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- What is hyaluronate-injection, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for hyaluronate-injection?
- Is hyaluronate-injection available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for hyaluronate-injection?
- What are the side effects of hyaluronate-injection?
- What is the dosage for hyaluronate-injection?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with hyaluronate-injection?
- Is hyaluronate-injection safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about hyaluronate-injection?
What is hyaluronate-injection, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Hyaluronic acid is a natural chemical that is found in almost all species of animal and in various parts of the human body. It works as a biological lubricant, reducing friction between adjacent tissues. It is present in high amounts in joints and synovial fluid (the fluid that fills the knee joint).
Sodium hyaluronate is used for the treatment of pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee in patients who do not get adequate relief from simple pain medicines or from exercise and physical therapy. It is administered by injection directly into the knee joint (intra-articular injection).
The exact mechanism by which sodium hyaluronate products work is not known. The synovial fluid in the knees helps lubricate and cushion our joints during movement. Sodium hyaluronate is the major component in the synovial fluid. People with osteoarthritis do not have enough hyaluronic acid in their synovial fluid. It is thought that sodium hyaluronate injection helps restore synovial fluid, thereby reducing some of the pain and discomfort associated with osteoarthritis.
The first sodium hyaluronate injection was approved in the US in 1997.
What are the side effects of hyaluronate-injection?
Common side effects include:
- Pain at the injection site
- Swelling of the knee
- Upset stomach
Other reported side effects include:
- Increased blood pressure
- Feeling sick
Quick GuideOsteoarthritis (OA): Treatment, Symptoms, Diagnosis
What is the dosage for hyaluronate-injection?
Sodium hyaluronate is administered into the knee joint (intra-articular injection) once a week for a total of 3-5 injections. 20 mg (Euflexxa, Hyalgan) or 25 mg (Supartz) should be injected into the affected knee once weekly.
Is hyaluronate-injection safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
It is not known whether sodium hyaluronate is safe to use during pregnancy because it has not been evaluated in pregnant women.
NURSING MOTHERS: It is not known if sodium hyaluronate can enter human milk. The safety and effectiveness of sodium hyaluronate has not been established in nursing mothers.
What else should I know about hyaluronate-injection?
What preparations of hyaluronate-injection are available?
Solution for injection into the knee joint (intra-articular injection): 10 mg/ml or 15 mg/ml
How should I keep hyaluronate-injection stored?
Sodium hyaluronate should be stored in the original packaging below 25 C (77 F). It should be protected from light.
REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information
Quick GuideOsteoarthritis (OA): Treatment, Symptoms, Diagnosis
Sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) intra-articular injection (Hyalgan, Supartz, Euflexxa, Orthovisc) is a prescription medication used to treat knee pain from osteoarthritis in patients who do not receive proper relief from simple pain medications like acetaminophen (Tylenol and others). Side effects, drug interactions, dosing, storage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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Acetaminophen is a drug that reduces fever and relieves pain. It is available alone, or in combination with hundreds of other drugs available both over-the-counter (without a prescription) or that that may require a prescription from your doctor, for example, acetaminophen and hydrocodone (Vicodin, Norco) or acetaminophen and oxycodone (Percocet). Acetaminophen treats a variety of diseases or other medical problems that cause pain or fever. Examples of conditions acetaminophen treats include:
- Back pain
- Minor arthritis pain
- Tooth pain
- Menstrual cramps
- Common cold
- Tension headache
- Chronic pain
- Hip pain
- Shoulder and neck pain
- Sore throat
- Sinus infection
- Bug bites and stings
- Sprains and strains
Acetaminophen generally has no side effects when taken as prescribed. When side effects are experienced, the most common are headache, rash, and nausea.
In 2014, the FDA recommended that doctors and other health care professionals only prescribe acetaminophen in doses of 325 mg or less. This warning highlights the potential for allergic reactions, for example, face, mouth, and throat swelling, difficulty breathing, itching, or rash. This action also will help reduce the risk of severe liver injury and serious allergic reactions associated with this drug. Other possible serious side effects adverse effects include:
- Kidney damage
- Thrombocytopenia (a reduced number of platelets in the blood)
- Liver problems
Other patient information.
- Do not take more than one product that contains acetaminophen at the same time.
- Do not take more than one acetaminophen-containing drug than directed.
- Do not drink alcohol while taking medicine that contains acetaminophen due to severe liver damage.
REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information.
Analgesics, AntipyreticsOver-the-counter pain medication and fever reducers include aspirin, acetaminophen and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, pregnancy and breastfeeding safety, and patient information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
ArthritisArthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, warmth, swelling, redness and pain. There are over 100 types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus, gout, and pseudogout.
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Knee Pain FactsAcute injuries, medical conditions, and chronic use conditions are causes of knee pain. Symptoms and signs that accompany knee pain include redness, swelling, difficulty walking, and locking of the knee. To diagnose knee pain, a physician will perform a physical exam and also may order X-rays, arthrocentesis, blood tests, or a CT scan or MRI. Treatment of knee pain depends upon the cause of the pain.
OsteoarthritisOsteoarthritis is a type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints. Also known as degenerative arthritis. Osteoarthritis can be caused by aging, heredity, and injury from trauma or disease.
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Daily Osteoarthritis CareOsteoarthritis joint pain can make it hard to carry out activities of daily living. Cartilage destruction can cause symptoms like pain, stiffness, and swelling. Treatment for the degenerative joint disease can make living with arthritis easier.
Osteoarthritis SlideshowOsteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease affecting both cartilage and bone. Joints most often affected by osteoarthritis include the knees, hands, back, or hips. Osteoarthritis symptoms include pain, swelling and joint inflammation.
Pain ManagementPain management and treatment can be simple or complex, according to its cause. There are two basic types of pain, nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain. Some causes of neuropathic pain include:
- complex regional pain syndrome,
- interstitial cystitis,
- and irritable bowel syndrome.
Torn MeniscusA torn meniscus (knee cartilage) may be caused by suddenly stopping, sharply twisting, or deep squatting or kneeling when lifting heavy weight. Symptoms of a meniscal tear include pain with running or walking long distances, popping when climbing stairs, a giving way sensation, locking, or swelling. Treatment depends upon the severity, location, and underlying disease of the knee joint.