coli O157:H7 commonly is due to eating raw or undercooked hamburger or raw milk or dairy products.
Kidney Pain vs. Back Pain
The signs and symptoms of kidney pain and back pain depend upon the underlying cause. Doctors may use blood tests, X-rays, CT, and/or MRI to diagnose kidney pain and back pain. Treatment may include rest, ice, stretching, muscle strengthening, and pain-relieving medications.
Peritonitis is a bacterial infection inside of the abdomen. Some doctors choose to group the causes of peritonitis into five categories; 1) primary peritonitis, 2) secondary peritonitis, 3) tertiary peritonitis, 4) chemical (sterile) peritonitis, and 5) peritoneal abscess. Others do not categorize peritonitis, they use a term to describe the disease in front or behind the word peritonitis. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Treatment is generally with antibiotics.
Malaria is a disease that is spread by the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Malaria symptoms include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and body aches. Treatment involves supportive care and antibiotics.
What Are the 5 Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease?
The doctor will take your complete medical history along with your family history, such as if anyone in your family has or had diabetes, whether you are on any medications (that can cause kidney damage), and so on. They will perform a thorough physical examination to see if you have any signs or symptoms of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Vasculitis (arteritis, angiitis) is a general term for a group of uncommon diseases which feature inflammation of the blood vessels. Each form of vasculitis has its own characteristic pattern of symptoms. The diagnosis of vasculitis is definitively established after a biopsy of involved tissue demonstrates the pattern of blood vessel inflammation. Treatment is directed toward decreasing the inflammation of the arteries and improving the function of affected organs.
Compartment syndrome is a condition in which swelling and an increase in pressure within a limited space presses and compresses blood vessels, nerves, or tendons that run through the compartment. There are two types of compartment syndrome: acute compartment syndrome, which is treated with surgery (fasciotomy), and chronic compartment syndrome, which is treated with rest and modality to the affected limb. Symptoms of compartment syndrome include: pain, change in sensation, change in color, paralysis, or numbness in the affected limb.
COVID-19 (Coronavirus, 2019-nCoV)
Infection with COVID-19 (2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV) causes respiratory problems in humans. Transmission of COVID-19 occurs mainly through contact with respiratory sections from an infected person, however, fecal contamination may also spread the virus. Symptoms start off flu-like and progress to coughing, fever, shortness of breath, shaking chills, headache, loss of sense of taste and/or smell, muscle pain, and sore throat. Treatment focuses on supportive care and symptom relief. COVID-19 vaccines are available.
Is Plant Protein Good or Bad for Kidneys?
Eating less meat and more vegetables has many health benefits. Plant protein may help lower your risk of kidney disease.
Can Drinking Water Stop Kidney Failure?
While drinking more water can help boost kidney function, there is no evidence that suggests that it can prevent the progress of kidney failure.
Pericarditis (Symptoms, ECG, Types, Causes, Treatment)
Pericarditis is the inflammation of the pericardial sac that surrounds the heart. The causes of pericarditis include injury from heart attack, heart surgery, trauma, viral or fungal infection, HIV, tumors, mixed connective tissue disease, metabolic disease, medication reactions, or unknown reasons. Treatment for pericarditis is generally medication, however, sometimes surgery is necessary.
Can a Kidney Infection Cause Back Pain?
Many people are affected by lower back pain. Learn how to tell if lower back pain is due to a kidney infection or the result of other causes.
Heat Exhaustion (First Aid Tips)
Heat exhaustion is a milder form of heat-related illness that can develop after several days of exposure to high temperatures and inadequate or unbalanced replacement fluids. Warning signs of heat exhaustion include heavy sweating, paleness, muscle cramps, tiredness, weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea or vomiting, and fainting. A person suffering from heat exhaustion should stop the activity are doing, move to a cooler environment, and rehydrate with liquids, for example, water or sports drinks. Complications of heat exhaustion are dehydration, muscle weakness, nausea, and vomiting. Heat exhaustion can progress to heat stroke (a medical emergency) if not treated.
What Does 3b Mean in Kidney Disease?
