What is insulin, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- Insulin is a naturally-occurring hormone secreted by the pancreas. Insulin is required by the cells of the body in order for them to remove and use glucose from the blood. Cells use glucose to produce the energy that they need to carry out their functions. Researchers first gave an active extract of the pancreas containing insulin to a young diabetic patient in 1922, and the FDA first approved insulin in 1939. Currently, insulin used for treatment is derived from beef and pork pancreas as well as recombinant (man-made) technology. The first recombinant human insulin was approved by the FDA in 1982.
- People with diabetes mellitus have a reduced ability to take up and use glucose from the blood, and, as a result, the glucose level in the blood rises. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin. Therefore, insulin therapy is needed. In type 2 diabetes, patients produce insulin, but cells throughout the body do not respond normally to insulin. Nevertheless, insulin also may be used in type 2 diabetes to overcome the resistance of the cells to insulin. By increasing the uptake of glucose by cells and reducing the concentration of glucose in the blood, insulin prevents or reduces the long-term complications of diabetes, including damage to the blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Insulin is administered by injection under the skin (subcutaneously). The subcutaneous tissue of the abdomen is preferred because the absorption of the insulin is more consistent from this location than subcutaneous tissues in other locations.
- Rapid-acting insulins start working in less than 15 minutes, peak in an hour, and continue working for another two to four hours.
- Regular, also known as short-acting insulin, takes about 30 minutes to reach the bloodstream. Its peak effect is in about two to three hours, and its effect lingers for three to six hours.
- Intermediate-acting insulin reaches the bloodstream in two to four hours, peaks in four to 12 hours, and works for up to 18 hours.
- Long-acting insulin takes six to 10 hours to start working, but it lasts for 20-24 hours.
- Premixed insulins can be a convenient option for some people.
What brand names are available for insulin?
Do I need a prescription for insulin?
Yes; No (regular and NPH insulin)
What are the uses for insulin?
Insulin is prescribed for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
What are the side effects of insulin?
- Heart palpitations
- Numbness around the mouth
- Tingling in the fingers
- Muscle weakness
- Blurred vision
- Cold temperature
- Excessive yawning
- Loss of consciousness
Patients may experience blurred vision if they have had elevated blood sugar levels for a prolonged period of time and then have the elevated levels rapidly brought to normal. This is due to a shift of fluid within the lens of the eye. Over time, vision returns to normal. Other side effects that may occur include headaches, skin reactions (redness, swelling, itching or rash at the site of injection), worsening of diabetic retinopathy, changes in the distribution of body fat (lipodystrophy), allergic reactions, sodium retention, and general body swelling. Insulin causes weight gain and may reduce potassium blood levels. In addition to these side effects, inhaled insulin (Afrezza) may cause throat pain or irritation and cough and patients should inform their healthcare professional of any unresolved symptoms affecting the lungs for follow up.
What is the dosage for insulin?
The abdomen is the preferred site for insulin injection, but the sites of injection must be rotated in order to prevent erosion of the fat beneath the skin, a condition called lipodystrophy. Dosing is adjusted for each patient. A combination of short acting/rapid acting and intermediate insulin or long acting insulin are typically used.
Is insulin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
What else should I know about insulin?
How should I keep insulin stored?
- Unopened insulin should be stored between 2 C and 8 C (36 F and 46 F); it should not be placed in a freezer.
- Insulin vials that are being used can be kept at room temperature for up to a month.
- All vials should be protected from sunlight and excessive heat.
- Unused insulin should be thrown away after the expiration date.
- The vials should never be shaken.
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Common Medical Abbreviations List
Doctors, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals use abbreviations, acronyms, and other terminology for instructions and information in regard to a patient's health condition, prescription drugs they are to take, or medical procedures that have been ordered. There is no approved this list of common medical abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology used by doctors and other health- care professionals. You can use this list of medical abbreviations and acronyms written by our doctors the next time you can't understand what is on your prescription package, blood test results, or medical procedure orders. Examples include: ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease. ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure cap: Capsule. CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. A treatment for sleep apnea. DJD: Degenerative joint disease. Another term for osteoarthritis. DM: Diabetes mellitus. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes HA: Headache IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis JT: Joint N/V: Nausea or vomiting. p.o.: By mouth. From the Latin terminology per os. q.i.d.: Four times daily. As in taking a medicine four times daily. RA: Rheumatoid arthritis SOB: Shortness of breath. T: Temperature. Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)
Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, is a syndrome in which a person's blood sugar is dangerously low. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are at risk for this condition. There are other diseases that can cause a person's blood sugar levels to go too low, for example, pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, and pancreatic cancer. Symptoms and signs that your blood sugar levels are too low include palpitations, trembling, intense hunger, sweating, nervousness, and weakness. If your blood sugars become too low, use these nearby as a quick treatment table sugar, soda, juice, and glucose tablets.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan
A type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar (glucose) control in people with diabetes to prevent complications of diabetes. There are a variety of type 2 diabetes diet eating plans such as the Mediterranean diet, Paleo diet, ADA Diabetes Diet, and vegetarian diets.Learn about low and high glycemic index foods, what foods to eat, and what foods to avoid if you have type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia)
Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar is a serious health problem for diabetics. There are two types of hyperglycemia, 1) fasting, and 2)postprandial or after meal hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can also lead to ketoacidosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). There are a variety of causes of hyperglycemia in people with diabetes. Symptoms of high blood sugar may include increased thirst, headaches, blurred vision, and frequent urination.Treatment can be achieved through lifestyle changes or medications changes. Carefully monitoring blood glucose levels is key to prevention.
