- Surprising Reasons You're in Pain Slideshow
- Take the Pain Quiz
- Joint-Friendly Exercises to Reduce RA Pain Slideshow
- What is ketorolac-oral, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- Is ketorolac-oral available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for ketorolac-oral?
- What are the uses for ketorolac-oral?
- What are the side effects of ketorolac-oral?
- What is the dosage for ketorolac-oral?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with ketorolac-oral?
- Is ketorolac-oral safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about ketorolac-oral?
What is ketorolac-oral, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- Ketorolac is a member of a class of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are used for treating inflammation and pain. Other drugs in this class include ibuprofen (Motrin) and naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve), but ketorolac is more effective than other NSAIDs in reducing pain from both inflammatory and non-inflammatory causes. Ketorolac reduces the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that cells of the immune system make that cause the redness, fever, and pain of inflammation and that also are believed to be important in the production of non-inflammatory pain. It does this by blocking the enzymes that cells use to make prostaglandins (cyclooxygenase 1 and 2). As a result, pain as well as inflammation and its signs and symptoms, redness, swelling, fever, and pain, are reduced.
- The FDA approved ketorolac in November 1989.
What are the uses for ketorolac-oral?
- Ketorolac is used for short-term management (up to 5 days) of moderately severe acute pain that otherwise would require narcotics.
- It should not be used for minor or chronic painful conditions.
What are the side effects of ketorolac-oral?
Common side effects from ketorolac include:
- Ringing in the ears
- Abdominal pain
- Fluid retention
Rare side effects of ketorolac include:
- Abnormal thinking
- Serious allergic reactions
- Blurred vision
- Difficulty concentrating
- Taste abnormality
- Hemolytic-uremic syndrome
- High potassium blood levels
- Low sodium levels
Serious side effects of ketorolac include:
- Stomach ulcers
- Intestinal bleeding
- Reduced kidney function
- Liver failure
Other serious adverse events include:
- NSAIDs reduce the ability of blood to clot and therefore increase bleeding after an injury. Ketorolac may cause ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines, particularly with use for more than five days. Sometimes, stomach ulceration and intestinal bleeding can occur without any abdominal pain. Sometimes, the only signs or symptoms of bleeding may be:
- NSAIDs reduce the flow of blood to the kidneys and impair function of the kidneys. The impairment is most likely to occur in patients with preexisting impairment of kidney function or congestive heart failure, and use of NSAIDs in these patients should be done cautiously.
- Liver failure has also been associated with ketorolac.
- People who are allergic to aspirin and other NSAIDs should not use ketorolac.
- Individuals with asthma or nasal polyps are more likely to experience allergic reactions to NSAIDs.
Quick GuideChronic Pain Syndrome: Treatment and Management for CPS
What is the dosage for ketorolac-oral?
- Treatment should be started with ketorolac injection.
- Tablets are used only if treatment is continued after patients begin to eat and drink.
- The total duration of therapy should not exceed 5 days because of the potential for gastrointestinal bleeding and other side effects.
- The recommended adult intravenous single dose is 15 to 60 mg.
- Multiple intravenous doses of 15 or 30 mg every 6 hours, not to exceed 60 or 120 mg a day, also may be used.
- Following intravenous therapy, the recommended dose is 1 (10 mg) or 2 (20 mg) tablets initially followed by 1 (10 mg) tablet every 4-6 hours, not to exceed 40 mg daily.
- The smaller dose is used for patients with poor kidney function or those older than 65 years.
- Oral ketorolac is not approved for individuals less than 17 years of age.
Which drugs or supplements interact with ketorolac-oral?
- Probenecid (Benemid) should not be combined with ketorolac because it reduces the elimination of ketorolac by the kidneys. This may lead to increased levels of ketorolac in the body and increased side effects from ketorolac.
- Ketorolac may increase the blood levels of lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid) by reducing the elimination of lithium by the kidneys. Increased levels of lithium may lead to lithium toxicity.
- Concomitant use of ketorolac and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may reduce the function of the kidneys.
