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- What is hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?
- Is hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?
- What are the uses for hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?
- What are the side effects of hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?
- What is the dosage for hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?
- Is hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?
What is hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Belladonna/phenobarbital is an oral medication which combines naturally occurring belladonna alkaloids (atropine, scopolamine [Transderm-Scop], and hyoscyamine) with phenobarbital. It is used for treating abdominal discomfort that is thought to be due to muscular spasm of the intestinal muscles. Belladonna alkaloids block the action of acetylcholine, a chemical that nerves to use to communicate with other nerves and muscles. Acetylcholine stimulates the muscles of the intestines that propels digesting food through the intestine. It also affects the secretion of fluids by salivary glands and the stomach. By blocking acetylcholine, belladonna alkaloids relax intestinal muscles, slow passage of digesting food through the intestines, and reduce gastric secretion. Phenobarbital produces sedation. The FDA classifies Belladonna/phenobarbital as possibly effective for its stated uses.
What brand names are available for hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?
Donnatal, Donnatal Extentabs
Is hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital available as a generic drug?
GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes
What are the uses for hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?
Belladonna/phenobarbital is used in the treatment of abdominal pain, bloating and cramps in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. It is also used in patients with acute inflammation of the stomach and intestines (gastroenteritis) to reduce pain and diarrhea. It is used occasionally as additional therapy in patients with duodenal ulcer.
What are the side effects of hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?
Adverse reactions include:
- dry eyes;
- dry mouth;
- urinary hesitancy and retention (difficulty urinating, particularly in men);
- blurred vision;
- rapid heart rate;
- drowsiness; and
Caution is advised in patients with glaucoma, myasthenia gravis and urinary obstruction since symptoms of these conditions may worsen with the use of belladonna/phenobarbital. Patients with an unstable cardiac status, severe ulcerative colitis and acute intermittent porphyria should avoid belladonna/phenobarbital. Elderly patients may experience confusion, depression, and excitement even from small doses.
Quick GuideIBS - Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Symptoms, Diet, Treatment
What is the dosage for hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?
May be taken with or without food. The dosage is adjusted to the individual patient to assure control of symptoms with a minimum of side effects. The usual doses are 1-2 regular tablets 3 to 4 times daily or 1 extended release tablet every 8 or 12 hours or 5-10 ml of the elixir, 3 or 4 times daily.
Which drugs or supplements interact with hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?
Phenobarbital reduces the blood levels of several drugs by increasing their breakdown in the body. Examples include voriconazole (Vfend), bocepravir (Victrelis), ranolazine (Ranexa), and protease inhibitors (for example, atazanavir [Reyataz], indinavir [Crixivan], saquinavir [Invirase], ritonavir [Norvir]). Belladonna/phenobarbital should not be combined with potassium tablets because belladonna/phenobarbital slows the passage of potassium tablets through the gastrointestinal tract, leading to potassium-induced ulcers and high potassium levels in the blood.
Is hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Use during pregnancy has not been adequately evaluated. Pregnant women should use belladonna alkaloid/phenobarbital only when the expected benefit outweighs the potential but unknown risks. Belladonna/phenobarbital are secreted in breast milk and may also reduce milk production.
What else should I know about hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?
What preparations of hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital are available?
- Tablets: 16.2 mg phenobarbital, 0.1037 mg hyoscyamine sulfate, 0.0194 mg atropine sulfate, and 0.065 mg scopolamine hydrobromide
- Sustained release tablets: 48.6 mg phenobarbital, 0.311 mg hyoscyamine sulfate, 0.0582 mg atropine sulfate, and 0.0195 mg scopolamine hydrobromide.
- Elixir (per 5ml): 16.2 mg phenobarbital, 0.1037 mg hyoscyamine sulfate, 0.0194 mg atropine sulfate, and 0.0065 mg scopolamine hydrobromide.
How should I keep hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital stored?
Belladonna/phenobarbital should be stored at controlled room temperature between 15-30 C (59-86 F)
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information
Quick GuideIBS - Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Symptoms, Diet, Treatment
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Top hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital Related ArticlesComplete List
Abdominal Pain (Causes, Remedies, Treatment)
Abdominal pain can have many causes that range from mild to severe. Some of these causes include:
- Food poisoning
- IBS (irritable bowel syndrome)
- Ovarian cysts
- Abdominal adhesions
- Crohn's disease
- Ulcerative colitis
- Gallbladder disease
- Liver disease
Signs and symptoms of the more serious causes include:
- Bloody or black tarry stools
- Severe abdominal pain
- Pain with no urination or painful urination.
Treatment for abdominal pain depends upon the cause.