Diabetes Symptoms in Men
Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which a person's blood sugar (blood glucose) is either too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia) due to problems with insulin regulation in the body. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs during childhood, while type 2 diabetes usually occurs during adulthood, however, rates of both types of diabetes in children, adolescents, and teens is increasing. More men than women have diabetes in the US, and the disease can affect men differently than women.Warning symptoms of diabetes that men have and women do not include low testosterone (low-t), sexual problems, impotence (erectile dysfunction), decreased interest in sex, and retrograde ejaculation. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes symptoms and signs that are the same in men and women include skin infections, numbness or tingling in the feet or hands, nausea, excessive thirst or hunger, fatigue, irritability, blurred vision, weight gain, weight loss, urinary tract infections (URIs), and kidney problems. Treatment for type 1 diabetes is insulin, and treatment for type 2 diabetes are lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, getting exercise daily, and if necessary, diabetes medications.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints, as well as other organs in the body. Because it can affect multiple other organs of the body, rheumatoid arthritis is referred to as a systemic illness and is sometimes called rheumatoid disease. The 16 characteristic early RA signs and symptoms include the following. Anemia Both sides of the body affected (symmetric) Depression Fatigue Fever Joint deformity Joint pain Joint redness Joint stiffness Joint swelling Joint tenderness Joint warmth Limping Loss of joint function Loss of joint range of motion Many joints affected (polyarthritis)
Gestational Diabetes (Diabetes during Pregnancy))
Learning how to avoid gestational diabetes is possible and maintaining a healthy weight and diet before and during pregnancy can help. Discover risk factors, tests and treatments for, and signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes.
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)
A heart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart attack can cause chest pain, heart failure, and electrical instability of the heart.
Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by: Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.) Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!) Lack of activity Exercise Stress Genetics While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include: Increased urination Increased hunger Increased thirst Unexplained weight loss. However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Diabetes Treatment: Medication, Diet, and Insulin
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with: insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with: weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that may be reversible with diet and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, and an unusual odor to your urine. Most people don't know they have type 2 diabetes until they have a routine blood test. Treatment options include medications, a type 2 diabetes diet, and other lifestyle changes.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Complications)
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complication of type 1 diabetes that is life threatening. If a person thinks they may have diabetic ketoacidosis they should seek medical care immediately. Diabetic ketoacidosis happens when a person's insulin levels in the blood become dangerously low. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include dehydration, abdominal pain, confusion, and nausea and vomiting. Diabetic ketoacidosis needs medical treatment. It cannot be treated at home.
What Is a High Insulin Level?
Insulin is a hormone (a chemical substance that acts as a messenger in the human body) that is secreted by an abdominal organ called the pancreas. High insulin levels are levels of the hormone that are higher than they should be after ingesting glucose.
Diabetes Foot Problems
Diabetes related foot problems can affect your health with two problems: diabetic neuropathy, where diabetes affects the nerves, and peripheral vascular disease, where diabetes affects the flow of blood. Common foot problems for people with diabetes include athlete's foot, fungal infection of nails, calluses, corns, blisters, bunions, dry skin, foot ulcers, hammertoes, ingrown toenails, and plantar warts.
Type 1 Diabetes (Symptoms, Causes, Diet, Treatment, Life Expectancy)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (juvenile) is an auto-immune disease with no known cause at this time, although there are a few risk factors. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include frequent urination, unintentional weight loss, dry and itchy skin, vision problems, wounds that heal slowly, and excessive thirst. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed with blood tests. A healthy lifestyle and controlling blood glucose levels can improve life expectancy.
Which is Worse - Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes?
Learn about the similarities and differences between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.
Eye Problems and Diabetes
Diabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems in a person with diabetes include glaucoma, cataracts, and retinopathy. Examples of symptoms include blurred vision, headaches, eye aches, pain, halos around lights, loss of vision, watering eyes. Treatment for eye problems in people with diabetes depend on the type of eye problem. Prevention of eye problems include reducing blood pressure, cholesterol levels, quitting smoking, and maintaining proper blood glucose levels.
Types of Diabetes Type 2 Medications
Type 2 diabetes oral medications are prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes in conjuction with lifestyle changes like diet and exercise. There are nine classes of drugs approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Examples of type 2 oral diabetes medications include acarbose (Precose), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), and metformin (Glucophage). Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, dosage, and breastfeeding and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Can Type 1 Diabetes be Cured?
Type 1 diabetes is a disorder of the pancreas. The organ doesn't make enough insulin. Learn what medical treatments can help ease your type 1 diabetes symptoms and speed up your recovery.
Diabetes and Kidney Disease
In the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose increase the risk that a person with diabetes will eventually progress to kidney failure. Kidney disease in people with diabetes develops over the course of many years. albumin and eGFR are two key markers for kidney disease in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood pressure, blood pressure medications, a moderate protein diet, and compliant management of blood glucose can slow the progression of kidney disease. For those patients who's kidneys eventually fail, dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only option.
Drug Allergy (Medication Allergy)
Drug or medication allergies are caused when the immune system mistakenly creates an immune response to a medication. Symptoms of a drug allergic reaction include hives, rash, itchy skin or eyes, dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, fainting, and anxiety. The most common drugs that people are allergic to include penicillins and penicillin type drugs, sulfa drugs, insulin, and iodine. Treatment may involve antihistamines or corticosteroids. An EpiPen may be used for life-threatening anaphylactic symptoms.
Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home
Managing your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
Diabetes: Caring for Your Diabetes at Special Times
Taking care of a disease such as diabetes is a life-long process. Learn how to care for yourself or loved one with diabetes in situations such as illness, work, school, travel, or a natural disaster.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Superfoods FAQs
- Sugar FAQs
- Diabetes FAQs
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- Protein FAQs
- Type 2 Diabetes FAQs
- Type 1 Diabetes FAQs
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Medications & Supplements
- Insulin for Diabetes Treatment (Types, Side Effects, and Preparations)
- Drugs: Questions to Ask Your Doctor or Pharmacist about Your Drugs
- Drug Interactions
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- What Is Intravenous Insulin Therapy?
- Amaryl (glimepiride)
- How Do You Give Intravenous Insulin Therapy?
- insulin glargine (Lantus)
- Precose (acarbose)
- canagliflozin (Invokana)
- Synjardy XR (empagliflozin and metformin extended-release)
- Types of Diabetes Type I And II Medications
Prevention & Wellness
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- Once-a-Week Insulin for Type 2 Diabetes Shows Promise in Early Trial
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- Older Diabetics May Be Getting Too Much Insulin
- Many Older Americans Aren't Equipped to Weather Hurricanes Like Dorian
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- High Insulin Costs Come Under Fire on Capitol Hill
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- Insulin Price More Than Doubles in U.S.
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- New Hormonal Link Suspected in Type 2 Diabetes
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- High Health Care Deductibles Take Toll on Family Finances
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- These Medicines Often Send Americans to ERs
- Low Blood Sugar Linked to Death Risk for Hospital Patients
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- Tracking Blood Sugar in Pregnancy Might Lower Heart Defect Risk for Baby
- Health Tip: Creating an Insulin Routine
- Daily Can of Soda Boosts Odds for Prediabetes, Study Finds
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- Some Want a Federal Investigation as Insulin Prices Rise
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- New Guidelines Urge Diabetics to Move More
- Exercise Can Help Manage Type 1 Diabetes
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- Bodybuilders' Steroid Abuse Linked to Pre-Diabetic Condition
- Heart Docs: Never Expose Kids to Cigarette Smoke
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- Older Drug May Help Type 1 Diabetics' Heart Health
- Fried, Grilled or Baked Foods? They May Affect Type 2 Diabetes Risk
- Mouse Study Suggests Antibiotics in Kids Might Help Spur Type 1 Diabetes
- Health Tip: The Pluses of Using an Insulin Pump
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- Which Diabetes Drug Is Best?
- Healthy Fats Can Help Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: Study
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- Diabetes Drug Victoza May Help the Heart: Study
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- Could Infant Colds, Other Infections Raise Type 1 Diabetes Risk?
- Gotta Minute? Get a Good Workout
- Study Ties Certain Mouth Germs to Pancreatic Cancer Risk
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- Underactive Thyroid May Raise Odds for Type 2 Diabetes: Study
- Type 1 Diabetes Linked to Epilepsy Risk, Study Suggests
- More Evidence Diabetes Drug Actos Raises Bladder Cancer Risk a Bit
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- Triggers for Hyperglycemia
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- Your Plate May Hold the Key to Alzheimer's
- The 10 Most-Prescribed and Top-Selling Medications
- Health Tip: Store Diabetes Supplies Safely
- High-Protein Diet May Be Dangerous for Those at Risk of Heart Disease
- When You Eat, Not Just What, May Impact Health
- Dropping One Sugary Soda a Day Could Cut Diabetes Risk: Study
- Better Diabetes Blood Sugar Management Leads to Fewer Eye Surgeries
- Could High-Dose Insulin Prevent Type 1 Diabetes in High-Risk Kids?
- Researchers Test Powdered Insulin to Prevent Diabetes
- Gestational Diabetes Drug Might Raise Babies' Complication Risk
- Why Insulin Resistance May Be More Common in Men
- Latest Diabetes Care Guidelines Focus on Individual Approach
- Why Isn't There Any Cheap, Generic Insulin?
- 2 Factors Greatly Boost New Moms' Odds of Type 2 Diabetes
- Diabetes Groups Call for Greater Scrutiny of Insulin Pumps
- Could the Future Be Finger-Stick Free for Diabetics?
- Mom's Age at Childbirth Tied to Son's Risk for Type 2 Diabetes
- Statins Linked to Raised Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
- Small Study Links Lack of Sleep to Type 2 Diabetes Risk
- Minority Kids Less Likely to Get Latest Type 1 Diabetes Treatments, Study Finds
- Type 1 Diabetes More Deadly for Women Than Men, Study Finds
- Medication Problems May Spur Many Child ER Trips, Study Finds
- 1 in 5 Younger Diabetics Lacks Good Medical Care, Study Says
- Unhealthy Insulin Levels May Boost Breast Cancer Risk
- Are Seniors With Diabetes Overtreated?
- Cooler Temps May Boost Calorie-Burning 'Brown Fat,' Mouse Study Suggests
- Study Reinforces Link Between Low Birth Weight, Diabetes Risk
- Type 1 Diabetes Linked to Lower Life Expectancy in Study
- 1 in 3 People With Type 1 Diabetes Still Produce Insulin, Study Says
- New Weight Loss Drug Saxenda: FAQ
- More Children in the U.S. Are Getting Type 1 Diabetes
- 'Low-GI' Diet May Not Benefit Blood Sugar
- Cancer Rates Higher in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
- Does High-Fructose Corn Syrup Make People Hungrier?
