During your baby's first year of life, her vision and language abilities are developing rapidly. Stimulate her by talking, singing, and reading to her to help her understand language and sounds. Ensure her safety by putting her to sleep on her back, putting her in a car seat every time she rides in the car, cutting her food into small pieces so she doesn't choke, and getting her the appropriate immunizations. Read more: Infants: Child Development Article
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Autism Signs in Children: What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder?
What is autism? Learn about the signs, symptoms, and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Get information about the causes of...
Top 10 Parenting Mistakes- Children, Infants, Toddlers
Parenting a child isn't easy. Explore the top 10 mistakes that new parents make. Discover newborn parenting tips for...
Better Ways to Feed Your Baby
What tips and tricks help you introduce healthy foods to your baby's diet. Learn techniques for feeding that work for infants and...
Parenting Guide: Healthy Principles That Work
Good parenthood isn't magical. It takes learning, dedication, and hard work. Learn how to set rules, offer love, and discipline...
10 Common Symptoms in Infants and Young Toddlers
Watch this slideshow to see common symptoms and home treatment for infant and childhood illnesses including fever, nausea,...
Get the Facts About Bottle Feeding and Infant Formula
Do you need to warm a bottle? What's the best way to burp your baby? Find out what you need to know about bottle feeding and...
Picture of Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum
Erythema toxicum neonatorum. This is a common condition in healthy newborns that many refer to as baby acne. It can occur in...
Picture of Infantile Acropustulosis
Infantile acropustulosis is a recurrent, self-limited, pruritic, vesicopustular eruption of the palms of the hands and the soles...
Parenting Guide: Healthy Eating for Kids
How do you get your kids to eat vegetables? Are your kids eating a balanced diet? Follow these tips to teach your kids how to...
Newborn Quiz: Baby Care Facts
Take the Babies Quiz to learn what milestones and developments you can expect from your baby’s first year.
Picture of Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum Eruption
The eruption shown was unusual in that it was so widespread and vesiculopustular. See a Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum Eruption and...
Picture of Baby Acne
Pink pimples ("neonatal acne") are often caused by exposure in the womb to maternal hormones. See a picture of Baby Acne and...
Picture of Diaper Rash
Almost every baby will get diaper rash at least once during the first 3 years of life, with the majority of these babies 9-12...
Picture of Jaundice
Often, physiologic jaundice -- the type seen in most newborns -- does not require treatment. See a picture of Jaundice and learn...
Feeding Baby Year 1: Starting Solids With Baby Food in Pictures
These nutritious foods are great for your baby's first year, and include cereal and baby food. Our experts offer tips on starting...
Quick Tips to Feed a Picky Eater With Pictures
Discover these quick tips for feeding a picky eater. See the problems found with picky eaters and learn parenting strategies to...
Exercise Tips for Kids and the Whole Family
Exercise is great for kids, and fun activities for the whole family are there if you know how to find them. Learn how to lose...
Life After Baby Arrives: What You Didn't Realize
What are surprises new parents when they bring a baby home? Learn about infant sleep, getting help, adult relationships, and...
Related Disease Conditions
Thrush (Oral Candidiasis)
Thrush is an infection of the mouth caused by the Candida fungus. Symptoms of thrush include pain or difficulty swallowing, a feeling that food gets stuck in the throat, and fever. Treatment of thrush depends on the cause and severity of the infection. Infants, toddlers, and children with thrush often do not require treatment.
Gum Disease (Gingivitis)
Gum disease is caused by plaque and may result in tooth loss without proper treatment. Read about symptoms, stages, treatment, and home remedies.
What Are the 5 Stages of Child Development?
Children undergo various changes in terms of physical, speech, intellectual, and cognitive development until adolescence. The five stages of child development include the newborn, infant, toddler, preschool, and school-age stages.
Embryo vs. Fetus: Differences Between Stages Week by Week
The embryonic stage of pregnancy occurs from the moment of conception until the 11th week pregnancy, or first trimester. During this time the embryo develops major body structures, for example, the organs, heart, and main blood vessels. At this stage the baby's heart begins to beat. The fetal stage, or second trimester is next, and begins during the 11th week of pregnancy, and continues through to week #40. During this time the baby's organs and structures continue to develop, the fetus' gender can be identified, and fetal movement begins. The fetus is about 2 pounds by the 27th week. During the third trimester the baby is the size, and has the characteristics of a newborn. The greatest risk of miscarriage is during the very early stages of pregnancy before a woman even knows she is pregnant.
The common cold (viral upper respiratory tract infection) is a contagious illness that may be caused by various viruses. Symptoms include a stuffy nose, headache, cough, sore throat, and maybe a fever. Antibiotics have no effect upon the common cold, and there is no evidence that zinc and vitamin C are effective treatments.
Croup is a contagious viral infection that affects children's respiratory systems. Symptoms include a barking cough, stridor, fever, and difficulty breathing. Treatment may incorporate the use of a humidifier, saline nasal spray, and pain relievers such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen.
Good parenting helps foster empathy, honesty, self-reliance, self-control, kindness, cooperation, and cheerfulness, says Steinberg, a distinguished professor of psychology at Temple University in Philadelphia. It also promotes intellectual curiosity, motivation, and desire to achieve. It helps protect children from developing anxiety, depression, eating disorders, antisocial behavior, and alcohol and drug abuse.
Oral Thrush in Children
Yeast infections are caused by an overgrowth of a type of fungus called Candida. Oral thrush is a yeast infection of the mouth and throat. Oral thrush and yeast infections are treated orally or topically with an antifungal antibiotic called nystatin.
What Are 4 Types of Child Personalities?
Everyone is born with a distinct personality type and unique characteristics. The four personality types according to Hippocrates are choleric, sanguine, melancholic and phlegmatic.
When Does Taking Care of a Newborn Get Easier?
As your newborn passes through the milestones of learning to self-soothe, outgrowing colic, and sleeping through the night, parenting your newborn will get easier.
What Is a Normal Heart Rate for a Sleeping Baby?
