Joint deformity can have many different forms depending on the cause and the joint involved. The typical joint is an area where two bones join together. There is cartilage over the bones on each side of the joint. Ligaments bind the bones to give the joint stability. Surrounding the joint is a fluid-producing tissue called the synovium, and it is covered by a joint capsule. Tendons with their muscles and bursae are adjacent to joints and function in joint mobility. Deformity of the joint can occur with disease or injury to any of these structures of the joint. Diseases and injuries that cause joint deformity include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, cancer of bone or cartilage, osteomyelitis, trauma from sports or motor vehicle accidents, and fractures.
Other causes of joint deformity
- Cancer of the Cartilage
- Trauma From Sports or Car Accidents
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16 Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Signs & Symptoms
Early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) symptoms and signs vary differently from person to person. The most common body parts that are initially affected by RA include the small joints of the hands, wrists, and feet, and the knees and hip joints. Joint inflammation causes stiffness. Warmth, redness, and pain may vary in degree.
Bone cancer is a rare type of cancer that occurs in cells that make up the bones. Primary bone cancer that arises in bone cells is different than metastatic bone cancer, which is cancer that arises in another part of the body and then spreads to the bones. Hereditary and environmental factors likely contribute to the risk of bone cancer. Signs and symptoms of bone cancer may include pain, the presence of a mass or lump, and bone fractures. There are different types of bone cancer (osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, pleomorphic sarcoma, fibrosarcoma). Treatment for bone cancer may include surgical removal of the tumor, chemotherapy, radiation, and/or a stem cell transplant. The prognosis for bone cancer depends on the type of cancer and the extent of spread.
A broken bone is a fracture. There are different types of fractures, such as: compressed, open, stress, greenstick, spiral, vertebral compression, compound, and comminuted. Symptoms of a broken bone include pain at the site of injury, swelling, and bruising around the area of injury. Treatment of a fracture depends on the type and location of the injury.
An elbow dislocation occurs when the radius and/or ulna becomes displaced from the humerus. Typically, falls cause dislocated elbows. Signs and symptoms include pain, visible deformity, an audible pop, swelling, and an inability to move the elbow. Treatment may incorporate pain medications, reduction of the elbow joint, and wearing an elbow brace to protect the joint as it heals.
A hip dislocation may occur due to an athletic injury or a motor vehicle accident. Joint deformity, pain, an inability to move the hip, and muscle spasms are signs and symptoms of a dislocated hip. Treatment may involve traction, arthroscopic surgery, physical therapy, and rehabilitation.
A dislocation is an injury that forces bones out of their normal position. Symptoms and signs of dislocated fingers include pain, deformity, and swelling and an inability to move the finger. Treatment involves reducing the joint to move the bones back to their normal position and then splinting the joint to protect it while it heals.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) annually affects one child in every thousand. There are six types of JRA. Treatment of juvenile arthritis depends upon the type the child has and should focus on treating the symptoms that manifest.
Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or SLE)
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a condition characterized by chronic inflammation of body tissues caused by autoimmune disease. Lupus can cause disease of the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, joints, and nervous system. When only the skin is involved, the condition is called discoid lupus. When internal organs are involved, the condition is called systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints. Also known as degenerative arthritis, osteoarthritis can be caused by aging, heredity, and injury from trauma or disease.
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone. Potential causes include injections around the bone, fractures that puncture the skin, recent surgeries, and bacterial infections that travel from other areas of the body, spreading through the blood to the bone. Symptoms include pain, fever, chills, stiffness, and nausea. Treatment involves antibiotics and pain medications. Surgery is sometimes necessary.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints, as well as other organs in the body. Early RA signs and symptoms include anemia, both sides of the body affected (symmetric), depression, fatigue, fever, joint deformity, joint pain, joint redness, joint stiffness, joint swelling, joint tenderness, joint warmth, limping, loss of joint function, loss of joint range of motion, and polyarthritis.
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