- Technology Helps Manage Diabetes: FDA
- Better Diet, Exercise Can Prevent Diabetes in Both Sexes, Study Finds
- Midlife Diabetes Linked to Memory Problems Later
- Yogurt Every Day May Help Keep Diabetes Away
- Exercise Might Not Help Some Type 2 Diabetics Control Their Blood Sugar
- Type 1 Diabetes Lowered Survival in Study
- Nearly 3 in 10 Americans With Diabetes Don't Know It: Study
- Kidney, Urinary Birth Defects Tied to Obesity in Moms-to-Be
- Type 1 Diabetes Increasing Among White American Kids
- Colleges Could Do More for Students With Chronic Ills, Study Finds
- Metformin Beats Other Type 2 Diabetes Drugs for First Treatment: Study
- If You Do Gain Weight, Polyunsaturated Fats May Prevent Some Damage
- Another Study Links Mediterranean Diet to Better Heart Health
- Early Study Points to Diabetes Drug Controlled by Light
- Obesity May Speed Aging of the Liver, Study Suggests
- Stem Cell Success Raises Hopes of Type 1 Diabetes Cure
- Impotence Drug Might Counter Common Gene Mutation in Type 2 Diabetes: Study
- Report Claims Success Treating Alzheimer's Memory Loss
- Bro Alert: Too Much Booze May Harm Your Sperm
- Study Compares Insulin Regimens for Type 1 Diabetes
- Can Exercise Prevent Type 2 Diabetes? Your Genes May Be Key
- Weekly Diabetes Drugs: FAQs
- Obesity Isn't Sole Cause of Type 2 Diabetes
- Combo Diabetes Therapy Outperforms Other Treatments, Study Finds
- Nuts & Your Health: What to Know
- Weight Loss Surgery: Diabetes Cure?
- New Test Helps Diagnose Type 1 Diabetes
- Low Birth Weights May Put Black Women at Risk for Diabetes
- 40 Percent of Americans Will Develop Diabetes, CDC Projects
- The 'Bear' Facts on Obesity and Diabetes
- Fast-Slow Walking May Be Better for Diabetes
- Diabetes May Raise Risk for Head and Neck Cancer
- Healthy 'Brown Fat' May Cut Odds for Obesity, Diabetes
- Study Links Shift Work to Risk for Type 2 Diabetes
- Protein Temporarily Reversed Type 2 Diabetes in Mice
- Saliva Test Might Someday Replace Needle Prick for Diabetics
- Stress May Leave You Heading to the Cookie Jar
- Cholesterol Levels May Be Linked to Breast Cancer Risk
- Insulin Pumps May Outperform Daily Injections for Type 2 Diabetes: Study
- Inhaled Insulin Afrezza: FAQ
- FDA Approves Inhaled Insulin Drug Afrezza
- Gut Cells May Be Coaxed to Make Insulin for People With Type 1 Diabetes
- Cooler Indoor Temps May Help 'Good Fat' Grow
- 1 in 10 Moms-to-Be Develop Pregnancy-Linked Diabetes: CDC
- Diabetes Distress Is Distinct From Depression, Researchers Say
- Experts Revise Optimum Blood Sugar Level for Kids With Type 1 Diabetes
- Study Ties Too Much Sitting to Risks for Certain Cancers
- Scientists Reverse Type 1 Diabetes in Mice
- 'Bionic Pancreas' Improves Blood Sugar Control for People With Type 1 Diabetes
- Gut Bacteria in Young Diabetic Kids Show Differences
- Diet Rich in Plant Antioxidants Helps Blood Sugar
- Diabetes Drug May Spur Weight Loss in Obese Nondiabetics
- Diabetics Fare Worse After Heart Surgery, Study Finds
- Diabetes May Be Bigger Threat to the Female Heart: Study
- Brain Changes May Accompany Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis in Kids
- Ultrasound Trumps CT Scan for Diagnosing Kidney Stones in Study
- Mouse Study Raises Possibility of New Treatment for Diabetes
- Intensive Insulin Therapy Might Aid Diabetics After Heart Attack
- Kids' Diabetes Rates Up Dramatically in 8 Years, Study Finds
- Type 2 Diabetes May Shrink the Brain, Study Suggests
- Could More Coffee Lower Your Odds for Diabetes?
- Severe Obesity in Teens Tied to Possible Kidney Problems
- Low Blood Sugar May Affect Heartbeat in People With Diabetes
- Too Little Sleep May Add to Teen Health Problems
- Tanzeum Approved for Type 2 Diabetes
- Clues to Type 2 Diabetes Discovered on Mount Everest
- Obesity-Related Enzyme Targeted in Mouse Study
- Diabetes Tied to Higher Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in Study
- More Evidence Weight-Loss Surgery Helps People With Diabetes
- Scientists Generate Insulin-Producing Cells in Diabetic Mice
- Health Tip: Understand Your Risk of Heart Disease
- Blood Sugar Monitoring System Approved for Children
- Avoid Sports Injuries: Advice From an Olympic Doctor
- Smartphone Apps for Diabetes: Do They Really Work?
- Research Reveals Secret Behind a Steady Heartbeat
- First Trimester Appears Crucial for Baby's Heart Health
- Chocolate, Tea, Berries May Cut Diabetes Risk: Study
- Sleep During the Day May Throw Genes Into Disarray
- As Weight Rises in People With Diabetes, So Does Death Risk: Study
- U.S. Panel Urges Diabetes Screening for All Pregnant Women
- Chest Implant Might Help With Hard-to-Treat Sleep Apnea
- Tight Blood Sugar Control Might Not Help All Critically Ill Kids
- Mediterranean Diet Alone May Lower Diabetes Risk
- Keep the Holidays Merry for Kids With Diabetes
- Stent to Treat Pancreatic Cysts Approved
- Review Finds Weight-Loss Surgery Safe and Effective
- Diabetes Drug Metformin Tied to Slight Weight Loss in Obese Kids
- U.S. Cancer Death Rates Continue to Decline: Report
- Diabetes Drugs Affect Hearts of Men, Women Differently
- Sodas, Other Sweet Drinks Tied to Higher Risk for Endometrial Cancer
- Study of Severely Obese Family Leads to Gene Discovery
- 'Healthy' Obesity May Still Carry Higher Health Risks
- Could Weight-Loss Surgery Help Slow Aging for Some?