Normal heart rates for a sleeping baby range between 65-100 beats per minute, depending on their age. Heart rate is slower when they are asleep.
Cystic fibrosis is a disease of the mucus and sweat glands. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. The outcome of the disease leaves the body malnourished, with bulky and fouls smelling stools, vitamin insufficiency, gas, painful or swollen abdomen, infertility, susceptible to heat emergencies, and respiratory failure. There is no cure for cystic fibrosis, treatment of symptoms is used to manage the disease.
Sleep Disorders (How to Get a Good Night's Sleep)
A number of vital tasks carried out during sleep help maintain good health and enable people to function at their best. Sleep needs vary from individual to individual and change throughout your life. The National Institutes of Health recommend about 7-9 hours of sleep each night for older, school-aged children, teens, and most average adults; 10-12 for preschool-aged children; and 16-18 hours for newborns. There are two stages of sleep; 1) REM sleep (rapid-eye movement), and 2) NREM sleep (non-rapid-eye movement). The side effects of lack of sleep or insomnia include: Irritability Tiredness Feeling sleepy during the day Concentration or memory problems Lack of sleep and insomnia can be caused by medical conditions or diseases, medications, stress, or pain. The treatment for lack of sleep and insomnia depends upon the cause.
Cold and Cough Medicine for Infants and Children
The safety of giving infants and children over-the-counter (OTC) cold and cough medicine is important for caregivers to understand. While there is no "gold standard" recommendation for giving infants and children OTC cold and cough medicine for fever, aches, cough, and runny nose, a few standards have been recommended. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that OTC cold and cough medicine only be used in children age four years and older. The American College of Chest Physicians recommend that these medicines only be used in children age 15 years and older. The FDA recommends that OTC cold and cough medicine be used in children 2 years of age and older. However, there is agreement in regard to which OTC medications should not be used in children under the age of four (or the age of two, depending upon which guidelines are used), and they are 1) certain antihistamines like brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine maleate, and diphenhydramine (Benadryl); 2) cough expectorants (guaifenesin); 3) cough suppressants (dextromethorphan, DM); and 4) decongestants (pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine). Aspirin should never be given to infants, children, and adolescents due to the possibility of a rare, but often severe and even fatal illness called Reye's syndrome. REFERENCES:FDA. "Most Young Children with a Cough or Cold Don't Need Medicines." July 18, 2017. FDA. "Use Caution When Giving Cough and Cold Products to Kids." Updated: Nov 04, 2016.
How Do You Know if Your Child Is Manipulating You?
Children are unbelievably intuitive and smart. As they get older, you know if your child is manipulating you if they say hurtful things, are disrespectful, ignore you, refuse to talk to you and do other manipulative things.
Trachoma is an infectious disease caused by the Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria. Symptoms and signs include redness and irritation of the eyes with tearing. Trachoma is diagnosed by examining the eyes and eyelids. Treatment involves a single dose of azithromycin (Zithromax) or the use of topical tetracycline (Achromycin) ointment. Infected individuals should be counseled about sanitation and taught simple cleanliness.
Mumps is an acute viral illness caused by the mumps virus. Symptoms and signs of mumps include fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, and loss of appetite, followed by swelling of the salivary glands.
Doula vs. Midwife
A midwife and doula are not the same thing. A doula's job is to provide non-medical, emotional, and personal support to a woman throughout her pregnancy, labor, delivery, and postpartum experience. A certified nurse midwife is a medical health care professional that manages the overall general health of the mother and baby; for example, performs exams, orders laboratory tests, and procedures, and performs fetal monitoring from the pregnant woman's first prenatal visit to post-partum and aftercare. A midwife can deliver the baby, whereas a doula cannot. A midwife usually tries to minimize the use of unnecessary technological interventions. A midwife cannot perform C-sections, use vacuums or forceps during labor and delivery.
Roseola is a viral illness that most commonly affects young children. Symptoms and signs include a sudden high fever that lasts for three to five days, swollen neck glands, runny nose, puffy eyelids, diarrhea, irritability, and a bulging soft spot on the head.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism in children and adults is a developmental disorder, characterized by impaired development in communication, social interaction, and behavior. Autism is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), which is part of a broad spectrum of developmental disorders affecting young children and adults. There are numerous theories and studies about the cause of autism. The treatment model for autism is an educational program that is suitable to an individual's developmental level of performance. There is no "cure" for autism.
What Are the 6 Stages of Brain Development?
The 6 stages of brain development that happen in the first three years of your life have lasting impacts.
1p36 Deletion Syndrome
1p36 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes severe intellectual disability. Characteristics of 1p36 deletion syndrome include temper tantrums, biting, and other behavioral problems. Physical conditions include seizures, hypotonia, swallowing problems, and microbrachycephaly.
Rickets is caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. Infants and children who are exclusively breastfed, have dark skin, and infants born to mothers who are vitamin D deficient are most at risk for developing rickets. Symptoms and signs of rickets include bone pain, delayed teeth formation, short stature, skeletal deformities (bowlegs, abnormally shaped skull), and decreased muscle strength. Treatment of rickets depends upon the cause, but the first step usually involves correcting any abnormal levels of calcium, phosphate, or vitamin D with supplements.
Urine Blockage in Newborns
There are many syndromes and defects that may cause urine blockage in newborns. Defects in the urinary tract that may cause urine blockage include vesicoureteral reflux, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, bladder outlet obstruction, posterior urethral valves, nerve disease, and ureterocele. Syndromes that may cause urinary blockage include congenital heart defects, esophageal atresia, and prune belly syndrome. Treatment for urine blockage in newborns depends on the cause of the blockage.
Iron is a mineral our bodies need. Iron deficiency is a condition resulting from not enough iron in the body. It is the most common nutritional deficiency and the leading cause in the US. Iron deficiency is caused due to increased iron deficiency from diseases, nutritional deficiency, or blood loss and the body's inability to intake or absorb iron. Children, teen girls, pregnant women, and babies are at most risk for developing iron deficiency. Symptoms of iron deficiency include feeling weak and tired, decreased work or school performance, slow social development, difficulty maintaining body temperature, decreased immune function, and an inflamed tongue. Blood tests can confirm an iron deficiency in an individual. Treatment depends on the cause of the deficiency. Proper diet that includes recommended daily allowances of iron may prevent some cases of iron deficiency.