- Individuals taking oral blood thinners or anticoagulants for example, warfarin (Coumadin, Janotven), should avoid ketorolac because ketorolac also thins the blood, and excessive blood thinning may lead to bleeding.
Is ketorolac-oral safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- There are no adequate studies in pregnant women. Ketorolac should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. NSAIDs may cause cardiovascular side effects during late pregnancy.
- Ketorolac should not be used by nursing mothers because it is excreted in breast milk.
What else should I know about ketorolac-oral?
What preparations of ketorolac-oral are available?
- Tablets: 10 mg;
- Injection: 15 and 30 mg/ml.
How should I keep ketorolac-oral stored?
- Tablets should be stored at 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F).
- Injectable solution should be stored at 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F) and protected from light.
Ketorolac (Toradol brand has been discontinued in the US) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) used for the short-term treatment of moderate to severe pain. Side effects include
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Back Pain Quiz: Test Your Back Pain IQ
There are numerous causes of chronic lower back pain and only one ailment gets more complaints. What is it? Quiz your knowledge...
Pain Quiz: Test Your IQ of Pain
Is pain all in the brain? Take the Pain Quiz to learn everything you've ever wanted to know about the unpleasant sensation we...
Picture of Kidney Stone Crystal
Kidney stones are made of salts and minerals in the urine that stick together, creating small "pebbles" formed within the kidney...
Picture of Kidney Stone Diagnosis
The diagnosis of kidney stones is suspected by the typical pattern of symptoms when other possible causes of the abdominal or...
Picture of Kidney Stone
A stone in the kidney (or lower down in the urinary tract). See a picture of Kidney Stone and learn more about the health topic....
Kidney Stones: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
What causes kidney stones? Learn to recognize the symptoms and signs of kidney stone pain. Explore kidney stone treatment and how...
Back Pain: Find Relief, Treat Your Back Pain
Back pain conditions are very common. Learn the truth and get the facts behind myths, remedies, causes and treatment for back...
Pelvic Pain: What's Causing Your Pelvic Pain?
There are many causes of pelvic pain in women including cysts, PMS, appendicitis, and bladder infections. Pelvic pain has...
Low Back Pain: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Relief
Do you suffer from low back pain? Watch this slideshow to see common triggers of lower back pain and what kind of treatments you...
Chronic Pain Syndrome: Treatment and Management for CPS
What is chronic pain syndrome (CPS)? See causes, symptoms and treatment options including medications. Learn about pain...
11 Exercises for Lower Back Pain Relief
One of the best low back pain treatments is exercise. Learn more about low back pain exercises--what works, and what doesn't....
Related Disease Conditions
Lower Back Pain
There are many causes of back pain. Pain in the low back can relate to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae,...
Kidney stones are solid masses of crystalline material that form in the kidneys. Symptoms of kidney stones can include pain,...
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Ulcers
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prescribed medications for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Examples of...
Pain management and treatment can be simple or complex, according to its cause. There are two basic types of pain, nociceptive...
People who have bladder spasms, the sensation occurs suddenly and often severely. A spasm itself is the sudden, involuntary...
Torn ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear)
The anterior cruciate ligament helps to prevent the top and bottom of the knee from sliding back and forth. Symptoms and signs of...
Kidney Pain (Location, Symptoms, Relief)
Kidney pain has a variety of causes and symptoms. Infection, injury, trauma, bleeding disorders, kidney stones, and less...
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
Prevention & Wellness
Daily Health News
Pain Management Resources
Subscribe to MedicineNet's General Health Newsletter
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Top ketorolac-oral Related Articles
Aspirin vs NSAIDs
Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, are both drugs used to treat pain, redness, swelling, and inflammation from a variety of medical conditions like menstrual cramps, arthritis, minor strains and sprains, and headaches. Aspirin also treats fever. Aspirin also is an NSAID, but it works in the body differently than other NSAIDs.