- Needle-Free 'Breathalyzer' for Daily Diabetes Testing Shows Promise
- Urine Test May Spot Heart, Kidney Risk in Kids With Type 1 Diabetes
- Meat Products Could Raise Diabetes Risk: Study
- New Drug May Someday Battle Obesity and Diabetes
- Gardening, Housework May Help Boost Your Heart Health
- Scientists Report Transplant Advance for Type 1 Diabetes
- Cinnamon May Help Ease Common Cause of Infertility, Study Says
- Exercise Might Boost Men's Sperm Counts, Study Finds
- Exercise May Lower Risk of Esophageal Cancer
- Woman Battling Multiple Health Issues Refuses to Take 'No' From Her Insurer
- People With Type 1 Diabetes May Still Have Insulin-Producing Cells
- Tom Hanks Has Type 2 Diabetes
- Fatty, High-Calorie Diet Linked to Pancreatic Cancer in Mouse Study
- More Evidence That Exercise Can Help Prevent High Blood Pressure
- Big Breakfast May Be Best for Diabetes Patients
- Parenthood May Reduce Diabetes-Related Death Risk, Study Suggests
- Gel May Offer Simple Treatment for Newborns With Low Blood Sugar
- Common Diabetes Drugs May Carry Risk, Study Suggests
- Study May Help Explain Delay of Heart Disease in Women
- FDA Sets Rules for Smartphone Medical Apps
- Psoriasis Drug May Help Treat Type 1 Diabetes: Report
- Weight-Loss Surgery Can Improve Long-Term Diabetes Control, Study Says
- New Understanding of Racial Disparities and Diabetes
- 4 Factors Predict Diabetes Remission After Surgery: Study
- Nearly 60 Percent of Uterine Cancer Cases Preventable: Report
- New Drug Shows Promise for Type 2 Diabetes
- New Diabetes Drug Seems Safe for Heart, Study Finds
- In Type 2 Diabetes, Gut May 'Taste' Sugar Differently
- Antipsychotic Drugs May Triple Kids' Diabetes Risk, Study Suggests
- Insulin Pumps Better Than Injections for Kids With Type 1 Diabetes: Study
- Plastics Chemicals May Boost Kids' Risk for Obesity, Diabetes
- Depression in Diabetes Patients Linked to Dementia, Study Finds
- Certain Antibiotics Tied to Blood Sugar Swings in Diabetics
- Could Dietary Tweaks Ease Type 1 Diabetes?
- Diabetes Doesn't Seem to Affect Alzheimer's Disease Progression
- Diabetes-Linked Amputations Declining, Study Finds
- Type 1 Diabetes Hope: Animal-to-Human Cell Transplants
- Early Diabetes Signs Often Missed in Alzheimer's Patients
- Diabetes Drug May Protect the Brain
- Could Artificial Sweeteners Cause Weight Gain?
- Most Statin Users Won't Have Major Side Effects
- Breast Milk Supply May Be Linked to Insulin Production: Study
- Early Respiratory Infection May Double Type 1 Diabetes Risk: Study
- Pain Reliever Lowers Blood Sugar in Type 2 Diabetics, Study Says
- South Asian Men May Need More Exercise to Stay Healthy: Study
- Vaccine May Stop Immune Attack in Type 1 Diabetes, Study Suggests
- New Insulin Pump Cuts Odds of Overnight Hypoglycemia
- Could Catching Up on Sleep Lower Your Diabetes Risk?
- Blood Test Might Predict Type 1 Diabetes in Children, Study Finds
- A Deadly Form of Diabetes That Doctors Sometimes Miss
- BPA Exposure Tied to Undescended Testicles in Boys
- Skipping Breakfast May Raise Diabetes Risk
- Short Strolls After Meals May Lower Diabetes Risk
- Low Blood Sugar May Raise Dementia Risk in Diabetics: Study
- Even Mild Weight Loss May Lower Diabetes Risk in Obese Teens
- Stem Cell Therapy Cures Type 1 Diabetes in Mice
- FDA Mulls Lifting Tight Safety Limits on Diabetes Drug Avandia
- Women's Weight-Loss Surgery May Benefit Later Offspring
- 'Nano' Medicine Might Someday Free Diabetics From Daily Needles
- Type 2 Diabetes Progresses Faster in Kids, Study Finds
- Could Statins Raise Diabetes Risk?
