- Side Effects
- Drug Interactions
- Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
- What Else to Know
Generic Name: iodine
Drug Class: Trace Elements/Metals
What is iodine, and what is it used for?
Iodine is a trace mineral used by the body to produce thyroid hormones. Iodine is not naturally synthesized by the body and must be obtained with dietary intake.
Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) produced by the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones have many important functions including the regulation of metabolic rate, temperature regulation, growth, and development, and affect virtually every body organ.
Iodine is taken as a dietary supplement by individuals who are deficient in iodine or unable to get sufficient iodine from dietary intake. Seaweed, fish and other seafood, eggs, and dairy products are good natural sources of iodine. Many foods such as bread and pasta are enriched with iodine and using iodized salt in food preparations can provide the recommended daily intake of iodine. Iodine supplements are available over the counter (OTC).
- Do not take iodine supplement if you are hypersensitive to any of its components.
- Excessive iodine may lead to reduced thyroid function (hypothyroidism) by feedback inhibition of thyroid hormone production and conversion of triiodothyronine (T3) to less active thyroxine (T4).
- Use iodine supplements with caution in patients with impaired kidney function.
What are the side effects of iodine?
Common side effects of iodine include:
- Metallic taste
- Thyroid suppression
- Joint pain (arthralgia)
- Acne (high dose)
- Hives (urticaria)
- Fluid in lungs (pulmonary edema)
- Swelling of tissue under the skin and mucous membranes (angioedema)
- High blood count of eosinophil immune cells (eosinophilia)
Call your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following symptoms or serious side effects while using this drug:
- Serious heart symptoms include fast or pounding heartbeats, fluttering in your chest, shortness of breath, and sudden dizziness;
- Severe headache, confusion, slurred speech, severe weakness, vomiting, loss of coordination, feeling unsteady;
- Severe nervous system reaction with very stiff muscles, high fever, sweating, confusion, fast or uneven heartbeats, tremors, and feeling like you might pass out; or
- Serious eye symptoms include blurred vision, tunnel vision, eye pain or swelling, or seeing halos around lights.
This is not a complete list of all side effects or adverse reactions that may occur from the use of this drug. Call your doctor for medical advice about serious side effects or adverse reactions. You may also report side effects or health problems to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What are the dosages of iodine?
Recommended daily allowance (RDA)
- 150 mcg/day
- Pregnancy: 220 mcg/day
- Lactation: 290 mcg/day
- Children 1-8 years: 90 mcg/day
- Children 8-13 years: 120 mcg/day
- Children 13-18 years: 150 mcg/day
- Acute iodine overdose can cause gastrointestinal upset, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea and severe symptoms include delirium, stupor and shock, but is rarely fatal. Chronic iodine toxicity can lead to thyroid inflammation (thyroiditis), hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid papillary cancer.
- Iodine overdose is treated with symptomatic and supportive care, including assisted ventilation and cardiac monitoring, if necessary. Activated charcoal may be administered to eliminate any unabsorbed iodine in the gastrointestinal tract.
What drugs interact with iodine?
Inform your doctor of all medications you are currently taking, who can advise you on any possible drug interactions. Never begin taking, suddenly discontinue, or change the dosage of any medication without your doctor’s recommendation.
- Iodine has no known severe interactions with other drugs.
- Serious interactions of iodine include:
- baloxavir marboxil
- Moderate interactions of iodine include:
- Mild interactions of iodine include:
The drug interactions listed above are not all of the possible interactions or adverse effects. For more information on drug interactions, visit the RxList Drug Interaction Checker.
It is important to always tell your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider of all prescription and over-the-counter medications you use, as well as the dosage for each, and keep a list of the information. Check with your doctor or health care provider if you have any questions about the medication.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
- Iodine taken orally in recommended doses is likely safe during pregnancy. Maternal use of high doses during pregnancy and delivery may cause transient hypothyroidism in the newborn. Use with caution.
- Iodine is present in breast milk and is likely safe in recommended doses in nursing mothers. High doses may cause thyroid problems in the infant, use with caution.
- Do not use any dietary supplement including iodine without checking with your healthcare provider, if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
What else should I know about iodine?
- The best way to meet the daily requirement of iodine is to obtain it from dietary intake.
- Do not exceed the daily recommended dose if you take OTC iodine supplements.
- Iodine is marketed as a dietary supplement and does not require extensive pre-marketing approval from the FDA; use with caution.
- Store safely out of reach of children.
- In case of iodine overdose, seek medical help or contact Poison Control.
