Hypothyroidism is any state in which thyroid hormone production is below normal. Normally, the rate of thyroid hormone production is controlled by the brain by the pituitary gland. Hypothyroidism is a very common condition and the symptoms of hypothyroidism are often subtle, but may include, constipation, memory loss, hair loss, and depression. There are a variety of causes of hypothyroidism, and treatment depends on the cause. Read more: Hypothyroidism Article
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Stress Quiz: Test Your Emotional IQ
Stress creeps into everyone's life at one time or another, while some people will suffer from poorly managed chronic stress. If...
Metabolism Quiz: What is Metabolism?
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Depression Quiz: Signs & Symptoms
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Thyroid Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Your unexplained change in weight could indicate a thyroid condition. Take the Thyroid Quiz to learn about common symptoms and...
Picture of Thyroid
The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck just below the Adams apple. See a picture of the Thyroid...
Surprising Reasons for Weight Gain
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Learn to Spot Depression: Symptoms, Warning Signs, Medication
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Hyperthyroidism Symptoms and Treatment
What is hyperthyroidism? Hyperthyroidism occurs when an overactive thyroid gland produces an excessive amount of thyroid...
The 14 Most Common Causes of Fatigue
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Thyroid Problems Explained
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Burning or Swollen Feet? What Foot Pain Symptoms Say About Your Health
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Stress Relief: 10 Ways to Stop Stress
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What Does It Mean When Your Whole Body Aches?
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Related Disease Conditions
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition in which irritation of the wrist's median nerve causes tingling and numbness of the thumb, index, and the middle fingers. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome depends on the severity of the symptoms and the nature of any disease that might be causing the symptoms.
Cholesterol (Lowering Your Cholesterol)
High cholesterol and triglyceride levels increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Getting your cholesterol and triglyceride levels in an optimal range will help protect your heart and blood vessels. Cholesterol management may include lifestyle interventions (diet and exercise) as well as medications to get your total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides in an optimal range.
Constipation is defined medically as fewer than three stools per week and severe constipation as less than one stool per week. Constipation usually is caused by the slow movement of stool through the colon. There are many causes of constipation including medications, poor bowel habits, low fiber diets, laxative abuse, and hormonal disorders, and diseases primarily of other parts of the body that also affect the colon.
Pericarditis (Symptoms, ECG, Types, Causes, Treatment)
Pericarditis is the inflammation of the pericardial sac that surrounds the heart. The causes of pericarditis include injury from heart attack, heart surgery, trauma, viral or fungal infection, HIV, tumors, mixed connective tissue disease, metabolic disease, medication reactions, or unknown reasons. Treatment for pericarditis is generally medication, however, sometimes surgery is necessary.
Raynaud's phenomenon is characterized by a pale-blue-red sequence of color changes of the digits, most commonly after exposure to cold. Occurring as a result of spasm of blood vessels, the cause is unknown. Symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon depend on the severity, frequency, and duration of the blood vessel spasm. Treatments include protection of the digits, medications, and avoiding emotional stresses, smoking, cold temperature, and tools that vibrate the hands.
Stress occurs when forces from the outside world impinge on the individual. Stress is a normal part of life. However, over-stress, can be harmful. There is now speculation, as well as some evidence, that points to the abnormal stress responses as being involved in causing various diseases or conditions.
There are four major types of thyroid cancer: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Tumors on the thyroid are referred to as thyroid nodules. Symptoms of thyroid cancer include swollen lymph nodes, pain in the throat, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, and a lump near the Adam's apple. Treatment usually involves chemotherapy, surgery, radioactive iodine, hormone treatment or external radiation and depends upon the type of thyroid cancer, the patient's age, the tumor size, and whether the cancer has metastasized.
Obesity is the state of being well above one's normal weight. A person has traditionally been considered to be obese if they are more than 20% over their ideal weight. That ideal weight must take into account the person's height, age, sex, and build.
Fatty Liver (NASH)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NASH occurs due to the accumulation of abnormal amounts of fat within the liver. Fatty liver most likely caused by obesity and diabetes. Symptoms of fatty liver disease are primarily the complications of cirrhosis of the liver; and may include mental changes, liver cancer, the accumulation of fluid in the body (ascites, edema), and gastrointestinal bleeding. Treatment for fatty liver includes avoiding certain foods and alcohol. Exercise, weight loss, bariatric surgery, and liver transplantation are treatments for fatty liver disease.
Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland. The inflamed thyroid gland can release an excess of thyroid hormones into the blood stream, resulting in a temporary hyperthyroid state. Some forms of thyroiditis can be diagnosed based on tenderness and enlargement of the thyroid gland. A thyroid scan sometimes is used in making the diagnosis. Thyroiditis can also be diagnosed with a biopsy of the thyroid gland.
Prolactinoma (Pituitary Tumor)
Prolactinoma is an adenoma (benign tumor) of the pituitary gland. Causes of many prolactinomas are unknown. Symptoms in women include: changes in menstruation and infertility, decreased libido, or painful intercourse due to vaginal dryness. The most common symptom in men is impotence (erectile dysfunction). Treatments for prolactinomas include medication and surgery.
Get the facts on Down syndrome, a genetic disorder caused by an additional set of chromosomes in a developing fetus. Down syndrome signs and symptoms include distinctive facial features, growth retardation, and decreased mental function and IQ. Blood tests and ultrasound may be used to screen for Down syndrome but chromosome analysis of the fetus is needed to diagnose the condition. People with Down syndrome age more quickly and may develop Alzheimer's disease as young as age 40. Sometimes people are diagnosed with mosaic Down syndrome, in which case they have more than one type of chromosomal makeup.
Restless Leg Syndrome
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common cause for painful legs that typically eases with motion, and becomes worse and more noticeable at rest. This characteristic nighttime worsening can frequently lead to insomnia. Treatment of the symptoms of restless leg syndrome is generally with medication as well as treating any underlying condition causing restless leg syndrome.
Sleep apnea is defined as a reduction or cessation of breathing during sleep. The three types of sleep apnea are central apnea, obstructive apnea (OSA), and a mixture of central and obstructive apnea. Central sleep apnea is caused by a failure of the brain to activate the muscles of breathing during sleep. OSA is caused by the collapse of the airway during sleep. OSA is diagnosed and evaluated through patient history, physical examination and polysomnography. There are many complications related to obstructive sleep apnea. Treatments are surgical and non-surgical.
Muscle cramps are involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscles that do not relax. Extremely common, any muscles that have voluntary control, including some organs, are subject to cramp. Since there is such variety in the types of muscle cramps that can occur, many causes and preventative medications are known. Stretching is the most common way to stop or prevent most muscle cramps.
Pendred syndrome, a genetic disorder that causes hearing loss. Generally, the hearing loss is affected in early childhood. Pendred syndrome also affects other parts fo the body (for example, the thyroid gland). Treatment is generally cochlear ear implants.
Hair Loss (Alopecia)
There are many causes of scalp hair loss. This featured article covers the common ones such as patchy hair loss (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, and tinea capitis), telogen effluvium, and androgenetic alopecia (male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness).
Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy
Hypothyroidism during pregnancy can be treated with synthetic thyroid hormones to maintain the proper thyroid hormone balance. Hypothyroidism symptoms include fatigue, weight gain, lethargy, and constipation. Treatment of hypothyroidism in pregnant women is important, because inadequate levels of thyroid hormones may affect the fetus, and child during growth and development.
Normal vaginal bleeding (menorrhea) occurs through the process of menstruation. Abnormal vaginal bleeding in women who are ovulating regularly most commonly involves excessive, frequent, irregular, or decreased bleeding. Causes of abnormal may arise from a variety of conditions that may include, uterine fibroids, IUDs, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, lupus, STDs, pelvic inflammatory disease, emotional stress, anorexia nervosa, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cancers, early pregnancy.
Myxedema (Crisis) Coma
Myxedema (crisis) coma is the loss of brain function due to severe longstanding low levels of thyroid hormone in the blood. Myxedema coma is a life-threatening complication of hypothyroidism. Examples of triggers of myxedema coma include medications, infections, strokes, and trauma.Some of the symptoms of myxedema coma include hypothermia, seizures, difficulty breathing, and coma. Treatment of myxedema coma depend on the severity of the condition.