- Fish Oil Pills Might Cut Diabetes Risk, Researchers Say
- Depression May Raise Low Blood Sugar Risk in Diabetics
- How Weight-Loss Surgery Improves Diabetes Control
- Hormone Shows Potential as Diabetes Treatment in Mice
- Bipolar Disorder Drugs May 'Tweak' Genes Affecting Brain
- New Diabetes Drug Expected This Week
- New Clues to How Exercise May Reduce Breast Cancer Risk
- Balding Men Could Face Higher Heart Risks, Study Finds
- Study Suggests Link Between Hormone Melatonin and Type 2 Diabetes
- Mini-Organ Would Mimic Pancreas to Treat Type 1 Diabetes
- Artificial Pancreas Worked Overnight on Kids With Type 1 Diabetes
- Countries With More Sugar in Food Supply Have More Diabetes
- Newest Diabetes Drugs Linked to Higher Pancreatitis Risk
- 1 in 8 Americans Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes: Poll
- Obese Black Women at Higher Risk for Having Very Large Babies
- Lucky Dogs Get Shot at Diabetes Cure
- First-Born May Be at Greater Risk for Diabetes, Hypertension
- Type 1 Diabetes Up 70 Percent in Kids, Study Finds
- Three New Drugs Approved for Type 2 Diabetes
- For Diabetes: BP, Cholesterol Key v. Heart Disease
- Preventing Kidney Disease May Cut Diabetes Deaths, Study Says
- For Texas Man, Bariatric Surgery Led to Diabetes-Free Life
- New Diabetes Guidelines May Lower Patient Medical Bills
- Saving Carbs for Dinnertime Might Help Control Weight
- Study Examines Link Between Breast Cancer and Diabetes
- Brown Fat Transplants May Spur Weight Loss
- Can Teens' Lack of Sleep Lead to Diabetes?
- Mouse Study Offers Clues to Obesity-Diabetes Link
- Health Tip: Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes
- Healthy Diet May Prevent Additional Heart Trouble
- Diabetes Drug Metformin May Fight Cancer
- Supplements of Red Wine Antioxidant Don't Help Obese Men
- New Treatment Aids Weight Loss, Improves Diabetes in Monkeys
- Airport Security X-Rays May Damage Diabetes Devices
- World Diabetes Day Designed to Raise Awareness
- New Diabetes Drugs Have Different Advantages, Study Says
- High-Carb Diet Linked to Colon Cancer Recurrence in Study
- Popular Diabetes Meds Put to the Test
- Insomnia May Raise Risk of Heart Attack, Stroke
- Fewer U.S. Kids Dying of Diabetes: CDC
- Power Slowly Returns to Much of Northeast After Sandy
- Sandy's Death Toll Rises, Even as East Coast Struggles Back to Life
- Sandy's Wrath Brings Massive Blackouts, Flooding Across Northeast
- Q & A: Riding Out the Storm Safely
- Health Tip: Monitor Your Blood Glucose
- Obese Boys, Impotent Men?
- Red Wine Compound May Not Help Healthy Women
- Millions May Be Taking Vitamin D Unnecessarily, Analysis Suggests
- Health Tip: Learn About the A1C Test
- Sleepless Nights Might Raise Odds for Diabetes
- Interval Training Burns More Calories in Less Time
- Stem Cell Transplant May Spur Heart Disease Risk: Study
- Diabetes Patients Should Have More Voice in Treatment: Experts
- Changes in Intestinal Bacteria Linked to Type 2 Diabetes
- Child Obesity Risks May Be Greater Than Thought
- Belly Fat Adds to Diabetes Risk in Obese Adults, Study Finds
- Aerobic Exercise Cuts Kids' Diabetes Risk: Study
- Docs' Sensitivity to Patients' Feelings Tied to Good Outcomes
- Scientists ID Gene for Insulin Sensitivity
- Hispanics May Face Higher Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: Study
- Tight Blood Sugar Control Won't Help Babies After Heart Surgery
- Can Childhood Obesity Hinder the Brain?
- Obesity Might Lower Teens' Thinking Skills, Study Suggests
- Belly Fat May Hit Your Heart the Hardest
- Health Tip: On the Go With Diabetes
- Confusion Over Diabetes Types Adds to Patients' Woes
- Obesity May Affect Breast Cancer Recovery
- Radiation for Childhood Cancer Might Raise Diabetes Risk
- Weight Loss Surgery Prevents Diabetes
- Statins Won't Hurt, Might Even Help, Your Pancreas: Study
- 'Yo-Yo' Dieting Won't Harm Long-Term Weight Loss Efforts
- Pain Reported by Nearly Half With Type 2 Diabetes
- A Few Hours of Weekly Exercise May Help Women's Bones
- Scientists ID New Gene Regions Linked to Type 2 Diabetes
- Can TB Vaccine Stop Type 1 Diabetes?
