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- What brand names are available for hydrochlorothiazide?
- Is hydrochlorothiazide available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for hydrochlorothiazide?
- Why is hydrochlorothiazide prescribed to patients?
- What are the side effects of hydrochlorothiazide?
- What is the dosage for hydrochlorothiazide?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with hydrochlorothiazide?
- Is hydrochlorothiazide safe to use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about hydrochlorothiazide?
What brand names are available for hydrochlorothiazide?name="brand_names">
What brand names are available for hydrochlorothiazide?
- Hydrodiuril, Ezide, Hydro-Par, and Microzid are brand names that are no longer available in the US.
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Why is hydrochlorothiazide prescribed to patients?
- Hydrochlorothiazide is used to treat excessive fluid accumulation and swelling (edema) of the body caused by heart failure, cirrhosis, chronic kidney failure, corticosteroid medications, and nephrotic syndrome.
- It also is used alone or in conjunction with other blood pressure lowering medications to treat high blood pressure.
- Although hydrochlorothiazide is approved for treating edema in cirrhosis of the liver, it is rarely used because of the availability of other diuretics that are more effective.
- Hydrochlorothiazide can be used to treat calcium-containing kidney stones because it decreases the amount of calcium excreted by the kidneys in the urine and thus decreases the amount of calcium in urine to form stones.
What are the side effects of hydrochlorothiazide?name="side_effects">
What are the side effects of hydrochlorothiazide?
Side effects of hydrochlorothiazide include
- low blood pressure,
- light sensitivity (rash caused by sunlight),
- nausea, and
- abdominal pain.
More serious side effects include
- electrolyte disturbances,
- jaundice, and
- anaphylaxis (a life-threatening allergic reaction).
Patients allergic to sulfa may also be allergic to hydrochlorothiazide because of the similarity in the chemical structure of the medications.
Hydrochlorothiazide can aggravate kidney dysfunction and is used with caution in patients with kidney disease. Hydrochlorothiazide can lower blood potassium, sodium, and magnesium levels. Low potassium and magnesium levels can lead to abnormalities in heart rhythm, especially in patients already taking digoxin (Lanoxin). During hydrochlorothiazide treatment, supplementation with potassium is common to prevent low potassium levels.
Blood uric acid levels can increase during hydrochlorothiazide treatment, and this elevation may cause an episode of acute gout in some individuals. Thiazide diuretics may increase blood sugar (glucose) levels and precipitate diabetes.
What is the dosage for hydrochlorothiazide?name="dosage">
What is the dosage for hydrochlorothiazide?
- Hydrochlorothiazide may be taken with or without food.
- The usual adult dose for hypertension is 12.5 to 50 mg once daily.
- The usual adult dose for treating edema is 25-100 mg once daily or in divided doses.
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Which drugs or supplements interact with hydrochlorothiazide?name="interact">
Which drugs or supplements interact with hydrochlorothiazide?
- Hydrochlorothiazide reduces the elimination of lithium (Lithobid, Eskalith) by the kidneys and can lead to lithium toxicity.
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), for example, ibuprofen (Motrin), may reduce the blood pressure lowering effects of hydrochlorothiazide. Blood sugar levels can be elevated by hydrochlorothiazide, necessitating adjustment in the doses of medications that are used for treating diabetes.
- Combining hydrochlorothiazide with corticosteroids may increase the risk for low levels of blood potassium and other electrolytes. Low blood potassium (hypokalemia) can increase the toxicity of digoxin (Lanoxin).
- Cholestyramine (Questran, Questran Light) and colestipol (Colestid) bind to hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by 43% to 85%.
Is hydrochlorothiazide safe to use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding?name="pregnancy">
Is hydrochlorothiazide safe to use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding?
- There are no adequate studies of hydrochlorothiazide in pregnant women. Thiazides may increase the risk of fetal or neonatal jaundice, low platelet levels, and possibly other adverse reactions that have occurred in adults.
- Hydrochlorothiazide is excreted in breast milk. Intense diuresis using hydrochlorothiazide may reduce the production of breast milk. Otherwise hydrochlorothiazide is considered safe to use during nursing if required by the mother.
What else should I know about hydrochlorothiazide?name="what_else">
What else should I know about hydrochlorothiazide?
What preparations of hydrochlorothiazide are available?
- Tablets: 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg
- Capsules: 12.5 mg
How should I keep hydrochlorothiazide stored?
Hydrochlorothiazide should be stored at room temperature, 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F), in a tight, light-resistant container.
How does hydrochlorothiazide work?
- Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic (water pill) used for treating high blood pressure (hypertension) and accumulation of fluid (edema). It works by blocking salt and fluid reabsorption from the urine in the kidneys, causing increased urine output (diuresis). Its mechanism of action in lowering high blood pressure is not well understood.
- Hydrochlorothiazide is used in combination with many other drugs
When was hydrochlorothiazide approved by the FDA?
- The FDA approved hydrochlorothiazide in February 1959.
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information
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Hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide, Hydrodiuril, Ezide, and Hydro-Par have been discontinued) is a diuretic drug prescribed to treat
- high blood pressure,
- edema caused by heart failure,
- chronic kidney failure,
- nephrotic syndrome, and
- corticosteroid medications.
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- chlorthalidone, Thalitone (Hygroton discontinued brand in USA)
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Top hydrochlorothiazide Related ArticlesComplete List
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Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) OverviewCongestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathies are just a few potential causes of congestive heart failure. Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure may include fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, angina, and edema. Physical examination, patient history, blood tests, and imaging tests are used to diagnose congestive heart failure. Treatment of heart failure consists of lifestyle modification and taking medications to decrease fluid in the body and ease the strain on the heart. The prognosis of a patient with congestive heart failure depends on the stage of the heart failure and the overall condition of the individual.
Edema is the swelling of tissues as a result of excess water accumulation. Peripheral edema occurs in the feet and legs. There are two types of edema, non-pitting edema and pitting edema. Causes of pitting edema is caused by systemic diseases (most commonly involving the heart, liver, and kidneys), and medications. Local conditions that cause edema are thrombophlebitis and varicose veins. Edema or swelling of the legs, feet, ankles, and face are common during pregnancy. Idiopathic edema is edema in which the cause is not known. Pitting edema is scored on pitting edema measurement scales. Edema is generally treated with medication.
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ParathyroidectomyParathyroidectomy is the removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands to treat hyperparathyroidism. Risks of parathyroidectomy include:
- paralysis of the vocal cords,
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- difficulty breathing,
- and drug reactions.
- damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve,
- bleeding or hematoma,
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- need for further and more aggressive surgery,
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