Sexual Problems in Men
Male sexual dysfunction can be caused by physical or psychological problems. Common sexual problems in men include erectile dysfunction (impotence or ED), premature ejaculation, and loss of libido. Treatment for sexual dysfunction in men may involve medication, hormone therapy, psychological therapy, and the use of mechanical aids.
Thyroid nodules are the most common endocrine problem in the United States. The term thyroid nodule refers to any abnormal growth that forms a lump in the thyroid gland. The vast majority of thyroid nodules are benign.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disorder causing inflammation of the thyroid gland. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a type of hypothyroidism, and is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the US. Symptoms of Hashimoto's thyroiditis may include dry skin, fatigue, weight gain, feeling cold, excessive sleepiness, dry skin, dry coarse hair, difficulty swallowing, a lump in the front of the throat, muscle cramps, mood changes, vague aches and pains, problems concentrating, leg swelling, constipation, and depression. There is no cure for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Diet changes, natural supplements, vitamins, or other natural products will not treat Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Treatment for the autoimmune disorder is with thyroid hormone replacement therapy, which will be necessary for the rest of the person’s life.
Urinary Incontinence in Women
Millions of women suffer from urinary incontinence (UI). UI occurs twice as often in women as in men. There are many types of urinary incontinence: stress incontinence, urge incontinence, overactive bladder, functional incontinence, overflow incontinence, transient incontinence, and mixed incontinence.
There are a variety of diseases and conditions that can cause tongue problems, discoloration, and soreness. Though most tongue problems are not serious. Conditions such as leukoplakia, oral thrush, and oral lichen planus may cause a white tongue while Kawasaki syndrome, scarlet fever, and geographic tongue may cause the tongue to appear red. A black hairy tongue may be caused by overgrown papillae on the tongue. Canker sores, smoking, and trauma may cause soreness of the tongue.
Hyothermia or extreme exposure to cold can be classified as either accidental hypothermia (unintentional cold exposure) and intentional hypothermia (generally induced for a medical procedure). Hypothermia is caused by exposure to extremely cold temperatures. Risk factors for hypothermia include cold exposure and/or certain medical conditions. Symptoms of hypothermia include shivering; increased heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure; apathy, confusion, slurred speech, no reflexes, and dilated pupils. Medical attention is generally necessary to treat hypothermia.
Pinched Nerve (Symptoms, Locations, Causes, Treatment, and Prognosis)
A pinched nerve causes pain, numbness, or tingling in the affected area due to pressure on a nerve. Carpal tunnel and sciatica are two examples of conditions caused by a pinched nerve. A pinched nerve is diagnosed by taking a patient history and performing a physical examination. Electromyography may be performed. Treatment for a pinched nerve depends on the underlying cause.
Dizziness is a symptom that often applies to a variety of sensations including lightheadedness and vertigo. Causes of dizziness include low blood pressure, heart problems, anemia, dehydration, and other medical conditions. Treatment of dizziness depends on the cause.
Rhabdomyolysis is a rapid deterioration and destruction of skeletal muscle. Some of the causes of rhabdomyolysis include: severe burns, muscle trauma, coma, seizures, electrolyte imbalance, medications (statins), viruses, and bacteria. Treatment of rhabdomyolysis depends on the cause.
Hyponatremia (Low Blood Sodium)
Hyponatremia is a condition in which the levels of sodium in the blood is too low. Some of the symptoms of hyponatremia include headaches, muscle cramps or spasm, seizures, weakness, restlessness, and confusion. Hyponatremia can occur from excess fluid in the body, or a loss of sodium in body fluid. Causes of low levels of sodium in the blood include chronic diseases like kidney or congestive heart failure, adrenal gland problems, hypothyroidism, and liver cirrhosis, and some medications. Diet and other lifestyle changes in addition to treatment with electrolyte replacement with an IV. Other treatments for hyponatremia depend upon the cause.
Amenorrhea (including hypothalmic amenorrhea) is a condition in which there is an absence of menstrual periods in a woman. There are two types of amenorrhea: primary and secondary. Treatment of amenorrhea depends on the type. In primary, surgery may be an option and in secondary amenorrhea medication or lifestyle changes may be treatment options. We go over the definition of amenorrhea, causes, and treatment options for amenorrhea.