Is it OK to Just Have One Child?
Parents often feel pressure to add more children to a family. There are pros and cons to having one child.
Do Premature Babies Hit Their Milestones Later?
Babies develop at their own rate, but if your baby was born premature - within 37 weeks of conception, they may develop at a speed different than their peers. Most preemies catch up by age 2.
What Is West Syndrome?
West Syndrome is a rare condition that affects infants and children with three distinct characteristics: 1) abnormal brain waves on EEG, 2) infantile spasms (jackknife seizures), and 3) mental retardation. West syndrome characteristics appear between age 3 and 12 months. West syndrome is caused or associated with severe brain damage at birth, tuberosis sclerosis, and prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal disorders. There is no treatment or cure for West syndrome. Symptoms and signs of West syndrome may be managed with medication. The prognosis and life expectancy for an individual with West syndrome varies depending upon the cause and severity of signs and symptoms.
Whooping Cough (Pertussis)
Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis. There are an estimated 300,000 plus deaths annually from whooping cough (pertussis). Whooping cough commonly affects infants and young children but can be prevented with immunization with the vaccine. First stage whooping cough symptoms are a runny nose, sneezing, low-grade fever, a mild cough with the cough gradually becoming more severe. After one to two weeks, the second stage of whooping cough begins.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is an abnormality of motor function and postural tone acquired at an early age (even before birth). Cerebral palsy is generally caused by brain trauma. Types of cerebral palsy include: spastic, dyskinetic (dystonic or choreoathetoid), hypotonic, and mixed types. There is no cure for cerebral palsy, and treatment is generally managing the symptoms of the condition.
Children's health is focused on the well-being of children from conception through adolescence. There are many aspects of children's health, including growth and development, illnesses, injuries, behavior, mental illness, family health, and community health.
Colic in Babies
Colic is crying or fussing that begins suddenly, lasting for a total of three hours a day and happening more than three days a week for about three weeks. Symptoms include the baby's face turning red, the belly is distended, the feet may be cold, the hands clenched, and the legs may alternate between being flexed or extended. Treatment may involve ruling out other causes of the fussing and the doctor prescribing anti-gas bubbly medicine.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta (Brittle Bone Disease)
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) or brittle bone disease, is an inherited (genetic) disorder that results in abnormal bone formation, which causes the bones to break (fracture) easily. There are eight types of osteogenesis imperfecta. Osteogenesis imperfecta symptoms include skeletal deformity, frequent broken bones, and hearing problems. Tests diagnose osteogenesis imperfecta. Treatment for brittle bone disease is to manage symptoms. There is no cure for osteogenesis imperfecta.
What Is Cooing for a Baby?
Cooing is the precious sound babies make and it is their first vocal milestone. Cooing is a combination of laughter and vowel sounds and typically lets you know your baby is happy and content.
Listeria is a type of bacteria that can cause food poisoning. Listeriosis symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, and fever. Pregnant women are 20 times more likely than other healthy adults to get listeriosis. Listeria infection is treated with antibiotics.
Are Heated Blankets Bad for You?
Heated blankets can provide warmth and comfort during cold and wintery months. Heated blankets may get too hot or might cause burns if kept on one area of the body for too long. Heated blankets may be dangerous for infants, the elderly, diabetics, pregnant women and those with nerve disorders.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a highly contagious viral infection. Symptoms and signs include fever and nasal congestion and discharge. Treatment focuses on supportive care. This disease has a good prognosis in babies and infants.
A birthmark is any abnormal mark, spot, or bump that is present in or around the time of birth on the skin of an infant. Types of birthmarks include cafe au lait marks, Mongolian spots, strawberry marks, and others. Depending on the birthmark type, birthmarks can be removed by scalpel surgery, lasers, and rarely radiation.
Can Babies Grow Out of Tongue-Tie?
If tongue-tie is left alone, it will often resolve itself as the baby's mouth grows. However, in some cases, surgery for tongue-tie may be required.
Learn more about cavities including symptoms, treatment, and prevention. See how tooth decay, plaque, and bacteria contribute to the creation of cavities and how regular brushing and flossing can help prevent dental caries.
A diaper rash is a skin irritation that develops in the diaper-covered region. Most diaper rashes are caused by bacterial or yeast infections, though some may be caused by contact dermatitis or allergic reactions to the diapers and wipes. Cleansing with water and soft cloths, followed by application of petroleum jelly or zinc oxide and frequent diaper changes is the best treatment for a diaper rash.
What Can a Baby Do at 3 Months?
Your 3-month-old baby has made tremendous development since birth. Babies who are 3 months of age have achieved developmental milestones in moving, speaking, interacting, thinking, sensing, and sleeping.
Separation anxiety disorder is a common childhood anxiety disorder that has many causes. Infants, children, older kids and adults can suffer from symptoms of separation anxiety disorder. Common separation anxiety treatment methods include therapy and medications. Factors that contribute to how quickly or successfully a child moves past separation anxiety by preschool age include how well the parent and child reunite, the skills the child and adult have at coping with the separation, and how well the adult responds to the infant's separation issues. For example, children of anxious parents tend to be anxious children.
Anencephaly is a neural tube defect that prevents abnormal development of the brain and bones of the skull, and are missing large areas of the brain; some may have and incomplete skull. Ancecephaly affects the thinking, hearing, vision, emotion, and coordination areas of the brain. A combination of genetic and environmental factors are believed to to cause this condition. There is no treatment for anencephaly.
What Are the Danger Signs in Newborns?
After your baby is born, it can be difficult to tell whether every cry or symptom is a sign that something is wrong. Here are 14 danger signs in newborns to look for.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
The cause of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is unknown. The risk of SIDS peaks in infants 2-4 months of age. SIDS is more common among male infants, particularly African American and Native American infants, during the winter months. Putting the baby to sleep on his/her back, avoiding fluffy, loose bedding, using a firm mattress, and avoiding co-sleeping may help to prevent SIDS.