In stage 3b kidney disease, eGFR is between 30-44 mL/min. Symptoms and signs may include back pain, swollen hands and feet, abnormal urination, hypertension, and anemia.
Pulmonary hypertension is elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries that carry blood from the lungs to the heart. The most common symptoms are fatigue and difficulty breathing. If the condition goes undiagnosed, more severe symptoms may occur. As pulmonary hypertension worsens, some people with the condition have difficulty performing any activities that require physical exertion. While there is no cure for pulmonary hypertension, it can be managed and treated with medications and supplemental oxygen to increase blood oxygen levels.
Can You Live With Stage I Kidney Disease?
Because you can halt further kidney damage with diet modification and supportive treatment, patients can live an extra 30 years following their stage I CKD diagnosis.
Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that leads to ongoing pain symptoms. Patients can be predisposed to developing neuropathic pain who have conditions such as diabetes, cancer, stroke, HIV, vitamin deficiencies, shingles, and multiple sclerosis. Patient history and nerve testing are used to diagnose neuropathic pain. Antidepressants, antiseizure medications, and other types of medications are used to treat neuropathic pain. Many people with neuropathic pain are able to attain some level of relief.
Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE)
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infection is the most common type of infection acquired by patients while hospitalized. Patients at risk for VRE are those who are already ill, and hospitalized, including individuals with diabetes, elderly, ICU patients, kidney failure patients, or patients requiring catheters. Enterococci can survive for months in the digestive tract and female genital tract. Other risk factors for acquiring VRE include those how have been previously treated with vancomycin and combinations of other antibiotics. Treatment of VRE is generally with other antibiotics other than vancomycin. Prevention of VRE can be achieved by proper hand hygiene.
How Can I Check My Kidneys at Home?
Albumin home test kits and smartphone-enabled home urinalysis devices are available to check your kidney function at home.
The bacteria Capnocytophaga canimorsus is common in the mouths of cats, people, and dogs. People with weak immune systems are at risk for contracting Capnocytophaga infections. Antibiotics can kill this bacteria.
How Do I Know if My Back Pain Is Kidney Related?
The pain of kidney infection may be felt on the sides (flanks) and the back. Unlike the classical back pain due to muscle or bone involvement, which typically affects the lower back, kidney pain is felt higher up and at a greater depth.
What Is Burkitt Lymphoma?
There are multiple types of Burkitt lymphoma. Burkitt lymphomas are types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that affect the bone marrow and central nervous system. Symptoms of Burkitt lymphoma may include nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, enlarged lymph nodes, and many other symptoms. Diagnosis involves lab testing, imaging studies, patient history, and cytogenic evaluation. There are multiple staging systems used to stage Burkitt lymphoma. Treatment consists of chemotherapy. The prognosis tends to be more favorable in children than in adults.
Hypertension-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease
Hypertension-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a long-standing kidney condition that develops over time due to persistent or uncontrolled high blood pressure (hypertension).
Signs of a Kidney Disease
Most of the signs of kidney diseases are unnoticed, ignored, or appear very late in the disease. Over 37 million American adults have kidney diseases, and most are not aware of it.
Yellow fever is an infectious disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. Side effects are rare with the yellow fever vaccine. Symptoms include fever, chills, back pain, nausea, vomiting, and headache. Treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms.
Is Cholera Contagious?
Cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. It's typically transmitted via infected fecal matter. Cholera causes frequent bouts of vomiting and watery diarrhea.
Can a Person Recover From Kidney Failure?
Recovery from kidney failure varies, depending on whether the condition is chronic or acute. Learn about renal failure treatment options.
Why Are Calcium Levels Low in Renal Failure?
Renal failure usually causes calcium imbalance. During renal failure, the kidneys may no longer filter out extra phosphorus and remove it from the body or from urine. Over time, phosphorus may increase in the blood. Calcium and phosphorous usually keep each other in check.
What Is Microsporidiosis?