Some of the common side effects of aspirin and NSAIDS are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, loss of appetite, peptic ulcers, and tinnitus. NSAIDs also can cause dizziness, headache, and drowsiness. Important and serious side effects of both drugs are kidney or liver failure, GI bleeding, and prolonged bleeding after surgery.
Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have other important side effects and drug interactions that should be reviewed prior to taking either drug.
REFERENCE: FDA. Medication Guide for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs).
Back Pain SlideshowBack pain conditions are very common. Learn the truth and get the facts behind myths, remedies, causes and treatment for back pain.
Back Pain QuizThere are numerous causes of chronic lower back pain and only one ailment gets more complaints. What is it? Quiz your knowledge of symptoms, treatments, problems, and reasons for common back pain.
Bladder SpasmsPeople who have bladder spasms, the sensation occurs suddenly and often severely. A spasm itself is the sudden, involuntary squeezing of a muscle. A bladder spasm, or "detrusor contraction," occurs when the bladder muscle squeezes suddenly without warning, causing an urgent need to release urine. The spasm can force urine from the bladder, causing leakage. When this happens, the condition is called urge incontinence or overactive bladder.
Kidney pain has a variety of causes and symptoms. Infection, injury, trauma, bleeding disorders, kidney stones, and less common conditions may lead to kidney pain. Symptoms associated with kidney pain may include fever, vomiting, nausea, flank pain, and painful urination.
Treatment of kidney pain depends on the cause of the pain.
Kidney Stone PictureA stone in the kidney (or lower down in the urinary tract). See a picture of Kidney Stone and learn more about the health topic.
Kidney Stone SlideshowWhat causes kidney stones? Learn to recognize the symptoms and signs of kidney stone pain. Explore kidney stone treatment and how to prevent kidney stones.
Kidney StonesKidney stones are solid masses of crystalline material that form in the kidneys. Symptoms of kidney stones can include pain, nausea, vomiting, and even fever and chills. Kidney stones are diagnosed via CT scans and specialized X-rays. Treatment of kidney stones involves drinking lots of fluids and taking over-the-counter pain medications to medical intervention including prescription medications, lithotripsy, and sometimes even surgery.
Low Back PainThere are many causes of back pain. Pain in the low back can relate to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis and abdomen, and the skin covering the lumbar area.
Low Back Pain SlideshowDo you suffer from low back pain? Watch this slideshow to see common triggers of lower back pain and what kind of treatments you can get to help find relief.
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and UlcersNonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prescribed medications for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and more. One common side effect of NSAIDs is peptic ulcer (ulcers of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum). Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and patient safety information should be reviewed prior to taking NSAIDs.
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory DrugsNonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of drugs are used to treat inflammation, mild to moderate pain, and fever. Examples of the most common NSAIDs include: aspirin salsalate (Amigesic), diflunisal (Dolobid), ibuprofen (Motrin), ketoprofen (Orudis), nabumetone (Relafen), piroxicam (Feldene), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn,) diclofenac (Voltaren), indomethacin (Indocin), sulindac (Clinoril), tolmetin (Tolectin), etodolac (Lodine), ketorolac (Toradol), oxaprozin (Daypro), celecoxib (Celebrex).
Pain ManagementPain management and treatment can be simple or complex, according to its cause. There are two basic types of pain, nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain. Some causes of neuropathic pain include:
- complex regional pain syndrome,
- interstitial cystitis,
- and irritable bowel syndrome.
Take the Pain QuizIs pain all in the brain? Take the Pain Quiz to learn everything you've ever wanted to know about the unpleasant sensation we call pain.
Pelvic Pain SlideshowThere are many causes of pelvic pain in women including cysts, PMS, appendicitis, and bladder infections. Pelvic pain has uncomfortable symptoms, but luckily there are treatments for pelvic pain.
Torn ACLThe anterior cruciate ligament helps to prevent the top and bottom of the knee from sliding back and forth. Symptoms and signs of a torn ACL include knee pain and swelling. Treatment of a torn ACL depends upon the health of the patient and the patient's expectations and willingness to undertake extensive physical therapy. Rehabilitation after surgical repair of an ACL tear may take more than nine months.