Pfeiffer syndrome, a rare genetic disorder, is characterized by craniosynostosis and other birth defects. There are three subtypes of Pfeiffer syndrome. People with type I usually have a normal lifespan and typical intelligence. Types II and II cause more severe birth defects that can affect brain development and function. Signs and symptoms of Pfeiffer syndrome include a high forehead, prominent lower jaw, protrusion of the eyes, beaked nose, and short fingers and toes.
A common form of short stature, achondroplasia (dwarfism) is a genetic condition causing a disorder of bone growth. Complications of achondroplasia that need monitoring include (this is not all inclusive) stenosis and compression of the spinal cord, a large opening under the skull, lordosis, kyphosis, spinal stenosis, hydrocephalus, middle ear infections, obesity, and dental crowning. Achondroplasia is caused by mutations of the FGFR3 gene.
What Should a 10-Month-Old Baby Be Doing?
A 10-month-old baby is highly active. At 10 months old, your baby should crawl up steps, hold your hand, climb onto chairs, understand simple sentences, show interest in conversations, imitate people and do many other things.
Cryptosporidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by the Cryptosporidium parasite. Symptoms include watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea and vomiting, fever, weight loss, dehydration, and weight loss. Antibiotics are used in the treatment of cyptosporidiosis.
Though human milk is the preferred feeding for infants, parents may consider formula feeding if there is an inadequate supply of breast milk, the baby sucks inefficiently, the parents want to monitor how much the baby is receiving, or the mother is taking medications that are unsafe for the baby and may be passed through the breast milk.
Reye's syndrome (RS or Reye syndrome) is a sudden, sometimes fatal, disease of the brain with degeneration of the liver. Reye syndrome is associated with giving children medications containing aspirin. Symptoms include vomiting, listlessness, irritability or combativeness, confusion, delirium, delusions, convulsions, and loss of consciousness. Treatment depends on early diagnosis and focuses on protecting the brain against irreversible damage by reducing brain swelling, reversing the metabolic injury, preventing complications in the lungs, and anticipating cardiac arrest.
GERD (Acid Reflux) in Infants and Children
GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) is the upward movement of stomach content, including acid, into the esophagus and sometimes into or out of the mouth. Common symptoms of GERD in children include colic, feeding problems, poor growth, frequent vomiting or coughing, heartburn, regurgitation, recurrent wheezing, pneumonia, choking, or gagging. Treatment may involve elevating the child's bed, keeping the child upright after eating, limiting foods that seem to make the reflux worse, encouraging your child to exercise, and serving several small meals a day.
Hirschsprung Disease (Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments)
Hirschsprung disease is an inherited condition that is present at birth (congenital) in which the nerves of parts of the large intestine are missing. The primary symptom is constipation. The diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease is made by examining the newborn or child, genetic testing, and other test results. Treatment for Hirschsprung disease is surgery, either pull-through procedure for newborns or ostomy for children. Most newborns and toddlers feel much better after surgery.Other information about Hirschsprung disease.Hirschsprung disease is a genetic, or inherited, condition. Other symptoms in newborns and toddlers are: Diarrhea, often with blood. Green or brown vomit Abdominal distension Nausea and vomiting Weight loss Sepsis Failure to thrive in infancy Intestinal obstruction Slow growth Intellectual disability The only treatment for Hirschsprung disease is surgery. Doctors and surgeons treat newborns with a pull-through procedure in which the surgeon removes the part of the large intestine that is missing nerves and connects it to the healthy part of the anus. Toddlers and children require ostomy surgery, in which part of the intestine is brought through the abdominal wall so that feces can leave the body without passing through the anus. The opening in the abdominal wall is called a stoma, and a removable external pouch is attached to it. Complications can occur with either type of surgery, and may include: Narrowing of the anus Enterocolitis Delayed toilet training Stool leaking from the anus Hirschsprung disease can be a medical emergency that requires surgery. If your newborn or child has these symptoms listed, contact your OB/GYN or Pediatrician urgently. REFERENCES: NIH; National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases. "Hirschsprung Disease." Updated: Sep 2015.<https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/hirschsprung-disease> Genetic Home Reference. "Hirschsprung disease." Updated: Jun 27, 2017.<https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/hirschsprung-disease#synonyms> NCBI. "Hirschsprung Disease Overview." Updated: Oct 1, 2015.<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1439/> NIH; National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; GARD. "Hirschsprung's disease." Updated: Jun 01, 2017.<https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6660/hirschsprungs-disease>
Postpartum depression is a form of depression that occurs within a year after delivery. It is thought that rapid hormone changes after childbirth may lead to depression. Symptoms of postpartum depression include crying a lot, headaches, chest pains, eating too little or too much, sleeping too little or too much, withdrawal from friends and family, and feeling irritable, sad, hopeless, worthless, guilty, and overwhelmed. Treatment typically involves talk therapy and medication.
What Should a 4-Month-Old Baby Be Doing?
Growth at 4 months is so intense that babies often regress in other areas. At 4 months old, babies advance developmentally in gross motor skills, fine motor skills, communication and hearing, problem solving, learning, understanding, socially and emotionally.
Sleep Disorders in Children and Teenagers
Sleep needs in children and teenagers depend on the age of the child. Sleep disorders in children such as: sleep apnea, parasomnias, confusional arousals, night terrors, nightmares, narcolepsy, and sleepwalking which can affect a child's or teen's sleep. Healthy sleep habits and good sleep hygiene can help your infant, toddler, preschooler, tween, or teenager get a good night's sleep.
How Can I Help My 5-Month-Old Baby’s Development?
Babies at 5 months of age are developing rapidly. Parents can help their 5-month-old baby's development by talking and reading to their baby. Teaching, cuddling, and entertaining your baby are important, too.
