Rheumatoid Arthritis
If not diagnosed early and appropriately treated, RA can lead to permanent deformities, disabilities, and complications.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease where patients suffer from frequent flare-ups of signs and symptoms and periods of remission (asymptomatic periods).

  • Initially, the small joints are affected, especially the joints of the fingers and toes.
  • As the disease progresses, other joints may be affected, like the wrists, knees, ankles, elbows, hips, and shoulders.

RA also presents with systemic signs and symptoms and other body systems may be affected in 40% of cases.

If not diagnosed early and appropriately treated, RA can lead to permanent deformities, disabilities, and serious systemic complications.

What is rheumatoid arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that typically affects the joints and other body parts, such as the skin, eyes, lungs, heart, and blood vessels.

RA is an autoimmune disorder, a condition where the body’s immune system attacks its own tissues.

Osteoarthritis occurs as a result of wear and tear of the joints. RA affects the lining of the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and swelling that eventually cause bone erosion and joint deformities. RA causes inflammation and damage in other parts of the body as well. Although new types of medications have improved treatment options dramatically, severe RA can still cause physical disabilities.

What are the symptoms rheumatoid arthritis?

Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the joints include the following:

Systemic signs and symptoms of RA include:


The term arthritis refers to stiffness in the joints. See Answer

What are the causes of rheumatoid arthritis?

Certain factors increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is an autoimmune disorder.

The common risk factors for RA include:

  • Sex: Women are at an increased risk compared to men.
  • Age: RA most commonly begins during middle age.
  • Family history: A positive family history increases the risk of the disease.
  • Smoking and other environmental exposures to asbestos or silica increase disease risk. 
  • Obesity: Excess weight, especially in women younger than55, increases disease risk.

What are the complications of rheumatoid arthritis?

  • Osteoporosis: Weakening of the bones, making them more prone to fractures.
  • Rheumatoid nodules: Firm bumps of tissue around the pressure points of joints, lungs, etc.
  • Sjögren's syndrome: A disorder that causes dryness in the eyes and mouth.
  • Infections: Systemic infections can occur because of the disease or medications.
  • Weight gain can occur.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome: Inflammation can compress the median nerve that runs from the forearm into the hand and fingers.
  • Cardiac (heart) complications: Pericarditis (inflammation of the outer covering of the heart) and myocarditis (inflammation of the heart) can occur.
  • Lung complications: Scarring of the lungs (fibrosis) causing breathing difficulty.
  • Lymphoma: RA increases the risk of lymphoma (blood cancers that develop in the lymph system).

How is rheumatoid arthritis treated?

There is no cure for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is a lifelong disease with multiple flare-ups and periods of remission (asymptomatic periods). There are various treatment options available to control the progression of the disease and prevent complications.

Treatment usually involves a combination of more than one modality, which may include:


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): NSAIDs can relieve pain and reduce inflammation.

  • Steroids: Corticosteroid medications suppress the immune system. They reduce inflammation and pain and delay joint damage. 
  • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs): These drugs are effective in the treatment of RA. They suppress inflammation and relieve symptoms. They can slow the progression and prevent joint deformities and systemic complications. Some commonly prescribed DMARDs are methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, and leflunomide (Arava).
  • Biological modifiers: These are a newer generation of DMARDs and they are usually taken with DMARDs. They suppress inflammation. Some commonly used biological agents are infliximab, rituximab, sarilumab, etc.

Physical therapy

Patients are usually referred for physical or occupational therapy to learn exercises for improving and maintaining joint flexibility and rehabilitation of joints. 


Surgical procedures may be performed to help restore joint function and anatomy and reduce pain. 


What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)? Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis See Slideshow

How can I prevent my rheumatoid arthritis from getting worse?

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be prevented from getting worse with early diagnosis and administering appropriate therapy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to treat RA because no two people experience the disease in the same manner. Figuring out the individualized optimum treatment regimen takes time and an extensive investigation.

  • Patients with untreated or undiagnosed RA are at a higher risk of joint deterioration, poorer long-term results, and cardiovascular disease.
  • It is crucial to pay attention to the body and be able to recognize a flare when it occurs, so the doctor can treat it as soon as possible with medication adjustments and advise self-management measures.

Certain lifestyle interventions may help keep the joints healthy and prevent flares, such as: 

  • Staying active
  • Maintaining ideal body weight
  • Managing stress with mindfulness and meditative techniques
  • Eating a diet rich in vitamins and minerals (calcium, polyphenols, and antioxidants)
  • Regular stretching exercises
  • Workplace ergonomics

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Medically Reviewed on 2/25/2022
Medscape Medical Reference

WebMD https://www.webmd.com/rheumatoid-arthritis/default.htm

WebMD. How to Prevent Rheumatoid Arthritis Flares. https://www.webmd.com/rheumatoid-arthritis/ra-prevent-flares

Versus Arthritis. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). https://www.versusarthritis.org/about-arthritis/conditions/rheumatoid-arthritis/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/rheumatoid-arthritis.html