- Signs & Symptoms
- When To Seek Help
Are urinary tract infections (UTIs) contagious?
The answer depends upon what microbe is infecting the urinary tract.
- The urinary tract consists of the urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidneys, each of which can become infected with different microbes.
- Urinary tract infections usually arise from organisms that are normally present in (colonizing) the person's gut and/or urethral opening.
- These organisms (for example, bacteria such as E. coli or Pseudomonas infect the urinary tract by relocating against the flow of urine (retrograde) toward the kidneys.
Lower urinary tract infections do not involve the kidneys while upper urinary tract infections involve the kidneys and are typically more severe. These types of infections of the urinary tractrarelynever contagious to other individuals.
This article will not consider STDs and the organisms that cause them as urinary tract infections as they are discussed in other articles. However, STDs are often contagious and are transferred to others during intercourse, whereas UTIs are not usually transmitted by intercourse, so UTIs are rarely contagious to a partner. In addition, sexually active women and those individuals (males and females) who have anal intercourse have an increased chance to develop a UTI.
It is unlikely for anyone to get a UTI or STD from a toilet seat, as the urethra in males and females typically wouldn't touch the toilet seat. It is theoretically possible to transfer infectious organisms from a toilet seat to a buttock or thigh cut or sore and then have the organisms spread to the urethra or genitals. Nevertheless, such transmission of UTIs and/or STDs are highly unlikely.
How long before I know I have an infection of the urinary tract?
The incubation period (time of exposure to time symptoms begin) varies with the microbe. In general, common urinary tract infections with colonizing bacteria, like E. coli, varies from about three to eight days.
How are urinary tract infections spread?
Bacterial infections of the urinary tract are almost never spread to others if the infecting organisms originate from the bacteria normally colonizing the individual (for example, E. coli).
When should I seek medical care for a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
For symptoms of itching and/or burning on urination or discomfort with urination, people should seek help within 24 hours. Individuals who may develop an upper urinary tract infection (kidney involvement with flank pain, for example) should seek medical help immediately.
When are urinary tract infections no longer contagious?
Simple lower and upper urinary tract infections caused by bacteria residing in the patient are not considered to be contagious. Clinicians suggest people are cleared of lower urinary tract infections after about three to seven days of antibiotic treatment and upper urinary tract (kidneys) infections by about 10-14 days after treatment. Some individuals with kidney infections may benefit from an initial IV dose of antibiotics followed by oral antibiotics.
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United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Urinary Tract Infection." Apr. 17, 2015. <http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/community/for-patients/common-illnesses/uti.html>.
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Common Medical Abbreviations & Terms
Doctors, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals use abbreviations, acronyms, and other terminology for instructions and information in regard to a patient's health condition, prescription drugs they are to take, or medical procedures that have been ordered. There is no approved this list of common medical abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology used by doctors and other health- care professionals. You can use this list of medical abbreviations and acronyms written by our doctors the next time you can't understand what is on your prescription package, blood test results, or medical procedure orders. Examples include:
- ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease.
- ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure
- cap: Capsule.
- CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. A treatment for sleep apnea.
- DJD: Degenerative joint disease. Another term for osteoarthritis.
- DM: Diabetes mellitus. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
- HA: Headache
- IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
- JT: Joint
- N/V: Nausea or vomiting.
- p.o.: By mouth. From the Latin terminology per os.
- q.i.d.: Four times daily. As in taking a medicine four times daily.
- RA: Rheumatoid arthritis
- SOB: Shortness of breath.
- T: Temperature. Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
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Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, for example, skin, eye, and circulation problems, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), ketoacidosis, and amputation. If diabetes is not managed a person may not survive.
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