Breastfeeding: Common Breastfeeding Challenges
Breastfeeding an infant can cause common challenges both for the mother an infant. Some challenges include sore nipples, low milk supply, oversupply of milk, engorgement, plugged ducts, breast infection, fungal infections, nursing strike, inverted, flat, or very large nipples, breastfeeding a baby with health problems, and breastfeeding in special situations. Tips and helpful information can inform mothers how to manage and handles these challenges while continuing to breastfeed her baby.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) FAQs
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are developmental disorders that do not appear to be linked to vaccines. More people than ever are being diagnosed with an ASD, including adults. Children with autism may receive special education services. A child with an ASD may or may not have a mitochondrial disease.
Shaken Baby Syndrome (Abusive Head Trauma)
Shaken baby syndrome, or abusive head trauma, is the condition that describes the symptoms and signs that result from the violent shaking of an infant. These symptoms and signs include bruising, vomiting, poor feeding, seizures, head trauma, and hemorrhages of the retina. Shaken baby syndrome treatment involves removing the infant from the household where the abuse occurred and providing supportive care for the child's injuries.
How Long Can Umbilical Venous Catheters Be Used?
A medical professional may use an umbilical venous catheter (UVC) to monitor blood pressure, draw blood, or administer medications or IV fluids to a newborn baby. UVC catheters do not cause pain for a baby.
How Do You Comfort a Sick Baby?
Babies commonly get six to eight colds per year. Comfort a sick baby by using saline nasal spray with suction, increasing humidity, giving warm fluids, heaving them sleep on an incline and using medications for pain and fever as advised by your pediatrician.
Fast-food consumption and lack of exercise are just a couple of causes of childhood obesity. Health effects of childhood obesity include type 2 diabetes, heart attack, stroke, high cholesterol, asthma, sleep apnea, gallstones, fatty liver disease, GERD, depression, and eating disorders.
Cleft Palate and Cleft Lip
Cleft palate and cleft lip are facial and oral defects that occur early in pregnancy. A cleft lip is a split of the two sides of the upper lip, and a cleft palate is a split in the roof of the mouth. Cleft lip the fourth most common birth defect in the U.S. Repair of a cleft palate or cleft lip may require multiple surgeries.
Leigh's Disease (Leigh's Syndrome)
Leigh's disease (Leigh's syndrome) is a rare genetic neurometabolic disorder. The symptoms of Leigh's disease include loss of appetite, loss of previously acquired motor skills, vomiting, irritability, and seizures. The most common treatment for Leigh's disease is thiamine or Vitamin B1. The prognosis for Leigh's disease is poor.
Canavan disease is an inherited genetic disorder that typically causes death before 10 years of age. Signs and symptoms of the disease include developmental delays, loss of muscle tone, enlargement of the head, and severe feeding problems. The disease is most prevalent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. There is no treatment for the disease.
Autism: Early Signs and Symptoms
Autism is known as a condition that falls under the category of the "autism spectrum disorders" because there is wide variation in the type and severity of symptoms people experience. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior of an individual. Autism is said to be a "developmental disorder" because the signs and symptoms of the disorder generally appear in the first two years of life. However; toddlers, teens, and adults also can have autism. Early signs and symptoms can vary amongst infants, babies, toddlers, teens, and adults that may include; no eye contact, not responding to his or her name; doesn’t babble or “baby talk”; does not use language correctly; rocking; twirling; and head banging.
How Do I Stay Calm When My Child Won't Listen?
Your child is still learning and developing. You can stay calm when your child won't listen by understanding your anger, practicing relaxation techniques, breathing deeply, rethinking, using logic, communicating better, and turning to humor.
When Should I Worry About My Child’s Development?
Learn the different types of delayed development and find out about the different warning signs of developmental delays.
What Age Should a Child Go to the Dentist for the First Time?
About 50 percent of children have at least one cavity by the time they are five years old. Take your child to the dentist by the time they are 12 months old or within six months of when their first tooth comes in.
Why Is an Umbilical Arterial Catheter Used?
An umbilical artery catheter (UAC) is a long, soft tube that medical professionals put in a newborn's umbilical artery. The UAC lets doctors perform an exchange transfusion or angiography, check the baby's blood pressure, or collect blood samples.
What Is the Best Way to Tell Your Child You're Getting a Divorce?
Telling children about divorce is hard. The best way to tell your child you're getting a divorce is to do so as soon as possible after you have made up your mind to divorce or separate.
How Can I Help My Baby with Feeding Problems?
Nearly half of children who develop normally have eating problems, whereas nearly 80% of children with developmental delays have eating problems. Help your baby with feeding problems by feeding smaller portions, focusing on the positive and providing pediatrician-recommended nutritional supplements.
Local ResourcesFind a local Pediatrician in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
- How to Choose a Doctor
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Doctor: Getting the Most from Your Doctor's Appointment
- Baby Talk: Communicating with Your Child
- Baby Bonding: Tips for New Moms
- Baby Feeding: Breasts, Bottles, & Beyond
- Baby's First Year: Ask the Pediatrician
- Babies: The Care and Handling of Babies
Prevention & Wellness
- Updated Infant Sleep Guidelines: No Inclined Products, Bed-Sharing
- Feds Warn of 14 Infant Deaths in Rockers From Fisher-Price, Kids2
- Amid Shortage, More Infant Formula to Arrive in US Next Week
- More Shipments of Baby Formula Heading to Store Shelves Soon
- ER Docs to Parents: Please Don't Dilute Infant Formula
- New Law Banning Sleep Products Tied to Infant Deaths
- FDA Warns of Infant Formula Powders Tied to Infections
- Baby's Immune System Is Tougher Than You Think
- Baby Lounger Recall Cites Infant Deaths
- Soothing Sound: Mom's Voice Eases Preemies' Pain
- High Curiosity in Infancy Carries Through to Toddler Years
- Most Parents Skip Child Car Seats When Using Uber, Lyft
- Parents, Don't Worry if Baby's Sleep Is Erratic
- Newborn Brain Bleeds Resolve by Age 2
- An Expert's Guide to Safe Sleeping for Your Baby
- Newborns of Moms With COVID-19 Face Little Infection Risk: Study
- A Bit of Mom's Poop Might Boost Health of C-Section Babies: Study
- Most Newborns of COVID-19-Infected Moms Fare Well
- Parent's Skin-to-Skin Hug Does Ease a Baby's Pain, Brain Study Suggests
- Zika May Have Damaged More Infants' Brains Than Expected
- Exposure to Iodine in the NICU May Affect Infant Thyroid Function
- COVID-19 Typically Mild for Babies: Study
- Living Near Oil, Gas Wells Tied to Low Birth Weight Infants
- 'Kangaroo Care' Has Big Health Benefits For Preemies
- Zika Virus Tied to Profound Developmental Delays
- How One Very Ill Infant Survived COVID-19
- Breast Milk May Help Shield Infants From Dangerous Viruses
- Hugs More Calming for Baby When Given by Mom or Dad
- Newborns With COVID-19 May Suffer Only Mild Symptoms, Study Says
- Let Your Baby Cry It Out
- Could Dad-to-Be's Health Affect His Newborn's Health?