- More Americans Walking, But Still Not Enough, CDC Says
- More Evidence That Exercise Helps Fight Diabetes
- Hormone May Boost Aging, Failing Brains
- Drug May Slow Memory Loss in Early Alzheimer's
- Curry Compound May Lower Diabetes Risk
- Weight Control Can Cut Women's Diabetes Risk, Study Shows
- Sex Life of Diabetic Women May Suffer
- The Health Benefits, and Risks, of Alcohol
- Alcohol Poses Serious Risks for Those With Diabetes
- Big Babies May Boost Mom's Breast Cancer Risk
- Police Work Takes Heavy Health Toll: Study
- New Devices Improve Diabetes Control
- Another Study Links Diabetes Drug Actos to Bladder Cancer
- Hot Flashes Don't Signal Poor Heart Health for Most Women: Study
- Newer 'Second-Line' Diabetes Drug May Outperform Older Meds
- 'Atkins'-Type Diets May Raise Risk of Heart Problems: Study
- All Calories Not Created Equal, Study Suggests
- 'Dessert' With Breakfast Boosts Weight Loss: Study
- Metformin Outperforms Common Class of Diabetes Drugs in Study
- Secondhand Smoke Linked to Raised Diabetes Risk
- Some Diabetics May Not Benefit From Daily Aspirin
- Liposuction Might Have 'Boomerang' Effect
- Diabetes Drug Metformin May Cut Breast Cancer Risk in Older Women
- Diabetes Drugs Avandia, Actos Linked to Vision Woes
- No Cancer Risk From Long-Acting Insulin: Studies
- Experimental Stem Cell Treatment Tested for Type 1 Diabetes
- Treating Prediabetes Might Prevent Full-Blown Disease
- Many People With Type 1 Diabetes Missing Treatment Goals: Study
- Diabetes Rising Rapidly Among U.S. Kids
- More Progress Made on Artificial Pancreas for Diabetes Patients
- Waist Size Alone May Predict Diabetes Risk
- C-Section May Hike Risk for Toddlers' Obesity, Study Suggests
- People With Diabetes May Need Earlier Colon Screen
- Death Rate Dropping for People With Diabetes
- Diabetes Can Take a Toll on Your Emotions
- Oxygen Therapy Slows Type 1 Diabetes in Mice, Study Says
- Exercise May Boost Survival in Breast, Colon Cancer Patients
- Joggers Live Longer, Study Says
- Type 2 Diabetes in Kids a Challenge to Control
- Two-Drug Therapy Helped Kids With Type 2 Diabetes
- Pick Dark Chocolate for Health Benefits
- Consumer Group to FDA: Take Victoza off the Market
- Diabetes Groups Issue New Guidelines on Blood Sugar
- Overweight Pregnant Women at Higher Risk for Complications
- Women Less Apt Than Men to Get Recommended Daily Exercise
- Mouse Study Hints at New Path for Diabetes Treatment
- Phthalates May Double Diabetes Risk
- Shift Work May Set Stage for Obesity and Diabetes
- Health Tip: Know Your Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis
- Mom's Health While Pregnant Linked to Autism Risk
- Improved Stem Cell Line May Avoid Tumor Risk: Study
- Diabetes Drug Metformin Might Also Help Fight Cancer
- Heavier Baby Girls at Higher Risk for Diabetes, Heart Woes as Adults
- Health Benefits of Chocolate Growing
- Cardiac Cocktail Delivered by Paramedics May Save Lives
- New Injection Might Lower Tough-to-Treat Cholesterol
- Weight Loss Surgery Puts Diabetes Into Remission
- Expert FAQ: Dealing With Excess Body Hair
- New Type 2 Diabetes Drug Helps Lower Blood Sugar: Study
- New Clues to Link Between Fatty Diet, Colon Cancer
- Insulin Resistance May Lead to Kidney Disease in the Elderly: Study
- Experimental Drug Shows Promise Against Cushing's Disease
- Prescription Meds Can Put on Unwanted Pounds
- Most Americans Don't Need Extra Selenium
- Experimental Drug Shows Promise Against Type 2 Diabetes
- Type 1 Diabetes May Develop More Slowly Than Thought
- Short Breaks During Exercise OK for Diabetes Control: Study
- Pancreas May 'Taste' Fructose, Hinting at Links to Diabetes
- Metformin Preferred Drug for Type 2 Diabetes, Experts Say
- Type 1 Diabetes Treatment Disappoints in Trial
- Popular Diabetes Drug Might Cut Pancreatic Cancer Risk: Study
- Gene Study Sheds Light on Body Clock's Link to Diabetes
- Too Much Fructose Sweetener Tied to Heart Risks in Teens
- Weekly Shot Gets FDA Nod for Type 2 Diabetes
- CDC: Big Drop in Diabetes Amputations
- Health Tip: Store Insulin Properly
- Health Highlights: Jan. 12, 2012
- Insulin-Linked Hormone May Also Raise Alzheimer's Risk
- Driving Isn't An Issue for Most People With Diabetes
- Health Tip: Diabetics, Pack Smart for Holiday Travel
- Brief, Intense Exercise Lowers Blood Sugar, Small Study Finds
- Apnea Treatment Might Reduce Signs of Heart Disease Risk
- Starchy Foods May Boost Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence
- Obesity Linked to Worse Outcomes With Early Breast Cancer
- Low Vitamin D May Raise Diabetes Risk in Kids
- Colon Cancer Prognosis Worse for the Obese, Type 2 Diabetics
- New FDA Guidelines for Testing Artificial Pancreas
- Women's High Blood Sugar Linked to Colorectal Cancer: Study
- Most Drug-Related Hospitalizations Due to Handful of Drugs
- Coffee May Cut Endometrial Cancer Risk
- Sugar-Sweetened Drinks May Pose Heart Risks to Women, Study Suggests
- Experimental Drug Slims Obese Monkeys
- Diabetes Linked to Precancerous Colon Growths
- Study Casts Doubt on Hot Dogs' Link to Colon Cancer
- 3 Hours of Exercise Weekly Can Cut Men's Heart Risks
- New Type 1 Diabetes Genes Found
- Asthma Can Complicate Diabetes Care in Kids
- Being Heavier May Mean Fewer Hot Flashes for Women Over 60
- Low-Carb Diets May Improve Acne
- No More Co-pay for Birth Control
- Not All Belly Fat Is Bad for the Heart
- FDA Panel Opposes New Type of Diabetes Drug
- Drug May Treat Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes
- Metformin: Safer for Heart Than Older Diabetes Drugs?
- Exercise After Meals Helps Control Blood Sugar
- New Insulin May Treat Dangerously Low Blood Sugar
- Very Low-Calorie Diet May Reverse Diabetes
- New Bladder Cancer Warning for Diabetes Drug Actos
- Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Victoza Helps Type 1, Too
- Coffee May Lower Prostate Cancer Risk
- Breastfeeding May Influence Long-Term Health: Study
- Diabetes Costs Are High for Young People
- Gastric Bypass May Improve Diabetes Quickly
- Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rates Rising in U.S.
