What are the 4 different types of thyroid surgery?
It is attached to the deeper neck structures (trachea and voice box) and elevates when we swallow.
Thyroid surgery is major surgery. The extent of invasive surgery you require depends on the abnormality of the thyroid gland you are diagnosed with. Your surgeon will make this decision depending on your age, illness, overall health condition, and the outlook of the procedure. Most doctors will consider minimally invasive surgery, which involves a smaller cut over the neck. A few conditions might need a complete resection of the thyroid and the surrounding structures.
Conventional open thyroidectomy is a standard procedure that includes a collar incision of a few centimeters depending on the indication. For thyroid tumors, which are smaller than 3 cm, a minimally invasive technique could be an option. The approach to the thyroid gland can be cervical (MIVAT or minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy) or extra cervical (axillary approach, chest approach, or clavicular approach). Usually, these procedures need special imaging equipment and instruments.
Types of thyroid surgery include:
- Total thyroidectomy: It means complete removal of all thyroid tissue from both thyroid beds, including tracheal attachments. Total thyroidectomy is usually preferred in cases of thyroid cancers with multiple nodules.
- Subtotal thyroidectomy: The surgeon preserves a part of the thyroid gland at the area of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, thereby decreasing the risk of nerve injury. This procedure may leave a small portion of the thyroid gland that could have thyroid cancer within it. The subtotal thyroidectomy is generally not used for thyroid cancer treatment, but for the removal of an enlarged thyroid gland that does not have cancer within it.
- Hemithyroidectomy or thyroid lobectomy: This procedure does not remove one lobe or side of the thyroid that does not have any mass or tumor in it. It also spares the small tongue-shaped portion in the middle of the gland between the two sides of the thyroid. The advantage of hemithyroidectomy is that half of the thyroid gland remains; therefore, in most cases, the person will not need external thyroid hormones. Additionally, because the other side of the thyroid is untouched, there is no risk to the other recurrent laryngeal nerve or the other two parathyroid glands (we only need one functional parathyroid gland to survive). Hemithyroidectomy is mostly indicated for removing a large, one-sided, noncancerous mass or to confirm the nature of such mass under a microscope.
- Completion thyroidectomy: It is done when the cancer recurs in a patient who has previously undergone a hemithyroidectomy. The surgeon removes the rest of the thyroid gland to complete the thyroidectomy. This surgery may be particularly more challenging because of the dense scarring due to the first surgery (hemithyroidectomy).
A total or partial thyroidectomy can be a challenging procedure due to the complex anatomy of the gland, the limited space in the cervical area, and the surrounding structures, such as nerves (e.g., recurrent laryngeal nerve), blood vessels, and several muscle layers. There is a risk of intra- and post-operative bleeding or vocal-nerve damage. In particular, damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve can result in paralysis of the vocal cords. Anatomical variations of the thyroid gland and the way it is attached to the surrounding tissue due to the disease could also present challenges during surgery.
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American Thyroid Association. Thyroid Surgery. https://www.thyroid.org/thyroid-surgery/
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Common Medical Abbreviations & Terms
Doctors, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals use abbreviations, acronyms, and other terminology for instructions and information in regard to a patient's health condition, prescription drugs they are to take, or medical procedures that have been ordered. There is no approved this list of common medical abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology used by doctors and other health- care professionals. You can use this list of medical abbreviations and acronyms written by our doctors the next time you can't understand what is on your prescription package, blood test results, or medical procedure orders. Examples include:
- ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease.
- ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure
- cap: Capsule.
- CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. A treatment for sleep apnea.
- DJD: Degenerative joint disease. Another term for osteoarthritis.
- DM: Diabetes mellitus. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
- HA: Headache
- IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
- JT: Joint
- N/V: Nausea or vomiting.
- p.o.: By mouth. From the Latin terminology per os.
- q.i.d.: Four times daily. As in taking a medicine four times daily.
- RA: Rheumatoid arthritis
- SOB: Shortness of breath.
- T: Temperature. Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
cryoprecipitateCryoprecipitate is a blood product containing specialized insoluble blood proteins known as coagulation factors that regulate the clotting and clot-dissolving processes. Cryoprecipitate is obtained from plasma, the fluid component of blood, and is used to treat patients with blood clotting (coagulation) disorders and to control hemorrhage during major surgery or during and after childbirth. Common side effects of cryoprecipitate include transfusion-related complications, allergic reactions, and post-transfusion bruising (purpura).
dextranDextran is a prescription medication used to treat hypovolemia (decreased volume of circulatory plasma blood) resulting from surgery, trauma, severe burns, or other causes of bleeding. Dextran may be used alone or with other medications. Common side effects of dextran include mild itching, rash, body aches, numbness or tingly feeling, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea, mild dizziness, weakness, low fever, and brown discoloration of your skin. Do not take if breastfeeding.
glandular productsGlandular products are nutritional supplements used to enhance the function or mimic the effect of an organ. Glandular products can be used to treat hypothyroidism, low adrenal function, autoimmune disorders, adrenocortical insufficiency, hyperkalemia, ulcerative colitis, liver disorders, vascular insufficiencies, pancreatic disorders, and others. Common side effects of glandular products include allergic reactions, hyperthyroidism symptoms, iron overload, infection, and others.