- Small Babies Have High Risk for Heart-Lung Weakness as Adults: Study
- Baby Carriers Sold at Target, Amazon Recalled Because Infant Can Fall Out
- Baby in Your Room, Not in Your Bed: Good Advice, but Are Parents Listening?
- 'Kangaroo Care' Reduces Infant Deaths
- Health Tip: Taking Your Child on a Plane
- Is Timing Everything for SIDS Risk?
- Infants May Not Be as Immune to Measles as Thought
- Umbilical Cord 'Milking' Procedure Dangerous for Preemies: Study
- Health Tip: Changing Diapers 101
- Abnormal Gut Microbiome May Stunt Preemies' Growth
- Give Newborn to Mom Right Away -- After Moving the Electrodes
- Good News for Parents: Many Preemie Babies Grow Up Fine
- Many Parents Not Following Safe-Sleep Advice for Babies
- Many Baby Foods Contain Brain-Harming Heavy Metals: Study
- Health Tip: Baby's First Tooth
- Making the Most of Your Baby's First 3 Years
- C-Section Delivery Might Alter Newborn's 'Microbiome'
- Treatment for Very-Preterm Infants May Lead to Antibiotic Resistance
- Secrets to Soothing a Cranky Baby Safely
- How to Protect Your Baby From Unsafe Products
- Fisher-Price Recalls 71,000 More Infant Sleepers
- Health Tip: Safe Sleep For Babies
- Another Reason Breast Is Best for Fragile Preemie Babies
- Common Infant Vaccine May Also Shield Kids From Type 1 Diabetes
- Few Days of Formula Feeding After Delivery Won't Harm Breastfed Babies
- Nursing Moms Who Eat Right Have Slimmer, Healthier Babies
- Infant Pain Heightened After Opioid Exposure in Womb
- Putting Your Child to Sleep in a Car Seat Can Be Deadly
- Quieter NICUs a Good Rx for Premature Babies
- Nearly 700,000 Infant Rocking Sleepers Recalled Due to Infant Deaths
- Babies Still Dying Due to Unsafe Sleep Practices
- Health Tip: Choosing a Car Seat
- Helping the Young Mind Grow
- Health Tip: Treating an Infant's Fever
- Ten Infant Deaths Linked to Fisher-Price Rock 'N Play Sleepers
- Is That Medication Safe When Breastfeeding?
- Fussy Baby May Raise Mom's Risk of Depression
- Featherlight, Wireless Sensors Let Parents Cuddle Their Preemies
- Up to 1 Hour of General Anesthesia Safe for Infants: Study
- Health Tip: Signs of Vision Problems in Infants
- More Infant Ibuprofen Recalled Due to Higher Concentrations
- Health Tip: Take Care of Your Child's Vision
- Don't Give Infants Honey-Filled Pacifiers: FDA
- Cleaning Your Baby's Pacifier By Sucking On It May Do Baby Good
- Many Infants With Milk Allergy Seem to Outgrow It
- Tracking Preemies' Head Size May Yield IQ Clues
- Your 6-Month-Old Isn't Sleeping Through the Night? Relax
- Breast Milk, Formula Affect Baby's 'Microbiome' in Different Ways
- Bringing Baby in a Lyft, Uber? Child Car Seats Are Rarely Included
- A Baby's Laugh Is Truly Monkey Business
- Soft Furniture No Cushion Against Falls for Young Kids
- Breastfeeding May Shield Baby From Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
- Experts Sound Warning About 'Baby Boxes'
- Breast Milk May Boost Preemies' Brain Development
- Milk Straight From Breast Best for Baby's Weight
- Heart Defects, Sleep Apnea a Deadly Mix for Infants
- Health Tip: Prevent Diaper Rash
- Infant Walkers Still Injuring Thousands of Babies
- Pediatricians Make Change to Child Car Seat Guidelines
- Pot May Stay in Breast Milk for 6 Days
- Newborns' Immune Systems Ramp Up After Birth
- Are High-Tech Baby Monitors Worth It? Or Even Safe?
- Good News, Bad News in U.S. Breastfeeding Report
- Why Choo-Choo is Better for Baby's Language Skills Than Train
- For Breast-feeding Working Moms, Co-Workers' Support Is Key
- Food Allergies Less Severe in Infants: Study
- Many Young Kids Not Screened for Developmental Delays
- Want Good Sleep for Baby? Food May Be Key
- Health Tip: Recognizing Hearing Loss in Infants
- Smart Steps for a Safe Nursery
- Could Antidepressants During Pregnancy Slow a Child's Motor Skills?
- Mom's Voice: The Sleep Secret for Babies in Intensive Care
- Clean Skin, Hands Critical for 'Kangaroo Care' for Preemies
- Health Tip: Soothing Baby During Teething
- Fish Oil May Protect the Youngest Hearts
- Could Early Birth Hinder Adult Success?
- Health Tip: When Baby Spits Up
- Treatment for Teething Pain Poses Serious Health Threat: FDA
- Infants Know Real 'Baby Talk' When They Hear It
- Could Mom-to-Be's Antidepressants Have an Upside for Baby's Brain?
