Potassium is an essential micronutrient required for cellular function. It is highly reactive in water and produces positively charged potassium ions. These ions help conduct electrical impulses throughout the body. This is important for many body processes. 98% of the potassium in the body is found inside the cells.
As per U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 100 g of coffee contains 49 mg of potassium. This makes it a low-potassium food. However, drinking more than three cups of coffee a day is considered high in potassium and could increase the body's potassium levels. Adding creamers or milk can further increase the coffee's potassium content. The same applies to tea.
The appropriate potassium intake required for healthy functioning of the body systems is 4,700 mg per day. A potassium-rich diet reduces the risk of stroke, lowers blood pressure, reduces the risk of kidney stones, and prevents muscle cramps. Potassium is usually found in many wholes, unprocessed foods such as fresh leafy greens, avocados, tomatoes, potatoes, and beans. A decrease in potassium level (hypokalemia) and an increase in potassium level (hyperkalemia) can result in potentially life-threatening health problems.
What are the signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia?
High levels of potassium are seen in people with kidney diseases and certain drug toxicities. These can produce the following signs and symptoms:
What are the signs and symptoms of hypokalemia?
What are the functions of potassium in the body?
Potassium plays an important role in the following body functions:
- Maintains fluid and electrolyte balance: The body is made of approximately 60% water, 40% of which is present inside the cells in the intracellular space and hence called the intracellular fluid (ICF). The rest of the fluid is present outside the cells in the extracellular space (for example, the blood) and between the cells. This fluid is also called the extracellular fluid (ECF). The fluid balance between the ICF and ECF is regulated by electrolytes, mainly potassium and sodium. Potassium is the main electrolyte in the ICF and hence regulates the fluid level inside the cells. Sodium is the main electrolyte in the ECF and hence regulates the fluid levels outside the cells. Imbalance in electrolyte levels causes the cells to shrink or swell and burst. Hence, consuming adequate fluids and electrolytes, especially potassium, is essential to maintain organ health.
- Maintains the nervous system: The nervous system relays messages between the brain and body. Potassium ions carry electrical impulses through the nerves to regulate muscle contraction, nerve reflexes, and other body functions. Nerve impulses are generated when the sodium ions enter the cells and the potassium ions exit the cells.
- Regulates muscle contractions including the heart: The process of muscle contraction in the heart and gut muscles requires potassium.
What are the health benefits of potassium?
Consuming a potassium-rich diet is linked to several health benefits:
- Reduction of blood pressure: This is achieved by eliminating excess sodium (excess sodium increases blood pressure).
- Reduction of the risk of stroke: Potassium reduces the risk of stroke.
- Prevention of osteoporosis: Osteoporosis is a condition where the bone is porous and easily fractures because of low calcium levels. Potassium reduces the elimination of excess calcium from the body.
- Prevention of kidney stones: Potassium helps lower calcium levels in the urine.
- Reduction of fluid retention: Potassium can reduce fluid retention in the body by increasing urine production.
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14 Warning Signs and Symptoms of a Stroke FASTStroke is a serious medical condition. If you think you or someone you know is having a stroke call 911 immediately. There are two main types of strokes, hemorrhagic and ischemic (the most common type). A hemorrhagic stroke occurs due to a blood vessel rupture in the brain. An ischemic stroke occurs when a blood clot becomes lodged in a blood vessel in the brain, which causes a loss of blood supply to the brain, possibly causing brain tissue death. FAST is an acronym that helps people identify stroke signs and symptoms so they can act fast and call 911. Face drooping, Arm weakness, and Speech difficulty are indicators that a person may be having a stroke and it is Time to seek emergency medical treatment. Additional signs and symptoms of stroke may include weakness, difficulty walking, blurred vision, dizziness, headache, confusion, difficulty speaking, and loss of sensation. Stroke is a major cause of death and disability in the U.S. Early identification and treatment of stroke helps reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality.
Common Medical Abbreviations & Terms
Doctors, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals use abbreviations, acronyms, and other terminology for instructions and information in regard to a patient's health condition, prescription drugs they are to take, or medical procedures that have been ordered. There is no approved this list of common medical abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology used by doctors and other health- care professionals. You can use this list of medical abbreviations and acronyms written by our doctors the next time you can't understand what is on your prescription package, blood test results, or medical procedure orders. Examples include:
- ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease.
- ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure
- cap: Capsule.
- CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. A treatment for sleep apnea.
