Interstitial lung disease refers to a variety of diseased that thicken the tissue between the lungs' air sacks. Symptoms of interstitial lung disease include shortness of breath, cough, and vascular problems, and their treatment depends on the underlying cause of the tissue thickening. Causes include viruses, bacteria, tobacco smoke, environmental factors, cancer, and heart or kidney failure. Read more: Interstitial Lung Disease (Interstitial Pneumonia) Article
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Lung Cancer: Early Signs, Symptoms, Stages
Learn about lung cancer early warning signs, symptoms and treatments. What causes stage IV lung cancer? Get more information on...
The 14 Most Common Causes of Fatigue
Always feeling tired? Learn more about the causes of fatigue. Get tips to relieve symptoms of fatigue. Feel less tired and start...
Lung Cancer Risks: Myths and Facts
Learn about lung cancer myths and facts. Explore how cigar smoke, menthol, and pollution can increase your risk of lung cancer...
Cancer-Fighting Foods: Resveratrol, Green Tea, and More
Experts have praised certain foods for their ability to reduce cancer risks. Learn which foods and eating strategies may help...
Lung Cancer Quiz: Signs and Symptoms
Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the U.S. and worldwide. Get the facts about lung...
Lung Disease & Respiratory Health: Should I Get a COVID-19 Antibody Test?
If you had COVID-19 symptoms but never got tested, or if you have long-term symptoms that just won't go away, you may want to get...
Picture of Lungs
The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest (thorax). See a picture of the Lungs and...
Effects of Secondhand Smoke: Facts
The effects of secondhand smoke can be hazardous to your health. Secondhand smoke can lead to lung cancer, heart disease, and...
Related Disease Conditions
Cough: 19 Tips on How to Stop a Cough
Coughing is a reflex that helps a person clear their airways of irritants. There are many causes of an excessive or severe cough including irritants like cigarette and secondhand smoke, pollution, air fresheners, medications like beta blockers and ACE inhibitors, the common cold, GERD, lung cancer, and heart disease.Natural and home remedies to help cure and soothe a cough include stay hydrated, gargle saltwater, use cough drops or lozenges, use herbs and supplements like ginger, mint, licorice, and slippery elm, and don't smoke. Over-the-counter products (OTC)to cure and soothe a cough include cough suppressants and expectorants, and anti-reflux drugs. Prescription drugs that help cure a cough include narcotic medications, antibiotics, inhaled steroids, and anti-reflux drugs like proton pump inhibitors or PPIs, for example, omeprazole (Prilosec), rabeprazole (Aciphex), and pantoprazole (Protonix).
Cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and is not contagious. Cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, a treatment of drugs that destroy cancer cells.
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Congestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathies are just a few potential causes of congestive heart failure. Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure may include fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, angina, and edema. Physical examination, patient history, blood tests, and imaging tests are used to diagnose congestive heart failure. Treatment of heart failure consists of lifestyle modification and taking medications to decrease fluid in the body and ease the strain on the heart. The prognosis of a patient with congestive heart failure depends on the stage of the heart failure and the overall condition of the individual.
Genetic Diseases (Disorder Definition, Types, and Examples)
The definition of a genetic disease is a disorder or condition caused by abnormalities in a person's genome. Some types of genetic inheritance include single inheritance, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Marfan syndrome, and hemochromatosis. Other types of genetic diseases include multifactorial inheritance. Still other types of genetic diseases include chromosome abnormalities (for example, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome), and mitochondrial inheritance (for example, epilepsy and dementia).
Chronic cough is a cough that does not go away and is generally a symptom of another disorder such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, sinus infection, cigarette smoking, GERD, postnasal drip, bronchitis, pneumonia, medications, and less frequently tumors or other lung disease. Chronic cough treatment is based on the cause, but may be soothed natural and home remedies.