Dry skin (xeroderma) may be caused by external factors, like cold temperatures, low humidity, harsh soaps, and certain medications, or internal factors, such as thyroid disease, diabetes, psoriasis, or Sjogren's syndrome. Symptoms and signs of dry skin include itching and red, cracked or flaky skin. The main treatment for dry skin is frequent, daily lubrication of the skin.
Fatigue can be described in various ways. Sometimes fatigue is described as feeling a lack of energy and motivation (both mental and physical). The causes of fatigue are generally related to a variety of conditions or diseases, for example, anemia, mono, medications, sleep problems, cancer, anxiety, heart disease, and drug abuse.Treatment of fatigue is generally directed toward the condition or disease that is causing the fatigue.
Iron is a mineral our bodies need. Iron deficiency is a condition resulting from not enough iron in the body. It is the most common nutritional deficiency and the leading cause in the US. Iron deficiency is caused due to increased iron deficiency from diseases, nutritional deficiency, or blood loss and the body's inability to intake or absorb iron. Children, teen girls, pregnant women, and babies are at most risk for developing iron deficiency. Symptoms of iron deficiency include feeling weak and tired, decreased work or school performance, slow social development, difficulty maintaining body temperature, decreased immune function, and an inflamed tongue. Blood tests can confirm an iron deficiency in an individual. Treatment depends on the cause of the deficiency. Proper diet that includes recommended daily allowances of iron may prevent some cases of iron deficiency.
15 Foods That Cause Constipation
Constipation or the decrease in frequency and/or difficulty in passing stools (bowel movements) can be caused by a variety problems. Check out these top 15 foods to avoid because they cause constipation. Some foods to avoid include, white rice and breads, caffeine, bananas, alcohol, processed foods, and frozen dinners.
Dandruff vs. Dry Scalp
Dandruff is a condition characterized by small white flakes that shed from the scalp. Dry scalp is simply dry skin on one's head. Dry scalp is uncommon, and dandruff is very common. Dandruff treatment and prevention incorporates the regular use of an anti-dandruff shampoo.
Thyroid Disorders Symptoms and Signs
Thyroid diseases and disorders are caused because the body either makes too much or too little thyroid hormones, which are necessary for vital functions of the body. Thyroid disease and disorder symptoms and signs depend on the type of the thyroid problem. Examples include heat or cold intolerance, sweating, weight loss or gain, palpitations, fatigue, dry skin, constipation, brittle hair, joint aches and pains, heart palpitations, edema, feeling bloated, puffiness in the face, reduced menstrual flow, changes in the frequency of bowel movements and habits, high cholesterol, hoarseness, brittle hair, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, a visible lump or swelling in the neck, tremors, memory problems, depression, nervousness, agitation, irritability, or poor concentration. Thyroid problems are more common in women.
What Are the Complications of Thyroid Problems?
The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the anterior (front) aspect of the neck. Thyroid hormones regulate metabolism, body temperature, heartbeat and the digestive system. Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland is unable to produce sufficient levels of thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland produces excess levels of thyroid hormones. Thyroid problems can begin at any age and women are more affected than men. The clinical presentation and complications of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are different.
What Are Some Common Endocrine Disorders?
Endocrine glands are organs that are specialized in regulating various functions of your body. These functions include growth and development, metabolism, sexual function, reproduction and mood. If your hormone levels are too high or too low, you may have an endocrine disorder, commonly known as a hormone disorder.
Local ResourcesFind a local Endocrinologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Cold Feet and Toes
- Cold Fingers
- Dry Mouth
- Vaginal Bleeding
- Vaginal Dryness
- Weight Gain
- Fatigue, Tiredness, and Lethargy
- Restless Leg Syndrome
- Shortness of Breath (Dyspnea)
- Doctor: Getting the Most from Your Doctor's Appointment
- How to Choose a Doctor
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Cold Hands
- Dry Skin
- Enlarged Heart
- Sore Tongue
- Brittle Nails
- Difficulty Concentrating
- Neonatal Jaundice
- Peripheral Neuropathy
- Mood Swings
- Tingling in Hands and Feet
- Loss of Smell (Anosmia)
- Depression FAQs
- Thyroid FAQs
- Stress FAQs
- Metabolism FAQs
- Thyroid Disease and Menopause
- Sub-Clinical Hypothyroidism - To Treat or Not ?