- Soda During Pregnancy May Not Help Baby's Brain
- Heath Tip: How to Introduce Your Child to Peanuts
- Common Antidepressants in Pregnancy May Alter Fetal Brain Development
- Mom's Marijuana Winds Up in Breast Milk
- Zika Infection After Birth May Require Long-Term Follow-Up
- Health Tip: When to See a Doctor for Cradle Cap
- Babies Given Certain Meds May Have Higher Odds for Allergies Later
- Baby Sitters, Relatives Often Unaware of SIDS Risk
- New Moms Still Wary of Exposing Infants to Peanuts
- Health Tip: Treat Diarrhea in Young Babies
- Mom's Pre-Pregnancy Waist Size Tied to Autism Risk
- Health Tip: Use a High Chair Safely
- Birth Defects Affect 7 Percent of Zika-Exposed Babies: Study
- Genetic Heart Defects Rarely the Cause of SIDS, Research Shows
- Vaccines Don't Weaken Babies' Immune Systems: Study
- There's a Health Dividend for Some Babies Who Look Like Dad
- Mom's Immune System May Affect Baby's Brain
- Mechanical Heart Valve Approved for Newborns
- Health Tip: Prevent Tooth Decay in Babies
- Health Tip: Make Sure Babies Eat Right
- Too Many Babies Still Die Needlessly of SIDS, CDC Says
- Spoon-Feeding Not Necessarily Safer for Infants
- Babies Start Connecting Words Early On
- Health Tip: Infant Medication Advice For New Moms
- Talcum Powder/Ovarian Cancer Lawsuit Award Overturned
- MRI Approved for Young Infants in Intensive Care
- More Babies in Strollers, Cribs Winding Up in ER: Study
- Health Tip: Watch for Constipation in Babies
- Tiny Babies May Face Mental Health Problems Later
- Preemies Bombarded With Noise in First Weeks of Life
- Newborn Screening Tests Approved
- Used Safely, Donor Breast Milk Can Help Preemie Babies
- Teething Tips From Dental Specialists
- Every Day in the Womb Boosts Babies' Brain Development: Study
- Dogs Too Smart to Follow Useless Advice
- Babies' Sleep 'Twitching' May Aid Their Development
- Antibiotics May Blunt Breast-Feeding's Benefits
- Do Big Bottles Kickstart Infant Weight Issues?
- Genetic Insights May Help Kids Battling Developmental Delays
- 5 Tips for New Moms
- Swaddling May Increase Chances of SIDS
- Could Infant Colds, Other Infections Raise Type 1 Diabetes Risk?
- Babies Fed Rice-Based Cereals Have Higher Arsenic Levels, Study Finds
- Music Might Give Babies' Language Skills a Boost
- Scientists Use Stem Cells to Correct Infant Cataracts
- Health Tip: Set up a Safe Changing Table
- Acetaminophen Tops List of Accidental Infant Poisonings
- Infant Delivery and Feeding Methods Can Affect Gut Composition
- Toxic Chemicals May Weaken Infants' Response to TB Vaccine
- Health Tip: Understanding Your Baby's Vision
- Some Babies May Pick Up 2nd Language More Easily
- What's In a Name? For Newborns, Maybe Fewer Medical Errors
- Baby Swings, Car Seats Not Safe for Sleeping
- Surprises Help Babies Learn, Research Finds
- Common Antiseptic Can Prevent Infant Deaths, Study Says
- Naps May Boost Your Baby's Memory
- Health Tip: When Baby Needs a Medical Test
- Infants Remember a Good Time, Study Finds
- Study Shows Benefits of Building Baby's Language Skills Early
- Study: Exposure to Diversity Might Boost Baby's Social Skills
- Mom's Response to Baby's Cry a Matter of Memory
- Babies' Brains Prep for Speech Long Before First Words Come Out
- Study Sheds Light on How Immune System Works in Infants
- Low Birth Weight, Lack of Breast-Feeding Tied to Inflammation Risk in Adulthood
- Despite Media Companies' Claims, Your Baby Can't Learn to Read: Study
- Baby 'Sleep Machines' Could Damage Hearing, Study Suggests
- Premature Babies Benefit From Adult Talk, Study Finds
- Many New Mothers Skip Important 6-Week Checkup, Study Finds
- Steroids for Preemies May Raise ADHD Risk, Study Says
- Health Tip: Help Prevent Clogged Milk Ducts
- Hand Gestures May Help Kids Solve Problems
- Breast-Fed Baby May Become Higher-IQ Child, Study Suggests
- Overnight Separation From Mother Linked to Weaker Infant Bond
- Health Tip: Caring for Baby's Umbilical Cord
- Breast Milk Supply May Be Linked to Insulin Production: Study
- Even Younger Babies 'Prep' Themselves to Be Picked Up
- You Can Boost Your Baby's Vocabulary
- Quicker Infant Growth Tied to Higher IQ Later
- Sleeping on Back to Prevent SIDS Doesn't Appear to Hurt Babies' Ability to Roll
- Low Breast-Feeding Rate Linked to Early Deaths, Illnesses: Study
- U.S. Imports Scarce Nutrition Drugs for Sick Babies
- Health Tip: Pay Attention to Baby's Communication
- Health Tip: Schedule Baby's First Dental Visit
- Bacteria in Baby's Belly May Influence Growth, Study Says
- Reducing Respiratory Virus in Preemies Lessens Wheezing: Study
- Health Tip: Holding Your Infant Skin to Skin
- Health Tip: Manage Visitors After Bringing Home Baby
- Why Carrying Your Baby Calms Him
- Colic May Be Linked to Childhood Migraine, Study Says
- Lullabies Soothe Preemies, Parents Alike
- Four in 10 Babies Given Solid Foods Too Early, Study Finds
- Nursing Shortage May Harm Infants in Intensive Care, Study Says
- Health Tip: Reading to Baby
- Breast-Feeding Still Less Common for Black Babies: CDC
- Let Babies 'Cry It Out,' Study Suggests
- Moms May Use TV to Calm Fussy Infants: Study
- Health Tip: Help Keep Your Baby's Crib Safe
- Health Tip: Calming a Fussy Baby
- Having Babies Sit Up May Help Them Learn
- Could Baby's Crying Give Clues to Autism?