Pneumonia is inflammation of the lungs caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Symptoms and signs include cough, fever, shortness of breath, and chills. Antibiotics treat pneumonia, and the choice of the antibiotic depends upon the cause of the infection.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints, as well as other organs in the body. Because it can affect multiple other organs of the body, rheumatoid arthritis is referred to as a systemic illness and is sometimes called rheumatoid disease. The 16 characteristic early RA signs and symptoms include the following. Anemia Both sides of the body affected (symmetric) Depression Fatigue Fever Joint deformity Joint pain Joint redness Joint stiffness Joint swelling Joint tenderness Joint warmth Limping Loss of joint function Loss of joint range of motion Many joints affected (polyarthritis)
Pulmonary fibrosis is scarring throughout the lungs. Pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by many conditions including chronic inflammatory processes, infections, environmental agents, exposure to ionizing radiation, chronic conditions, and certain medications. Symptoms include shortness of breath, coughing, and diminished exercise tolerance. Treatment options are dependent on the type of pulmonary fibrosis; lung transplant and/or medications are options.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the normal concentration of oxygen in the blood is not enough for normal life functions. Symptoms of hypoxia and/or hypoxemia may be acute such as fast heart rate, rapid breathing, and shortness of breath; or severe symptoms include confusion, the inability to communicate, coma, and sometimes death. Treatment of hypoxia and/or hypoxemia is to provide supplemental oxygen to the body as soon as possible.
Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or SLE)
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a condition characterized by chronic inflammation of body tissues caused by autoimmune disease. Lupus can cause disease of the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, joints, and nervous system. When only the skin is involved, the condition is called discoid lupus. When internal organs are involved, the condition is called systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Fatigue can be described in various ways. Sometimes fatigue is described as feeling a lack of energy and motivation (both mental and physical). The causes of fatigue are generally related to a variety of conditions or diseases, for example, anemia, mono, medications, sleep problems, cancer, anxiety, heart disease, and drug abuse.Treatment of fatigue is generally directed toward the condition or disease that is causing the fatigue.
Is Pneumonia Contagious?
Pneumonia is inflammation of the lung usually caused by bacterial or viral infection (rarely, also by fungi) that causes the air sacs to fill with pus. If inflammation affects both lungs, the infection is termed double pneumonia. If it affects one lung, it is termed single pneumonia. If it affects only a certain lobe of a lung it's termed lobar pneumonia. Most pneumonias are caused by bacteria and viruses, but some pneumonias are caused by inhaling toxic chemicals that damage lung tissue.
Mold Exposure: Symptoms, Removal, and Remediation
Mold exposure may cause symptoms in people who are sensitive to molds. Symptoms of mold allergy include sneezing, runny nose, wheezing, coughing, redness of the eyes, and rash. Prevent mold growth by keeping indoor humidity low, between 30%-50%, using bathroom fans when showering, repairing plumbing leaks quickly, and using an air conditioner during humid seasons.
Symptoms of 12 Serious Diseases and Health Problems
Learn how to recognize early warning signs and symptoms of serious diseases and health problems, for example, chronic cough, headache, chest pain, nausea, stool color or consistency changes, heartburn, skin moles, anxiety, nightmares, suicidal thoughts, hallucinations, delusions, lightheadedness, night sweats, eye problems, confusion, depression, severe pelvic or abdominal pain, unusual vaginal discharge, and nipple changes. The symptoms and signs of serious health problems can be caused by strokes, heart attacks, cancers, reproductive problems in females (for example, cancers, fibroids, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, and sexually transmitted diseases or STDs), breast problems (for example, breast cancer and non-cancer related diseases), lung diseases (for example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, lung cancer, emphysema, and asthma), stomach or digestive diseases (for example, cancers, gallbladder, liver, and pancreatic diseases, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn's disease), bladder problems (for example, urinary incontinence, and kidney infections), skin cancer, muscle and joint problems, emotional problems or mental illness (for example, postpartum depression, major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mania, and schizophrenia), and headache disorders (for example, migraines, or "the worst headache of your life), and eating disorders and weight problems (for example, anorexia or bulimia).
Cancer Risk Factors and Causes
Though it's difficult to say why some people develop cancer while others don't, research shows that certain risk factors increase a person's odds of developing cancer. These risk factors include growing older, family history of cancer, diet, alcohol and tobacco use, and exposure to sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals, and some viruses and bacteria.
Lung cancer kills more men and women than any other form of cancer. Eight out of 10 lung cancers are due to tobacco smoke. Lung cancers are classified as either small-cell or non-small-cell lung cancers.
Hookahs vs. Cigarette Smoking (Addiction and Health Dangers)
A hookah is a water pipe that's used to smoke flavored tobacco like watermelon, licorice, coconut, chocolate, cherry, mint, apple, and cappuccino. The use of this type of tobacco smoking began in ancient India and Persia centuries ago. You can find hookah cafes all over the world, for example, the U.S., France, Russia, Britain, and the Middle East. New forms of electronic hookah are now available. Some people who smoke tobacco think that hookahs are less dangerous to their health because the smoke is filtered through water, but the smoke from hookahs contain the same cancer-causing chemicals that cigarette smoke does. Smoking tobacco via cigarettes or hookah are both dangerous to your health.