- Thyroid and Aging - Helping to Keep the Golden Years Golden
- Thyroid: Questions To Ask Your Doctor
- Thyroid Disease, Osteoporosis and Calcium
- Screening for Thyroid Disease?
- Can Synthroid Taken for Hypothyroidism Cause Osteoporosis?
- What Are Side Effects of Synthroid?
- Natural vs. Synthetic Thyroid Medications for Thyroid
- Can I Stop Synthroid Without Doctor Supervision?
- What Is the Difference Between Cytomel and Synthroid?
- Don't Be Afraid to Ask - Dr. Mathur
- 9 Common Newborn Screening Tests
- Hypothyroidism Symptoms
- Goiter Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
- Ask The Experts - Thyroid
Medications & Supplements
- levothyroxine - oral, Levothroid, Levoxyl, Synthroid
- liothyronine sodium, Cytomel, Triostat
- levothyroxine sodium (Synthroid, Levoxyl)
- Propylthiouracil (PTU)
- Thyroid Replacement Hormones
- liotrix - oral, Thyrolar
- Side Effects of Propylthiouracil (PTU)
- Side Effects of Cytomel (liothyronine sodium)
- Side Effects of Synthroid (levothyroxine)
- Side Effects of Tapazole (methimazole)
- Cometriq (cabozantinib)
Prevention & Wellness
- Thyroid Drug May Not Help After Heart Attack: Study
- Exposure to Iodine in the NICU May Affect Infant Thyroid Function
- Common Treatment May Not Help Seniors With Underactive Thyroid
- Being Chained to Your Desk Might Harm Your Thyroid
- Health Tip: Causes of Appetite Loss
- Health Tip: Differing Thyroid Tests
- Mild Low Thyroid Levels May Affect a Woman's Fertility
- Thyroid Problems May Make Things Worse for Dialysis Patients
- Know the Signs of Thyroid Trouble
- Should Pregnant Women Always Be Treated for Underactive Thyroid?
- Can You Blame Your Headaches on Your Thyroid?
- Restrictive Diets May Cause Thyroid Troubles in Young Kids
- Underactive Thyroid May Raise Odds for Type 2 Diabetes: Study
- Agent Orange Linked to Bladder Cancer, Thyroid Problems, Panel Says
- Health Tip: Spot the Signs of Hypothyroidism
- Even Slightly Overactive Thyroid Linked to Higher Fracture Risk
- The 10 Most-Prescribed and Top-Selling Medications
- Fluoride in Drinking Water Tied to Higher Rates of Underactive Thyroid
- Thyroid Trouble May Harm Women's Fertility, Study Finds
- Standard Treatment for Underactive Thyroid Gland Still Best: Experts
- Diabetes Drug Metformin May Affect Thyroid in Some Patients
- Thyroid Problem Can Lead to Sick Leaves From Work, Study Finds
- Certain Thyroid-Related Diseases May Vary by Race
- Underactive Thyroid Not Linked to Memory Problems
- Risks for Kidney Donors Decline, Study Finds
- Health Tip: Is a Medical Condition Affecting Your Weight?
- Chemicals in Carpets, Cosmetics Tied to Thyroid Problems
- Underactive Thyroid and Heart Failure a Bad Combination: Study
- Overactive Thyroid May Raise Risk for Common Irregular Heartbeat
- Health Issues Add to Risk of Vitamin D Deficiency, Study Says
- BPA Exposure Impacts Pregnant Women's Thyroids, Study Suggests
- Soy Formula May Harm Babies With Underactive Thyroid: Report
- Thyroid Condition Linked to Heart Problems: Study
- Screening Moms-to-Be for Thyroid Trouble May Not Help Offspring
- CT Scan Dye Containing Iodine May Affect Thyroid
- Hip Fracture Patients Often Have Other Health Problems
- Buyer, Beware of Over-the-Counter Thyroid Supplements: Study
- Study: 'Thyroid Support' Supplements May Be Risky
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