ColitisColitis refers to inflammation of the inner lining of the colon. Symptoms of the inflammation of the colon lining include diarrhea, pain, and blood in the stool. There are several causes of colitis, including infection, ischemia of the colon, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, infectious colitis like C. difficile, or microscopic colitis). Treatment depends on the cause of the colitis.
dicyclomineDicyclomine (Bentyl) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Side effects, drug interactions, dosage, and pregnancy safety should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Diverticulitis SlideshowDiverticulitis (diverticulosis) is a condition in which the diverticulum or diverticula rupture in the colon causing infection. Change in diet and medical treatments such as antibiotics and surgery can ease the symptoms of diverticulitis (diverticulosis).
Most people with diverticulosis have few if any symptoms at all. When people do experience signs and symptoms of diverticulosis (diverticular disease) they may include
- abdominal pain,
- abdominal cramps,
- constipation, and
Diverticulitis is a condition in which diverticuli in the colon rupture. The rupture results in infection in the tissues that surround the colon. Treatment methods for diverticulitis includes prescription medications, and in some cases, diverticulitis surgery.
Drug InteractionsDrug interactions occur frequently. Get facts about the types of drug interactions, what substances or other things that may interact with drugs such as OTC drug and prescription drugs, vitamins, food(s) (grapefruit), and laboratory tests. Find out how to protect yourself from potential drug interactions.
Drugs: What You Should Know About Your DrugsImportant information about your drugs should be reviewed prior to taking any prescription drug. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precauctions, dosage, what the drug is used for, what to do if you miss a dose, how the drug is to be stored, and generic vs. brand names.
Indigestion (dyspepsia) can be caused by diseases or conditions that involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and also by some diseases and conditions that do not involve the GI tract. Indigestion can be a chronic condition in which the symptoms fluctuate infrequency and intensity. Signs and symptoms that accompany indigestion include:
- Upper abdominal pain
- Abdominal bloating and distention
- Feeling full after eating only a small portion of food
Home remedies, medication, and lifestyle changes can help relieve and cure indigestion and its associated symptoms.
Fecal IncontinenceBowel or fecal incontinence refers to the loss of voluntary control of stool, or bowel movements. The condition can include partial incontinence, in which a person loses only a small amount of liquid waste, to complete incontinence, in which the entire bowel movement cannot be controlled. Diet changes and elimination of certain medications can help patients to regain bowel control. Treatment involves a combination of medication, biofeedback, and exercise.
Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu)
Stomach flu (gastroenteritis) is a term referred used to describe a variety of gastrointestinal problems. The most common signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis are
- diarrhea, and
- abdominal pain.
The most common cause of gastroenteritis in the United States is Norovirus. Other causes of gastroenteritis include Rotavirus, Astrovirus, Adenovirus, and Sapovirus. There are bacterial causes of gastroenteritis such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter Aeromonas, E. coli, Clostridium, Vibrio, Campylobacter, and Yersinia spp. Parasites that cause gastroenteritis include Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Entamoeba. Treatment for gastroenteritis is generally home remdies such as keeping hydrated to prevent dehydration. At times, hospitalization may be necessary if dehydration occurs.
Hyoscyamine sublingual (Levbid, Levsin, Nulev, Anaspaz) is a prescription drug used to treat IBS (irritable bowel disease), stomach ulcers, hypermotility of the lower urinary tract, and GI disorders. Side effects may include:
- Dry eyes
- Urinary retention
Drug interactions, dosage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Intestinal Gas (Belching, Bloating, Flatulence)
Gas (intestinal gas) means different things to different people. Everyone has gas and eliminates it by belching, burping, or farting (flatulence). Bloating or abdominal distension is a subjective feeling that the stomach is larger or fuller than normal. Belching or burping occurs when gas is expelled from the stomach out through the mouth. Flatulence or farting occurs when intestinal gas is passed from the anus.
Causes of belching or burping include
- drinking too rapidly,
- carbonated drinks,
- habit, and
- swallowing air.
Causes of bloating or distension include
- fluid within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and
Causes of gas or flatulence are diseases such as
- sugary foods and drinks,
- fruits and vegetables,
- starches (wheat, oats, corn, and potatoes),
- lactose intolerance,
- untreated celiac disease, and
Treatment for excessive intestinal gas depends on the cause.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a GI (gastrointestinal) disorder with signs and symptoms of:
- Abdominal pain
- Increased gas (flatulence)
- Abdominal cramping
- Food intolerance
Two new tests are now available that may help diagnose irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea and constipation (IBS-M) and irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D). Treatment for IBS includes diet changes, medications, and other lifestyle changes to manage symptoms.