- Bigger Babies Have Bigger Brains as Teens: Study
- Does Eating Fish During Infancy Cut Asthma Risk?
- Flame Retardants in Furniture, Carpets Might Affect Kids' Development
- Many Grandparents Lack Latest Child Safety Info: Study
- Preemies Born to Poor Families May Face Higher Risk for Brain Bleeds
- Parents' Love in Infancy Pays Off Later, Study Finds
- Fresh Blood as Good as Older Blood for Preemie Transfusions: Study
- BPA Exposure Impacts Pregnant Women's Thyroids, Study Suggests
- Health Tip: Kids Need to Stop Sucking Their Thumbs
- Mailed Kits May Prompt Parents to Protect Kids From Sun
- Half of Pregnant Women, Newborns Risk Flu
- FDA to Parents: Don't Give SimplyThick to Infants
- Expandable Water Toys Pose Risk to Children
- U.S. Expands SIDS Prevention Effort
- Pediatricians' Group Urges Flu Shot for Kids Aged 6 Months and Up
- Parents, Rest Easy About Infant 'Sleep Training'
- Kids Develop Sense of Humor by Age 1, Study Finds
- Fish Oil for Infants No Help for Allergies
- More Benefits of Breast Milk Revealed
- How Dog-Savvy Is Your Child?
- Bottle-Feeding May Raise Baby's Risk for Intestinal Trouble
- Baby's Healthy Diet Feeds IQ, Study Finds
- Health Tip: Help Prevent Baby Bottle Tooth Decay
- Few U.S. Kids Using Correct Car Safety Restraints
- Vitamin D Deficiency Common in Sick Kids
- Don't Trust 'Dr. Google' for Help on Infant Sleep Safety
- Scientists ID New Gene Linked to Vision Loss in Infants
- Heart Birth Defects May Have Lasting Effect
- Health Tip: Help Baby Develop Healthy Sleep Habits
- Dad's Early Engagement With Son May Shape Behavior Later
- FDA Bans BPA in Baby Bottles
- Keep Infants Out of Sun and Heat, Experts Warn
- Many Babies Healthier in Homes With Dogs
- Food Allergy Reactions in Kids Undertreated
- Infant Vaccination 'Delays' Triple in Oregon: Study
- Newborn Screening May Miss Adrenal-Gland Disorder
- Health Tip: What to Expect After Childbirth
- Many Moms Don't Meet Their Own Breastfeeding Goals
- Health Tip: Warning Signs of Infant Dehydration
- 'Cooling' Helps Oxygen-Deprived Newborns: Study
- Soy and Cow's Milk-Based Baby Formulas Face Off
- Babies' Vulnerability to Colds Tied to Immune Response at Birth
- Health Tip: Signs That Baby is in Pain
- Health Tip: Eat a Healthy Diet When Nursing
- Infant Head Lag May Signal Autism
- Health Tip: Help Prevent Gas in Babies
- Swaddling Infants Too Tightly May Cause Hip Problems
- Health Tip: When Baby Has a Fever
- Quality Nursing May Protect Very Low Birth Weight Babies
- Background TV May Harm Young Kids' Development
- Health Tip: Touch, Sing and Play With Baby
- Depressed Moms Disrupt Baby's Sleep
- Safe Sleep Can Prevent SIDS Deaths
- Infants' Faces Trigger Caregiving Impulse in Adults' Brains
- Health Tip: Make 'Tummy Time' Fun
- Mother's Voice May Help Premature Babies Breathe Easier
- Overly Strict, Controlling Parents Risk Raising Delinquent Kids
- Health Tip: Never Leave Kids in the Car
- Study Links Colic in Infants to Migraines in Moms
- Health Tip: Is Your Baby Breast-Feeding Enough?
- A Common Organic Sweetener May Boost Arsenic Levels in Foods
- Letting Baby Eat Finger Foods May Spur Healthier Weight
- Breastfeeding OK for Moms With Asthma
- Health Tip: Prepare for Breast-feeding
- Brain Activity May Help Predict Autism Before Age 1: Study
- Testosterone Exposure May Explain Boys' Language Delay
- Hungry Families Admit to 'Formula Stretching'
- Infant Acetaminophen Dosage Change May Cause Confusion
- Infant Formula Investigated in Baby Death
- Are Working Moms Healthier and Happier?
- Accidental Drug Overdoses on the Rise Among Kids
- Some of World's Tiniest ‘Preemies' Are Growing Up Healthy
- Infants May Sleep Better When Vaccinated in Afternoon
- Chickenpox Vaccination of Children Helps Protect Infants, Too
- Consumer Group: Dangerous Toys Are on Store Shelves
- Infants Use Pure Reasoning to Make Sense of the World
- Quick Screening May Help Spot Autism in Babies
- FDA OKs Meningitis Vaccine for Infants
- Antipsychotics in Pregnancy Risky for Newborns
- Despite Warning, Babies Still Get Cough Medicine
- Low Vitamin D in Newborns Linked to Wheezing
- Is Alternative Medicine Risky for Kids?
- Is It Bad to Stimulate a Baby to Poop?
- How Do You Stop Diarrhea in Babies?
- Growth Charts
- What's the Difference Between Infants' Tylenol and Children's Tylenol?
- Childhood Biting
- What Temperature Is OK for a Newborn Outside?
- Are Pacifiers Good or Bad for Newborns?
- Pregnancy: 17 Things to Buy for Your Newborn
- Will Mixing Formula Hurt My Baby?
- Do I Need to Burp My Baby After Breastfeeding?
- Why Is Inclined Sleep Dangerous for Babies?
- How Do You Help a Newborn with Gas?
- How Long Should a Newborn Stay Home After Birth?
- Will My Baby's Flat Head Correct by Itself?
- When Should We Start Tummy Time With Baby?
- Toddler Food Guidelines
- What Baby Food Should I Introduce First?