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- What is ketoconazole, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for ketoconazole?
- Is ketoconazole available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for ketoconazole?
- What are the side effects of ketoconazole?
- What is the dosage for ketoconazole?
- Is ketoconazole safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about ketoconazole?
What is ketoconazole, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Ketoconazole is an anti-fungal medication in the same family of drugs as fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), and miconazole (Micatin, Monistat). It prevents growth of several types of fungi by preventing production of the membranes that surround fungal cells. The FDA approved ketoconazole in June 1981.
What brand names are available for ketoconazole?
Nizoral, Nizoral A-D, Ketodan, Extina, Xolegel, Kuric
What are the side effects of ketoconazole?
Ketoconazole generally is well tolerated. Commonly reported side effects of ketoconazole are:
- abdominal pain,
- impotence, and
- blood count abnormalities.
Other important side effects of ketoconazole are rare; they include:
Liver dysfunction also has been reported. Signs of liver problems include unusual fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, yellowing of the skin (jaundice), dark urine, and pale stools. Development of these symptoms while taking ketoconazole should be reported to a physician.
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What is the dosage for ketoconazole?
Ketoconazole may be taken with or without food. The oral dose range is 200-400 mg daily. Recurrent tinea versicolor is treated with 400 mg monthly. Topical formulations are administered to affected areas once or twice daily.
Is ketoconazole safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
What else should I know about ketoconazole?
What preparations of ketoconazole are available?
Tablets: 200 mg; Shampoo: 1% and 2%; Cream: 2%, Gel: 2%, Foam: 2%
How should I keep ketoconazole stored?
- Store tablets at room temperature, 15 C to 25 C (59 F to 77 F) and protected from moisture.
- Store shampoo 1% between 2 C to 30 C (35 F to 86 F) and protected from light and freezing.
- Store shampoo 2% at or below 25 C (77 F) and protected from light.
- Store cream and foam at room temperature, 20 C to 25 C (68 F to 77 F).
- Store gel between 15C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F).
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information
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Athlete's FootAthlete's foot (tinea pedis) is a skin infection caused by the ringworm fungus. Symptoms include itching, burning, cracking, peeling, and bleeding feet. Treatment involves keeping the feet dry and clean, wearing shoes that can breathe, and using medicated powders to keep your feet dry.
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Dandruff PictureA mild skin condition that produces white flakes that may be shed and fall from the hair. See a picture of Dandruff and learn more about the health topic.
Dandruff vs Dry ScalpDandruff is a condition characterized by small white flakes that shed from the scalp. Dry scalp is simply dry skin on one's head. Dry scalp is uncommon, and dandruff is very common. Dandruff treatment and prevention incorporates the regular use of an anti-dandruff shampoo.
FolliculitisFolliculitis is a skin condition that causes small red bumps to form around the hair follicles. Skin bacteria such as Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas may infect the follicles. Treatment involves over-the-counter bacterial washes, topical antibiotics, and/or topical steroids.
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Is Dandruff (Seborrhea) ContagiousSeborrheic dermatitis (dandruff) is a chronic condition in which skin on the scalp flakes and sheds. Dandruff is not contagious. Sunlight exposure and stress reduction can improve the symptoms and signs of dandruff.
Jock ItchJock itch is an itchy red rash that appears in the groin area. The rash may be caused by a bacterial or fungal infection. People with diabetes and those who are obese are more susceptible to developing jock itch. Antifungal shampoos, creams, and pills may be needed to treat fungal jock itch. Bacterial jock itch may be treated with antibacterial soaps and topical and oral antibiotics.
LeishmaniasisLeishmaniasis is a disease caused by the bite of an infected sand fly. The most common types of leishmania infection are cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is found mainly in the subtropics and tropics. Symptoms and signs of cutaneous leishmaniasis include skin sores with a raised edge and central crater, while those with visceral leishmaniasis usually have fever, weight loss, and an enlarged liver and spleen.
RingwormThe term "ringworm" or "ringworms" refers to fungal infections that are on the surface of the skin. A physical examination of the affected skin, evaluation of skin scrapings under the microscope, and culture tests can help doctors make the appropriate distinctions. A proper diagnosis is essential to successful treatment. Among the different types of ringworm are the following: tinea barbae, tinea capitis, tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea faciei, tinea manus, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium.
SeborrheaDandruff (seborrhea) is a skin disorder that results from neither too much moisture nor too much oil. Dandruff can be treated with shampoos that contain tar, salicylic acid, zinc, selenium sulfide, or ketoconazole.
ThrushThrush is an infection of the mouth caused by the Candida fungus. Symptoms of Thrush include pain or difficulty swallowing, a feeling that food gets stuck in the throat, and fever.
Thrush and Other Yeast Infections in ChildrenYeast infections are caused by an overgrowth of a type of fungus called Candida. Oral thrush is a yeast infection of the mouth and throat. Oral thrush and yeast infections are treated orally or topically with an antifungal antibiotic called nystatin.
Tinea VersicolorTinea versicolor is a fungus infection that mainly affects the skin of young people. Recognized by light or reddish brown spots, and areas lighter than the surrounding skin. Tinea versicolor is caused by yeast actually found in our skin. Factors like heat, humidity, and sweat help it proliferate in people, resulting in a rash that is not contagious to others.
Valley FeverValley fever (coccidioidomycosis) is a disease caused by the inhalation of the Coccidioides immitis or C. posadasii fungus. Symptoms are flu-like and resolve over two to six weeks. Infection typically requires no treatment, though there are many antifungal drugs to treat valley fever.