Iodine is a trace mineral used by the body to produce thyroid hormones. Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) produced by the thyroid gland. Excessive iodine may lead to reduced thyroid function (hypothyroidism) by feedback inhibition of thyroid hormone production and conversion of triiodothyronine (T3) to less active thyroxine (T4). Common side effects of iodine include metallic taste, fever, thyroid suppression, headache, joint pain (arthralgia), diarrhea, acne (high dose), hives (urticaria), fluid in lungs (pulmonary edema), swelling of tissue under the skin and mucous membranes (angioedema), and high blood count of eosinophil immune cells (eosinophilia).
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Related Disease Conditions
Hypothyroidism is any state in which thyroid hormone production is below normal. Normally, the rate of thyroid hormone production is controlled by the brain by the pituitary gland. Hypothyroidism is a very common condition and the symptoms of hypothyroidism are often subtle but may include constipation, memory loss, hair loss, and depression. There are a variety of causes of hypothyroidism, and treatment depends on the cause.
Thyroid Disorders Symptoms and Signs
Thyroid diseases and disorders are caused because the body either makes too much or too little thyroid hormones, which are necessary for vital functions of the body. Thyroid disease and disorder symptoms and signs depend on the type of the thyroid problem. Examples include heat or cold intolerance, sweating, weight loss or gain, palpitations, fatigue, dry skin, constipation, brittle hair, joint aches and pains, heart palpitations, edema, feeling bloated, puffiness in the face, reduced menstrual flow, changes in the frequency of bowel movements and habits, high cholesterol, hoarseness, brittle hair, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, a visible lump or swelling in the neck, tremors, memory problems, depression, nervousness, agitation, irritability, or poor concentration. Thyroid problems are more common in women.
Hyperthyroidism is an excess of thyroid hormone due to an overactive thyroid gland. Symptoms can include increased heart rate, weight loss, heart palpitations, frequent bowel movements, depression, fatigue, fine or brittle hair, sleep problems, thinning skin, and irregular vaginal bleeding. Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Many other health problems or taking excess thyroid hormone medication can cause an overactive thyroid gland. Treatment for the condition is with medication, radioactive iodine, thyroid surgery (rarely), or reducing the dose of thyroid hormone. No diet has been shown to treat hyperthyroidism or its symptoms and signs.
There are several types of thyroid disorders including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, goiters, thyroid nodules, and thyroid cancer. Symptoms vary by condition. Diagnosis is made with blood tests, scans, ultrasound, or biopsy. Treatments depend on the disorder and can include medication or surgery.
What Foods are Good and Bad for Hyperthyroidism?
What is hyperthyroidism? Learn which foods are good and bad for hyperthyroidism.
Tracheostomy vs Cricothyroidotomy
Tracheostomy is a procedure to create an opening (stoma) on the front of the neck up to the windpipe (trachea). A special tube (tracheostomy) is then placed in the opening to aid breathing. Tracheostomy is done when the usual route for breathing is blocked or narrowed.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder causing inflammation of the thyroid gland. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a type of hypothyroidism and is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the US. Symptoms of Hashimoto's thyroiditis may include dry skin, fatigue, weight gain, feeling cold, excessive sleepiness, dry skin, dry coarse hair, difficulty swallowing, a lump in the front of the throat, muscle cramps, mood changes, vague aches and pains, problems concentrating, leg swelling, constipation, and depression. There is no cure for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Diet changes, natural supplements, vitamins, or other natural products will not treat Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Treatment for the autoimmune disorder is with thyroid hormone replacement therapy, which will be necessary for the rest of the person’s life.
Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy
Hypothyroidism during pregnancy can be treated with synthetic thyroid hormones to maintain the proper thyroid hormone balance. Hypothyroidism symptoms and signs include fatigue, weight gain, lethargy, and constipation. Check out the center below for more medical references on pregnancy and hypothyroidism, including multimedia (slideshows, images, and quizzes), related disease conditions, treatment and diagnosis, medications, and prevention or wellness.
How Is Hashimoto's Disease Different From Hypothyroidism?
Hypothyroidism is a term that simply means an underactive thyroid gland, while Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune condition that usually causes hypothyroidism.
Can Thyroid Cause Burning Mouth Syndrome?
Yes, thyroid disease may cause burning mouth syndrome. Burning mouth syndrome is a severe, painful condition characterized by burning sensations in the tongue, lips, palate (roof of the mouth), gums, inside of the cheeks, and the back of the mouth or throat. The feeling is often described as a scalding or tingling sensation.
Thyroid nodules are the most common endocrine problem in the United States. The term thyroid nodule refers to any abnormal growth that forms a lump in the thyroid gland. The vast majority of thyroid nodules are benign.