- Why Some May Avoid Type 1 Diabetes Complications
- Diabetes Drug Actos May Also Help Prediabetes
- Cocoa Rich in Health Benefits
- Unhealthy Diet Raises Heart Risk of Obese Teens
- Blood Test May Predict Risk of Diabetes
- Coffee May Lower Stroke Risk
- 384,000 J&J Animas Insulin Pump Cartridges Recalled
- Diabetes Risks Go Beyond Heart Attacks, Strokes
- What's the Best Test for Children's Diabetes?
- Fatty Liver May Be Linked to Diabetes Risk
- Wireless Sensor Monitors Heart Failure Patients
- Artificial Pancreas Could Help Pregnant Diabetic Women
- CDC: 26 Million Americans Have Diabetes
- Team Treatment Helps Depression, Chronic Disease
- Experts: Exercise Crucial for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
- Vitamin D Levels at Birth May Predict Obesity Risk
- New Guidelines for Treatment of Depression
- Some Dieters Are Set Up to Regain Weight
- Breastfeeding May Lower Moms' Diabetes Risk
- Type 2 Diabetes May Have Link to Alzheimer's
- Resveratrol May Slow Aging in Humans
- Study: High-Fructose Diets May Raise Blood Pressure
- Inhaled Insulin May Help Treat Diabetes
- Low Vitamin D Linked to Poor Diabetes Control
- Sugar Water Eases Vaccine Pain for Babies
- Concerns Raised About Drugstore Genetic Test
- Dementia Risk Higher if Your Spouse Has Dementia
- Prehypertension, Prediabetes Predict Heart Risk
- Exercise During Pregnancy for Smaller Baby
- A1c Test Identifies Diabetes, Heart Risk
- Gestational Diabetes Underdiagnosed
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15 Famous Celebrities With DiabetesSee pictures of celebrities that have been diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes including Mary Tyler Moore, Salma Hayek, and Nick Jonas from The Jonas Brothers.
Eye Problems and DiabetesDiabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems in a person with diabetes include glaucoma, cataracts, and retinopathy. Examples of symptoms include blurred vision, headaches, eye aches, pain, halos around lights, loss of vision, watering eyes. Treatment for eye problems in people with diabetes depend on the type of eye problem. Prevention of eye problems include reducing blood pressure, cholesterol levels, quitting smoking, and maintaining proper blood glucose levels.
Diabetes Foot ProblemsLearn more about diabetes related foot problems. For people with diabetes, too much glucose in the blood can cause serious foot complications such as nerve damage, infection, and ulcers. Find tips for proper foot care to help prevent serious complications.
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Diabetes QuizTake the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do with obesity and diet? Learn about life as a diabetic.
Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at HomeManaging your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
Diabetes Foot ProblemsDiabetes related foot problems can affect your health with two problems: diabetic neuropathy, where diabetes affects the nerves, and peripheral vascular disease, where diabetes affects the flow of blood. Common foot problems for people with diabetes include athlete's foot, fungal infection of nails, calluses, corns, blisters, bunions, dry skin, foot ulcers, hammertoes, ingrown toenails, and plantar warts.
Gestational Diabetes (Diabetes during Pregnancy))Learning how to avoid gestational diabetes is possible and maintaining a healthy weight and diet before and during pregnancy can help. Discover risk factors, tests and treatments for, and signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes.
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)A heart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart attack can cause chest pain, heart failure, and electrical instability of the heart.
Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, is a syndrome in which a person's blood sugar is dangerously low. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are at risk for this condition. There are other diseases that can cause a person's blood sugar levels to go too low, for example, pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, and pancreatic cancer. Symptoms and signs that your blood sugar levels are too low include palpitations, trembling, intense hunger, sweating, nervousness, and weakness.
If your blood sugars become too low, use these nearby as a quick treatment table sugar, soda, juice, and glucose tablets.
Insulin Pump for DiabetesAn insulin pump is designed to deliver insulin directly to a patient with diabetes. They are about the size of a standard beeper. The pump is attached to under the skin (usually on the abdomen). The amount of insulin required will depend on lifestyle (exercise, sleep patterns, activity level, and diet).
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints, as well as other organs in the body. Because it can affect multiple other organs of the body, rheumatoid arthritis is referred to as a systemic illness and is sometimes called rheumatoid disease. The 16 characteristic early RA signs and symptoms include the following.
- Both sides of the body affected (symmetric)
- Joint deformity
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- Joint swelling
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- Loss of joint function
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- Many joints affected (polyarthritis)
Sugar QuizSugar lurks in surprising places. Take the Sugar Quiz to learn of the many ways sugar sneaks into your diet and see what you know about sugar and artificial sweeteners!
Superfoods QuizTake our Superfoods Quiz! Get to know how unprocessed, raw, organic foods and healthy drinks are rich in nutrients and dietary benefits.
Type 1 DiabetesWhat is type 1 diabetes? Is there a cure for type 1 diabetes? Learn about type 1 diabetes symptoms, warning signs, causes, and treatments.
Type 2 DiabetesType 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that may be reversible with diet and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, and an unusual odor to your urine. Most people don't know they have type 2 diabetes until they have a routine blood test. Treatment options include medications, a type 2 diabetes diet, and other lifestyle changes.
Type 2 Diabetes SignsLearn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Find out why thirst, headaches, and infections could be signs of diabetes. Discover the treatment options for people with type 2 diabetes, including medicines and lifestyle improvements.