Microsporidiosis is an infection caused by the microsporidia parasite. The disease is uncommon in people with normal immune systems. Symptoms in people with immune deficiency include diarrhea, malabsorption, gallbladder disease, cough, labored breathing, urinary tract infection, bowel perforation and keratoconjunctivitis. Microsporidiosis treatment depends on the site of infection and the species of microsporidia involved.
Fabry disease (Fabry's disease, alpha-galactosidase-A) is a genetic disorder with symptoms such as burning sensations in the hands, small-raised reddish-purplish blemishes on the skin, fever, decreases sweating, and gastrointestinal (GI) difficulties. Fabry disease patients are at increased risk of heart attack, heart disease, kidney failure, and stroke. Symptoms of Fabry disease can be treated with medication.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tick-borne disease that causes symptoms and signs such as fever, rash, headache, and muscle aches. The antibiotic doxycycline is the standard treatment for Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a diseases in which blood clots within the capillaries. Causes associated with HUS include: E. coli, birth control pills, pneumonia, medications such as chemotherapy, Ticlid, and quinine. Symptoms of HUS include: gastroenteritis, abdominal cramping, vomiting, and bloody diarrhea. Diagnosis of HUS includes: medical history, physical examination, and medical tests. Treatment includes: rest, fluids, possible hospitalization for blood transfusion or complications due to kidney failure.
Enterovirulent E. coli (EEC)
Enterovirulent Escherichia coli (E. coli) are strains of related bacteria that have a strong propensity to cause gastrointestinal tract infections. Examples of strains include: EHEC (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), ETEC (enterotoxigenic E. coli), EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli), EIEC (enteroinvasive E. coli), EAEC (enteroadherent E. coli), and EAggEC (enteroaggregative E. coli). Symptoms may vary depending on the strain the individual contracts. Infection is spread generally through contaminated food or drink.
Can You Live a Normal Life After Donating a Kidney?
Kidney donor surgery is considered a very low-risk surgery with few major complications. People who have donated a kidney can lead active and full lives.
How Can You Tell if You Have a Kidney Infection?
Kidney infection or pyelonephritis is a serious medical condition in which there is an infection of one or both the kidneys.
MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome)
MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) infection can be spread through respiratory secretions. Symptoms include fever, dry cough, and severe shortness of breath. Treatment focuses on supportive care.
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), or chronic kidney failure, is slow and progressive loss of kidney function over several years. CKD is a long-term condition where the kidneys do not work effectively.
How Do You Know If You Have a Kidney Infection?
A kidney infection is a potentially life-threatening illness if left untreated. Learn the signs of a kidney infection, what causes it, how doctors diagnose it, and what you can do to treat a kidney infection.
How Long Can a Person Live With Stage 1 Kidney Disease?
Chronic kidney disease means your kidneys aren't working as well as they should. It's possible to live for many years with kidney disease.
Essential Mixed Cryoglobulinemia
Essential mixed cryoglobulinemia is a condition caused by abnormal blood proteins called cryoglobulins. Symptoms include joint pain, swelling, skin vasculitis, enlarged spleen, and nerve and kidney disease. Treatment involves medications that reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system.
What Is IgA Nephropathy (Berger's Disease)?
Berger's disease or immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is a kidney disorder that presents with the passing of blood in the urine. This happens due to swelling of the glomeruli (filtering units of the kidney that produce urine). The swelling is usually caused due to a buildup of a substance called IgA in the kidneys.
Alport syndrome is a genetic condition that causes kidney disease, hearing loss, and vision loss in affected individuals. Mutations in one of three genes that code for a protein called type IV collagen cause Alport syndrome.
What Can Patients With Kidney Failure Eat?
If you have kidney failure, you need to be even more careful about your diet. Learn about what foods to avoid with kidney disease.
Disease Prevention in Men
Disease prevention in men includes routine screening tests that are part of basic prevention medicine. Take an active role in your own health care and discuss screening tests with your doctor early in life. Age of screening and timing of screening depends upon the condition being assessed.
