- When to See a Doctor
- Diagnosis and Tests
What is whooping cough?
Whooping cough, also called pertussis, is a highly infectious disease that you may pass on without even knowing you have it. Once infected, it can take from three to six months to recover with treatment. With the proper treatment, most people recover and have no lasting effects.
In the 1930s and 1940s, whooping cough caused thousands of deaths. Today, there is a highly-effective whooping cough vaccine available that aims to prevent this disease from spreading. Even so, there’s a possibility that someone who is vaccinated may catch whooping cough if it’s spreading in their community.
Whooping cough is a bacterial infection of the lungs and breathing tubes. This infection spreads very easily from one person to the next and causes serious bouts of coughing. When you cough, you may make a “whooping” noise as you try to breathe, which is where this disease gets its name.
When you have pertussis, you have repeated coughing spells. These coughing spells make it hard to breathe, and you may even hurt your ribs from coughing so hard. Most commonly, people in North America get whooping cough in the summer months.
Symptoms of whooping cough
The first signs and symptoms of whooping cough are similar to those of the common cold. After a week or so, symptoms will progress in stages.
Stage 1 symptoms
In the beginning, the symptoms of whooping cough are very similar to having a cold. Some symptoms that you might experience are:
During this first stage, you may also feel tired or fatigued. These symptoms can last from a few days up to two weeks. It’s during this time that you are the most infectious and most likely to pass the disease on to someone else.
Doctors call this first stage the catarrhal phase. This begins about seven to ten days after you are infected with pertussis.
Stage 2 symptoms
After one or two weeks, you will notice that your cold-like symptoms will improve but that your coughing gets worse. The coughing spells go on for longer and make you cough harder. This is called the paroxysmal phase, since the intense bouts of coughing are called coughing paroxysm.
The cough changes from a light, dry cough to one that you can’t control. These coughing fits may cause you to cough for so long and hard that you feel like you can’t breathe or you might vomit after. These coughing bouts may tire you out and last for several minutes at a time.
A sign that you’re in this phase is the whooping sound at the end of the cough. You may experience several coughing fits throughout the day, including a few within the same hour.
Your coughing may be more intense at nighttime. However, you may feel completely normal between coughing fits with no other symptoms of whooping cough present. Typically, this phase of coughing spells can last from two to four weeks, but it may be longer.
Stage 3 symptoms
As you move into the third stage, you’ll notice that you still have symptoms of whooping cough but that you start to feel better overall. This stage is called the convalescent phase.
At this point, your cough may actually get louder, but the coughing fits are more sporadic. These coughing fits can continue for several more weeks, especially if you don’t have the pertussis vaccine. If you get a cold or other infection in the coming months, your coughing fits will likely spike again.
Causes of whooping cough
Pertussis is an infection of the respiratory system caused by the Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) bacterium. It’s passed when someone with the infection releases tiny droplets or vapors of fluid into the air by sneezing, coughing, or laughing. These droplets can then travel to another person by breathing them in through the mouth or nose, or by contact on the face or hands.
Symptoms of whooping cough usually don’t appear until one or two weeks after you’ve already been infected.
People of all ages can get whooping cough, but babies under six months old, who are too young to get the vaccine, are affected the most. Kids between 11-18 are also affected if their immunity starts to wear off.
When to see the doctor for whooping cough
Whooping cough can be very serious. If your baby is showing symptoms, it's important to seek immediate care to begin treatment. Pertussis can be fatal in babies under three months.
If you suspect that you or your child have whooping cough, you need to seek treatment. Without proper care or treatment, whooping cough can lead to problems like:
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Diagnosis and tests for whooping cough
Your doctor will give you a physical exam and ask you about your medical history. After talking about your symptoms, your doctor will take a mucus sample from your nose to confirm if you have whooping cough. Your doctor may also order blood tests or a chest X-ray to further confirm.
Treatments for whooping cough
The course of treatment for whooping cough depends on factors like age and how long you’ve had the infection. Since pertussis is an infection, antibiotics are the most effective way to prevent any further spreading of the bacteria. Antibiotics also help you to recover faster.
If you have a severe case of whooping cough, you may need to stay in the hospital for treatment. Babies and young children are usually hospitalized to monitor their symptoms and care.
While you’re recovering, it’s important to take good care of yourself at home to keep healthy and fight off the infection. You should make sure to drink plenty of fluids and eat small, frequent meals. You should also try to avoid anything that may further cause coughing fits.
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Johns Hopkins Medicine: "Whooping Cough (Pertussis) in Adults."
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Michigan Medicine: "Whooping Cough (Pertussis)."
National Health Service: "Whooping cough."
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Chronic CoughChronic cough is a cough that does not go away and is generally a symptom of another disorder such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, sinus infection, cigarette smoking, GERD, postnasal drip, bronchitis, pneumonia, medications, and less frequently tumors or other lung disease.