How Can I Reduce Swelling from Thyroid Eye?
Thyroid eye disease, also known as Graves’ eye disease, is an autoimmune condition in which the body’s immune system attacks the fat and muscle tissue within the eye socket, causing inflammation.
There are four major types of thyroid cancer: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Tumors on the thyroid are referred to as thyroid nodules. Symptoms of thyroid cancer include swollen lymph nodes, pain in the throat, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, and a lump near the Adam's apple. Treatment usually involves chemotherapy, surgery, radioactive iodine, hormone treatment or external radiation and depends upon the type of thyroid cancer, the patient's age, the tumor size, and whether the cancer has metastasized.
What Is the Best Treatment for Hypothyroidism?
Learn more about hypothyroidism, ways to manage this condition, and the best medical treatment to help ease your symptoms.
Is Stage 4 Thyroid Cancer Curable?
While thyroid cancer is 100% curable in the early stages, stage IV thyroid cancer is difficult to treat and the prognosis is not good. Sometimes, only palliative care may be possible if cancer has spread to the brain.
What Is the Recovery Time for a Parathyroidectomy?
The parathyroid glands are located behind the thyroid gland in the neck. There are four parathyroid glands in the body, and they produce parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH regulates the body's calcium and phosphorus levels.
When Parathyroid Is Removed
Parathyroid glands are located in the neck just behind the thyroid gland. There are typically four parathyroid glands that regulate blood calcium levels. Hypoparathyroidism is a rare but serious condition that can result after the removal of all four parathyroid glands.
What Happens If Hypothyroidism Is Left Untreated?
If hypothyroidism is not treated, it can lead to various complications.
Can Thyroid Problems Cause Extreme Fatigue?
Extreme fatigue is a very common symptom of thyroid problems such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Here are 7 tips for dealing with fatigue caused by thyroid problems.
Can Thyroid Cancer Make You Feel Sick?
In the early stages, thyroid cancer may not show signs or symptoms, but when cancer is in its advanced stage, an unusual lump may form making a person feel sick.
Warning Signs of Thyroid Cancer
Thyroid cancer refers to the uncontrolled growth of cells that starts in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck just above the collarbone.
The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck. The thyroid gland produces important thyroid hormones, which are produced by the pituitary gland. There are six types of thyroid problems. Home remedies, medications, surgery, lifestyle changes, and surgery. Usually, most types of thyroid problems can be managed with home remedies, medications, lifestyle changes (diet, yoga), and surgery.
How much does a fine needle aspiration of the thyroid cost?
The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck. It consists of two lobes connected by a narrow band of tissue called the isthmus. The gland makes thyroid hormones that are required for several body functions.
How Common Is Thyroid Eye Disease?
Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an eye condition characterized by progressive inflammation and damage to the muscles and soft tissues in and around the eyes. This especially affects extraocular muscles (the muscles present in the orbit but outside the eyeball), connective, and fatty tissues.
Thyroid Storm vs Thyrotoxicosis: Differences
A thyroid storm or crisis is a rare endocrine emergency that represents the extreme manifestation of thyrotoxicosis (severe thyrotoxicosis).
How Long Can You Live With Stage IV Thyroid Cancer?
Thyroid cancer is highly treatable cancer except for a certain type of cancer (anaplastic thyroid cancer). The chances of recovery increase when cancer is diagnosed at its earlier stages. At stage IV, cancer has reached an advanced stage.
What Are The Symptoms Of Thyroid Eye Disease
Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a rare eye condition characterized by progressive inflammation and damage to the muscles and soft tissues near the eyes, especially the extraocular muscle and connective and fatty tissues.
What Kind of Doctor Treats Thyroid Eye Disease?
Thyroid eye disease, also known as Graves’ orbitopathy or Graves' ophthalmopathy, is an eye condition that happens in a person with an overactive thyroid. Most eye surgeons (ophthalmologists) and hormone specialists (endocrinologists) will be in contact with an oculoplastic surgeon with experience in treating patients with thyroid eye disease.
Causes for Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism may be caused by several reasons. The causes are broadly divided into primary and secondary causes.
Can Low Thyroid Cause Other Health Problems?
Low thyroid can cause health problems such as erectile dysfunction, lack of ovulation, pregnancy complications, goiters, heart disease, depression, and myxedema. Thyroid cancer is the abnormal growth and uninhibited multiplication of cells of the thyroid gland.
What Are the Warning Signs of Thyroid Cancer?