hetastarchHetastarch, with the chemical name of hydroxyethyl starch, is a starch derived from corn, used to increase the fluid volume of blood when other adequate treatments are not available. Do not use hetastarch in the following conditions severe congestive heart failure (CHF), severe bleeding disorders, and severe kidney failure. Common side effects of hetastarch include hypersensitivity reactions, circulatory overload, congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, intracranial bleeding, and others.
iodineIodine is a trace mineral used by the body to produce thyroid hormones. Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) produced by the thyroid gland. Excessive iodine may lead to reduced thyroid function (hypothyroidism) by feedback inhibition of thyroid hormone production and conversion of triiodothyronine (T3) to less active thyroxine (T4). Common side effects of iodine include metallic taste, fever, thyroid suppression, headache, joint pain (arthralgia), diarrhea, acne (high dose), hives (urticaria), fluid in lungs (pulmonary edema), swelling of tissue under the skin and mucous membranes (angioedema), and high blood count of eosinophil immune cells (eosinophilia).
levothyroxineLevothyroxine is a synthetic form of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid), myxedema coma, pituitary TSH suppression, and organ preservation. Common side effects of levothyroxine may include fatigue, increased appetite, weight loss, heat intolerance, fever, excessive sweating, increase in pulse rate, increase in blood pressure, irregular heart rhythm (arrhythmia), palpitations, rapid heartbeat (tachycardia), chest pain (angina pectoris), congestive heart failure, heart attack (myocardial infarction), and others. Consult your doctor if pregnant or breastfeeding.
potassium iodidePotassium iodide is an oral medication that has been used for a long time as an expectorant to break up mucus and make it easier to cough up and eliminate phlegm. Potassium iodide is also used to inhibit thyroid hormone production in patients with an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) and thyrotoxicosis. Common side effects of potassium iodide include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, gastrointestinal irritation or bleeding, metallic taste, iodide poisoning syndrome (iodism), and others. Use of potassium iodide during pregnancy can cause fetal harm.
propofolPropofol is an intravenous anesthetic drug used for general anesthesia and sedation during surgical procedures. Common side effects of propofol include injection site burning, stinging or pain; low blood pressure (hypotension), reduced cardiac output, elevated blood pressure (hypertension), pause in breathing (apnea), lung impairment (respiratory acidosis), impaired movement, high level of emulsified fats in the blood (hyperlipidemia), and high triglyceride level in blood (hypertriglyceridemia). Abuse of propofol can cause death and other injuries.
Propylthiouracil (PTU)Propylthiouracil (PTU) is a medication prescribed to manage hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease. The most common side effects are related to the skin, such as rash, itching, hives, abnormal hair loss, and skin pigmentation. Since methimazole is associated with fetal abnormalities, PTU is used during the first trimester if an antithyroid drug is needed. PTU is excreted in breast milk in small amounts.
succinylcholineSuccinylcholine is a skeletal muscle relaxant used for medical procedures done under general anesthesia, including tracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, and surgeries. Common side effects of succinylcholine include postoperative muscle pain, jaw rigidity, muscle twitch (fasciculation), respiratory depression, cessation of breathing (apnea), low or high blood pressure (hypotension or hypertension), irregular heart rhythms (cardiac arrhythmias), slow or rapid heartbeat (bradycardia or tachycardia), cardiac arrest, increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), high blood potassium levels (hyperkalemia), severe life-threatening drug reaction with excessively high temperature (malignant hyperthermia), salivary gland enlargement, excessive salivation, rash, hypersensitivity reactions, and others.
thyroid desiccatedThyroid desiccated is a dried form of thyroid, a naturally occurring hormone, used for replacement or supplemental therapy in people deficient in thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism). Common side effects of thyroid desiccated include chest pain, palpitations, irregular heart rhythm (cardiac arrhythmia), high heart rate (tachycardia), shortness of breath (dyspnea), abdominal cramps, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, weight loss, increased appetite, excessive sweating (diaphoresis), hair loss (alopecia), fever, headache, heat intolerance, muscle pain (myalgia), cramps, impaired balance/coordination/speech (ataxia), tremor, and others. Consult your doctor if pregnant or breastfeeding.
Thyroid Disorders Symptoms and SignsThyroid diseases and disorders are caused because the body either makes too much or too little thyroid hormones, which are necessary for vital functions of the body.
Thyroid disease and disorder symptoms and signs depend on the type of the thyroid problem. Examples include heat or cold intolerance, sweating, weight loss or gain, palpitations, fatigue, dry skin, constipation, brittle hair, joint aches and pains, heart palpitations, edema, feeling bloated, puffiness in the face, reduced menstrual flow, changes in the frequency of bowel movements and habits, high cholesterol, hoarseness, brittle hair, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, a visible lump or swelling in the neck, tremors, memory problems, depression, nervousness, agitation, irritability, or poor concentration.
Thyroid problems are more common in women.
Your Thyroid: Common Thyroid Problems and Diseases ExplainedLearn about thyroid problems such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroid cancer, and more. Discover symptoms and treatments for various thyroid problems.
Thyroid QuizYour unexplained change in weight could indicate a thyroid condition. Take the Thyroid Quiz to learn about common symptoms and treatments of overactive and underactive thyroid disorders.
Thyroid ProblemsThe thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck. The thyroid gland produces important thyroid hormones, which are produced by the pituitary gland. There are six types of thyroid problems. Home remedies, medications, surgery, lifestyle changes, and surgery. Usually, most types of thyroid problems can be managed with home remedies, medications, lifestyle changes (diet, yoga), and surgery.