Heart failure (congestive) is caused by many conditions including coronary artery disease, heart attack, cardiomyopathy, and conditions that overwork the heart. Symptoms of heart failure include congested lungs, fluid and water retention, dizziness, fatigue and weakness, and rapid or irregular heartbeats. There are two types of congestive heart failure, systolic or left-sided heart failure; and diastolic or right-sided heart failure. Treatment, prognosis, and life-expectancy for a person with congestive heart failure depends upon the stage of the disease.
Smoker's Lung: Pathology Photo Essay
Smoker's lung photo essay is a collection of pictures and microscopic slides of lung disease caused by cigarette smoking. Smoker's lung refers to the diseases and structural abnormalities in the lung caused by cigarette smoking.
Sarcoidosis, a disease resulting from chronic inflammation, causes small lumps (granulomas) to develop in a great range of body tissues and can appear in almost any body organ. However, sarcoidosis most often starts in the lungs or lymph nodes.
The lungs are primarily responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air we breathe and the blood. Eliminating carbon dioxide from the blood is important, because as it builds up in the blood, headaches, drowsiness, coma, and eventually death may occur. The air we breathe in (inhalation) is warmed, humidified, and cleaned by the nose and the lungs.
Pulmonary hypertension is elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries that carry blood from the lungs to the heart. The most common symptoms are fatigue and difficulty breathing. If the condition goes undiagnosed, more severe symptoms may occur. As pulmonary hypertension worsens, some people with the condition have difficulty performing any activities that require physical exertion. While there is no cure for pulmonary hypertension, it can be managed and treated with medications and supplemental oxygen to increase blood oxygen levels.
Smoking (How to Quit Smoking)
Smoking is an addiction. More than 430,000 deaths occur each year in the U.S. from smoking related illnesses. Secondhand smoke or "passive smoke" also harm family members, coworkers, and others around smokers. There are a number of techniques available to assist people who want to quit smoking.
Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue. It is characterized by the formation of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the skin and organs of the body, leading to thickness and firmness of involved areas. Scleroderma is also referred to as systemic sclerosis, and the cause is unknown. Treatment of scleroderma is directed toward the individual features that are most troubling to the patient.
What are the Three Major Causes of Pneumonia?
Pneumonia is a lung infection that affects many people. Learn the signs of pneumonia, what causes it, how doctors diagnose it, and what you can do to treat it.
Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease (NTM, Symptoms, Treatment, Side Effects)
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), most commonly, M. avium complex or MAC, is a mycobacteria that causes lung infections and disease. Nontuberculous mycobacteria are commonly found in soil, air, and water. Examples of how NTM lung infection are transmitted include swimming, using a hot tub (NTM bacteria are aerosolized), or playing with or handling soil. The most common symptoms of NTM lung infection are chronic, dry cough, and shortness of breath. Sometimes the cough may have mucous or blood. Other symptoms of NTM lung disease include fatigue, chest pain, malaise, and weakness. As NTM lung disease progresses, fevers, night sweats, and appetite loss may occur. Treatment guidelines for NTM lung disease depend upon the type and extent of the infection, and the person's health.
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or IPF is a progressive lung disease. There is no known cause of IPF. Symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, mild fevers, muscle pain, clubbing fingers, and ankle swelling. Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is directed at managing the signs and symptoms of the disease. The prognosis and life expectancy of idiopathic fibrosis is poor.
What Are the Effects of Secondhand Smoke?
Secondhand smoke can cause illness and disease in nonsmokers. Some of these conditions include lung cancer, heart disease, respiratory illnesses such as asthma, SIDS, bronchitis, and pneumonia. The best way to protect yourself and your family from secondhand smoke exposure is to not allow anyone to smoke in the home and to avoid being around smoke when outside the home.