- DJD: Degenerative joint disease. Another term for osteoarthritis.
- DM: Diabetes mellitus. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
- HA: Headache
- IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
- JT: Joint
- N/V: Nausea or vomiting.
- p.o.: By mouth. From the Latin terminology per os.
- q.i.d.: Four times daily. As in taking a medicine four times daily.
- RA: Rheumatoid arthritis
- SOB: Shortness of breath.
- T: Temperature. Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
Why You Need Potassium and How to Get ItPotassium-rich foods like bananas, potatoes, prunes, oranges, tomatoes, lima beans, and sunflower seeds help your nerves, muscles, and bones. Potassium reduces the risk of high blood pressure and stroke. Low potassium (hypokalemia) and high potassium (hyperkalemia) can cause issues.
ElectrolytesElectrolytes are substances that become ions in solution and acquire the capacity to conduct electricity. The balance of the electrolytes in our bodies is essential for normal function of our cells and our organs. Common electrolytes include sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate. The functions and normal range values for these electrolytes are important, and if an electrolyte is at an extreme low or high, it can be fatal.
Potassium FoodsIt turns out lots of things have more potassium than a banana! Here's a guide to the tastiest choices.
High Potassium (Hyperkalemia)Hyperkalemia is an abnormally high level of potassium in the blood. Hyperkalemia symptoms include nausea, fatigue, tingling sensations, or muscle weakness. Hyperkalemia may also cause no symptoms. Hyperkalemia treatment may include a low-potassium diet, medications, and intravenous glucose and insulin. Causes of hyperkalemia include kidney dysfunction, certain medications, adrenal gland diseases, and potassium shifts.
Is Tea or Coffee Better for Your Health?Tea is generally safe, even in large amounts. While coffee is also safe to drink, high amounts can cause some problems.
Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)Kidney stones are solid masses of crystalline material that form in the kidneys. Symptoms and signs of kidney stones can include pain, nausea, vomiting, and even fever and chills. Kidney stones are diagnosed via CT scans and specialized X-rays. Treatment of kidney stones involves drinking lots of fluids and taking over-the-counter pain medications to medical intervention including prescription medications, lithotripsy, and sometimes even surgery.
Low Potassium (Hypokalemia)
Potassium is an essential electrolyte necessary for cell function. Low potassium (hypokalemia) may be caused by diarrhea, vomiting, ileostomy, colon polyps, laxative use, diuretics, elevated corticosteroid levels, renal artery stenosis, and renal tubular acidosis, or other medications. Symptoms of low potassium include weakness, aches, and cramps of the muscles. Treatment is dependent upon the cause of the low potassium (hypokalemia).
Osteoarthritis vs. Osteoporosis Differences and SimilaritiesArthritis is defined as painful inflammation and joint stiffness. Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis and the most common cause of chronic joint pain, affecting over 25 million Americans. Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that involves the entire joint. Osteoporosis is not a type of arthritis. It is a disease that mainly is caused by a loss of bone tissue that is not limited to the joint areas. It is possible for one person to have both osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. The differences in the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis include; pain, stiffness, and joint swelling, joint deformity, crackle sounds when the joint is moving, and walking with a limp. Osteoporosis is called the "silent disease" because it can progress for years without signs and symptoms before it is diagnosed, severe back pain, bone fractures, height loss, and difficulty or inability to walk. The differences in the causes of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are that osteoarthritis usually is caused by wear and tear on the joints. Osteoporosis usually is caused by one or more underlying problems, for example, calcium and vitamin D deficiencies. Treatment for osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are not the same. There is no cure for osteoarthritis or osteoporosis.
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What are the 5 Warning Signs of a Stroke?What is a stroke and what should you do if someone you know has one? Learn the signs of stroke and what to do if you think you're having one.
What Foods Are the Highest in Potassium?Potassium is a mineral that controls the amount of fluid inside the cells. Foods highest in potassium include dried fruits, lentils and other legumes, potatoes, spinach, and bananas.
What Are the Early Signs of Hypokalemia?Hypokalemia is defined as decreased potassium levels in the body. Potassium is a micro-mineral, an electrolyte that is required for proper functioning of the heart, nerves and maintaining salt-water balance in the body.
Which Fruits Are High in Potassium?Potassium is an important mineral that plays a vital role in the body. Fruits that are high in potassium include bananas, cantaloupe, oranges, avocados, grapefruit, apricots, honeydew, guava and kiwi.