Thyroid cancer arises from the cells of the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck, just below Adam's apple. Warning signs of thyroid cancer include a lump in the neck, trouble swallowing, trouble breathing, voice changes, cough, weight loss, and palpitations.
What Are the Effects of Thyroid Problems in Women?
Thyroid problems can cause hormonal imbalances that affect a woman’s reproductive system, impacting menstruation, ovulation, and pregnancy.
Minimally Invasive Parathyroid Surgery
Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery is a procedure in which the parathyroid gland is removed through a small incision. The procedure is usually performed using a video-assisted or endoscopic camera, where the surgeon uses a camera to magnify the view to remove the affected gland.
What Can Hypoparathyroidism Lead To?
Hypoparathyroidism leads to abnormally low levels of calcium (hypocalcemia) and increased levels of phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia) in the body.
What Happens to Your Body When You Have Thyroid Cancer?
Thyroid cancer arises from the cells of the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck, just below Adam's apple. Common symptoms and signs of thyroid cancer may include a lump in the neck, trouble swallowing, trouble breathing, voice changes, cough, weight loss, and palpitations.
What Effect Does Hypothyroidism Have on the Body?
Hypothyroidism is a condition where low levels of thyroid hormones affect various body parts. The thyroid gland is a small butterfly-shaped endocrine gland (a gland that secretes a substance called a hormone into the bloodstream). It is normally located in the front of the neck. It produces the thyroid hormones, which are released into the blood and then carried to various tissues in the body.
What Causes Hypothyroidism?
Hypothyroidism results when the thyroid gland fails to produce enough hormones. Hypothyroidism may be due to a number of factors.
How Invasive Is Thyroid Surgery?
The thyroid gland is shaped like a butterfly and sits just below Adam’s apple. It is attached to the deeper neck structures (trachea and voice box) and elevates when we swallow.
What Is the Treatment of Thyroid Eye Disease?
Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a rare eye condition characterized by progressive inflammation of and damage to the muscles and soft tissues in and around the eyes, especially the extraocular muscles (the muscles present in the orbit but outside the eyeball), connective, and fatty tissue.
What Causes Thyroid Eye?
Thyroid eye disease (also called Grave’s orbitopathy or Grave’s ophthalmopathy) is an autoimmune condition where the immune cells attack the tissues around the eyes. It causes inflammation of the eye muscles or fat.
Complications Of Hypothyroidism: Fertility, Weight And More
The thyroid gland is a small butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck. Hypothyroidism is a medical condition in which the thyroid gland becomes underactive.
What Happens When You Have Hyperparathyroidism?
If you have hyperparathyroidism, it means that one or more of the parathyroid glands are overactive, resulting in the overproduction of the parathyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormones in excess can lead to an increase in the calcium levels in the blood (hypercalcemia).
What Effect Does Hypothyroidism Have On You?
What is hypothyroidism? Learn the signs of hypothyroidism, what causes hypothyroidism, and how hypothyroidism affects the body.
How Do They Check for Thyroid Cancer?
The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland situated at the base of the neck, just below Adam's apple. Thyroid cancer is the abnormal growth and uninhibited multiplication of cells of the thyroid gland. This ultimately results in loss of nutrients for the healthy body cells and eventual cell death. The thyroid gland is part of the endocrine system, which regulates hormones in the body.
How Is Thyroid Cancer Detected and Diagnosed?
Thyroid cancer arises from the cells of the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck, just below Adam's apple. The thyroid gland produces hormones (chemicals acting as messengers in the body) that regulate body weight, temperature, blood pressure and heart rate.
Are There Stages of Thyroid Cancer?
Stages used to describe thyroid cancer are based on the type of thyroid cancer and the patient’s age. The different types of thyroid cancer include papillary and follicular thyroid cancer in patients younger than 55 years of age, papillary and follicular thyroid cancer in patients 55 years of age and older, medullary thyroid cancer in patients of all ages, and anaplastic thyroid cancer in patients of all ages.
What Happens To a Person With Hypothyroidism?
Low thyroid hormone levels result in a sluggish metabolism, which can appear in the following symptoms of hypothyroidism.
How Is Thyroid Cancer Detected?
In addition to your medical history and a physical exam, a variety of diagnostic and lab tests can help your doctor detect the presence of thyroid cancer.
How Common Is Differentiated Thyroid Cancer?
Differentiated thyroid cancers are the most common types of thyroid cancer with papillary accounting for 8 in 10 cases and follicular account for 1 in 10 cases.
Treatment & Diagnosis
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Medications & Supplements
Prevention & Wellness
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.