Local ResourcesFind a local Nephrologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Creatinine Blood Test
- Hemoglobin: Normal, High, Low Levels, Age & Gender
- Hematocrit Ranges (Normal, High, Low)
- Urinalysis (Urine Test)
- Erythropoietin (EPO Test)
- Blood Transfusion
- CT Scan (Computerized Tomography)
- How Long Can a Nephrostomy Tube Remain in the Kidney?
- Pneumococcal Vaccination (Pneumonia Vaccine)
- How Is a CT Urogram Performed?
- What Is a Kidney Ureter Bladder X-Ray Study?
- How Long Do Kidney Transplants Last?
- Loss of Appetite
- Shortness of Breath (Dyspnea)
- Weight Gain
- Fatigue, Tiredness, and Lethargy
- Loss of Temperature Sensation
- Altered Mental Status
- Cloudy Urine
- Low Urine Output
- Leg Swelling
- Swollen Ankles and/or Swollen Feet
- Bad Breath
- Seizure (Epilepsy)
- Indigestion (Dyspepsia, Upset Stomach)
- Kidney Failure
- Decreased Appetite
- Breast Discharge (Nipple Discharge)
- Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence)
- Peripheral Neuropathy
- Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)
- Inability to Exercise (Exercise Intolerance)
- How to Choose a Doctor
- Restless Leg Syndrome
- Hypertensive Kidney Disease
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
- Doctor: Getting the Most from Your Doctor's Appointment
- High Blood Pressure FAQs
- Diabetes FAQs
- Kidney Disease FAQs
- Abdominal Pain Causes By Location
- Lupus Nephritis Treatment
- ARBs & ACE Inhibitors...Powerful Blood Pressure Treatment
- ARBs and ACE Inhibitors..Hidden Benefits
- Symptoms of MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome or MERS-CoV) Virus Infection
- Rhabdomyolysis Symptoms and Causes
- Sickle Trait and Sickle Cell Disease
- E. coli Infection Facts
- Pain Relievers and High Blood Pressure
- Low Blood Pressure During Pregnancy
- Blood Pressure Elevation Established as Risk for Kidney Failure
Medications & Supplements
- ACE Inhibitors
- lisinopril (Zestril, Prinivil, Qbrelis) ACE Inhibitor
- mannitol (Osmitrol)
- Thiazides (Diuretics)
- Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
- Lasix Side Effects
- albumin human (Albuked, Albuminar)
- mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept)
- torsemide (Demadex)
- Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs)
- Aldactone (spironolactone)
- ramipril (Altace)
- trandolapril (Mavik)
- captopril (Capoten)
- benazepril (Lotensin HTC)
- tacrolimus (Prograf, Astagraf XL, Envarsus XR)
- enalapril (Vasotec, Epaned)
- calcitriol (Rocaltrol)
- sodium citrate
- darbepoetin alfa - injection, Aranesp
- lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide (Zestoretic, Prinzide)
- levocarnitine (Carnitor)
- calcium acetate (PhosLo)
- calcitriol - injection, Calcijex
- quinapril (Accupril)
- potassium citrate
- benazepril and hydrochlorothiazide (Lotensin HCT)
- Side Effects of Demadex (torsemide)
- Side Effects of Prograf (tacrolimus)
- Side Effects of Osmitrol (mannitol)
- captopril and hydrochlorothiazide (Capozide)
- Veltassa (patiromer)
- sirolimus - oral, Rapamune
- yellow fever vaccine
- Zemplar (paricalcitol)
- Side Effects of Epogen (epoetin alfa)
- fosinopril sodium, Monopril
- NephrAmine (essential amino acid)
- enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide (Vaseretic)
- Monoferric (ferric derisomaltose)
- Albuminar (albumin) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Fotivda (tivozanib)
- Feraheme (ferumoxytol injection)
- Side Effects of Stimate (desmopressin)
- Auryxia (ferric citrate)
- Jynarque (tolvaptan)
- paricalcitol - injection, Zemplar
- sirolimus solution - oral, Rapamune
- Oxlumo (lumasiran)
- Injectafer (ferric carboxymaltose)
- Viltepso (viltolarsen)
- calcium acetate
- cmv immune globulin - intravenous, Cytogam
Prevention & Wellness
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