Chronic cough treatment is based on the cause, but may be soothed natural and home remedies.
Cold and Cough Medicine for Infants and Children
The safety of giving infants and children over-the-counter (OTC) cold and cough medicine is important for caregivers to understand. While there is no "gold standard" recommendation for giving infants and children OTC cold and cough medicine for fever, aches, cough, and runny nose, a few standards have been recommended.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that OTC cold and cough medicine only be used in children age four years and older.
The American College of Chest Physicians recommend that these medicines only be used in children age 15 years and older.
The FDA recommends that OTC cold and cough medicine be used in children 2 years of age and older.
However, there is agreement in regard to which OTC medications should not be used in children under the age of four (or the age of two, depending upon which guidelines are used), and they are 1) certain antihistamines like brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine maleate, and diphenhydramine (Benadryl); 2) cough expectorants (guaifenesin); 3) cough suppressants (dextromethorphan, DM); and 4) decongestants (pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine).
Aspirin should never be given to infants, children, and adolescents due to the possibility of a rare, but often severe and even fatal illness called Reye's syndrome.
FDA. "Most Young Children with a Cough or Cold Don't Need Medicines." July 18, 2017.
FDA. "Use Caution When Giving Cough and Cold Products to Kids." Updated: Nov 04, 2016.
Cough Remedies and CausesRemedies for coughing to relieve symptoms, thin mucus, and clear phlegm include cough syrup and honey in hot water. Use suppressants to treat a dry cough. See a doctor when home remedies are not enough. Bronchitis or another condition may be to blame.
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How Can I Stop My Child From Coughing?Treatment for cough is not recommended unless the cough interferes with the child’s sleep or activity or is accompanied by a fever. Different age groups of children require different therapies to stop them from coughing. Some good home remedies to treat cough in children include honey, warm milk, hydration, steam inhalation, resting, saline nose drops and other strategies.
Cough: 19 Tips on How to Stop a CoughCoughing is a reflex that helps a person clear their airways of irritants. There are many causes of an excessive or severe cough including irritants like cigarette and secondhand smoke, pollution, air fresheners, medications like beta blockers and ACE inhibitors, the common cold, GERD, lung cancer, and heart disease.Natural and home remedies to help cure and soothe a cough include stay hydrated, gargle saltwater, use cough drops or lozenges, use herbs and supplements like ginger, mint, licorice, and slippery elm, and don't smoke. Over-the-counter products (OTC)to cure and soothe a cough include cough suppressants and expectorants, and anti-reflux drugs. Prescription drugs that help cure a cough include narcotic medications, antibiotics, inhaled steroids, and anti-reflux drugs like proton pump inhibitors or PPIs, for example, omeprazole (Prilosec), rabeprazole (Aciphex), and pantoprazole (Protonix).
Is a Cough Contagious?There are many types of coughs: for example, dry cough, wet cough, a barking cough, whooping cough, stress induced cough, acute cough, and chronic cough. Cough is a symptom of an underlying condition or disease. Treatment of cough as a symptom is generally with OTC lozenges and liquids. The cause of the cough will be necessary to treat.
Is Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Contagious?Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis is characterized by severe coughing fits and whooping sound produced during inhalation. The bacteria spreads via airborne droplets produced during sneezing or coughing. There is a whooping cough vaccine that is typically administered during childhood vaccinations.
Whooping Cough (Pertussis)Whooping cough (pertussis) is highly contagious respiratory infection that is caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis. There are an estimated 300,000 plus deaths annually from whooping cough (pertussis). Whooping cough commonly affects infants and young children but can be prevented with immunization with the vaccine. First stage whooping cough symptoms are a runny nose, sneezing, low-grade fever, a mild cough with the cough gradually becoming more severe. After one to two weeks, the second stage of whooping cough begins.
Whooping CoughWhooping cough (bordetella pertussis) is a highly contagious bacterial infection. Read how vaccines and antibiotics could prevent whooping cough. Learn about the symptoms, causes, and treatment of whooping cough.
What Can I Do for My Baby’s Cough?Cough can cause significant discomfort to a baby. The baby may also have difficulty relaxing and sleeping. Numerous illnesses can cause cough as a primary symptom. Coughing is the result of the baby’s airway being affected or irritated.
What Is the Best Treatment for Whooping Cough?Learn what medical treatments can help ease your whooping cough symptoms and speed up your recovery.
What Is the Fastest Way To Cure a Cough?Learn what medical treatments can help ease your cough symptoms and speed up your recovery.
Cold, Flu, and Cough: Why Do I Have the Chills Other Than Fever?Chills and fever often come as a combo, but sometimes chills happen with a normal temperature. Find out what could be behind these types of shivers.