Asbestos (Exposure Dangers, Testing, Symptoms)
Asbestos is a mineral fiber that is found in soil and rock. Asbestos exposure occurs when asbestos fibers are disturbed and released into the air then and inhaled. Inhaling asbestos fibers causes three lung diseases; asbestosis, lung cancer, and noncancerous lung disease. In asbestosis, the asbestos fibers scar the lungs. Asbestosis and lung cancer have the same symptoms of cough and shortness of breath.Asbestosis progresses slowly, frequently even 20 to 40 years after asbestos exposure. Asbestos exposure include can come from a variety of products, for example, drinking water due to the decay of asbestos cement in water mains and erosion of natural deposits (which increases your risk of developing benign intestinal polyps), insulation, vinyl floor tiles, some paints and patching compounds, oil and coal furnaces and doors, heat-resistant fabrics, and automobiles brakes and clutches. Some uses of asbestos are banned; however, most are not. Examples of products banned from using asbestos are commercial, corrugated, and specialty paper, flooring felt, and artificial fireplace embers that contain asbestos. Examples of products not banned from using asbestos include vinyl flooring, clothing, roof and non-roof coatings, friction materials, and some car components.Cancers of the larynx, throat, kidney, esophagusand gallbladder have been linked to asbestos exposure. Treatment is dependent upon the type of condition related to asbestos exposure.
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis is an inflammation of the lung caused by small airborne particles such as bacteria, mold, fungi, or inorganic matter. There are two types of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute and chronic. Symptoms include fever, chills, cough, shortness of breath, body aches. Examples of hypersensitivity pneumonitis include bagassosis, mushroom worker's disease, sauna taker's disease, pigeon breeder's disease, and farmer's lung disease. Most commonly, it results from exposure to pet birds.
How Do You Place a Double-Lumen Endotracheal Tube?
Double-lumen tubes (DLTs) are the most preferred endotracheal tubes to provide independent ventilation for each lung. Intubation through this tube allows for selective ventilation of only one lung. A DLT is placed by an anesthetist in a series of steps.
Certain behavioral, lifestyle, and environmental factors contribute to cancer. Cancer prevention involves modifying these factors to decrease cancer risk. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, and obesity increase the risk of certain cancers. Vaccines, genetic testing, and cancer screening also play a role in cancer prevention.
Smoking During Pregnancy
Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, premature birth and more. Secondhand smoke also increases your baby's risk of developing lung cancer, heart diseases, emphysema, asthma, allergies and SIDS.
Smoking and Heart Disease
Smoking increases the risk of heart disease in women and men. Nicotine in cigarettes decrease oxygen to the heart, increases blood pressure, blood clots, and damages coronary arteries. Learn how to quit smoking today, to prolong your life.
How Do I Know if My Child has Pneumonia?
Pneumonia is a lung infection that affects many children. Learn the signs of pneumonia in children, what causes pneumonia in children, how doctors diagnose pneumonia in children, and what you can do to treat pneumonia in children.
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Treatment & Diagnosis
- Liver Blood Tests
- Chest X-Ray
- What Are the Different Types of Mechanical Ventilation?
- What Is the Life Expectancy of Someone With COPD?
- Echocardiogram (Echocardiography, Diagnostic Cardiac Ultrasound)
- CT Scan (Computerized Tomography)
- What Is a Bronchoscopy?
- Why Is Decortication Performed?
- What Drugs Are Used in Rapid Sequence Intubation?
- What Is Barotrauma in Mechanical Ventilation?
- What Is Breath Sound Assessment?
- When Is a Thoracentesis Procedure Performed?
- What Is Medical Thoracoscopy?
- Why Is a Transbronchial Biopsy Performed?
Medications & Supplements
- Corticosteroids (Systemic, Oral, Injections, Types)
- Side Effects of Zosyn (piperacillin and tazobactam)
- Side Effects of Pneumovax 23 (pneumococcal vaccine)
- azathioprine (Azasan)
- cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
- Ofev (nintedanib)
- Side Effects of Floxin (ofloxacin)
- corticosteroids-oral aerosol inhaler
- Nuzyra (omadacycline)
- Teflaro (ceftaroline fosamil)
- Symdeko (tezacaftor/ivacaftor)
- Bronchitol (mannitol)
- Xenleta (lefamulin)
- Zavesca (miglustat)
Prevention & Wellness
- Depression Plagues Many Coal Miners With Black Lung Disease
- Giving Back: Once a Lung Transplant Recipient, Now a Surgical Nurse
- Microbes in Lungs Could Affect COVID-19 Outcomes
- Elton John's Walking Pneumonia: What Is It? What's the Prognosis and Recovery?
- Health Tip: Preventing Pneumonia
- FDA Approves First Treatment for ILD With Systemic Sclerosis, Scleroderma
- Moon Dust a Health Hazard?
- Health Tip: Want Healthier Lungs?