- Signs and Symptoms
- When to See a Doctor
What is bacterial vaginosis?
The body’s natural balance is important in keeping people with vaginas comfortable and healthy. Usually, the vagina has a balance of “good” and “bad” bacteria. When the balance is thrown off, you can get bacterial vaginosis, a vaginal infection also known as BV.
Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal infection. Nearly 30% of women in the U.S. will experience bacterial vaginosis at some point in their lifetime. Some women, however, are more likely than others to get bacterial vaginosis. These include:
- Women who are sexually active or who have multiple partners
- Women who douche
- Women of African ethnicity.
Bacterial vaginosis is usually mild, but it can have lasting impacts if the infection goes untreated for too long.
Recognizing the signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis is important for treating the infection and for ensuring you are diagnosing your infection correctly.
Signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis
Signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis vary. In fact, many women with bacterial vaginosis don’t even experience symptoms.
Bacterial vaginosis symptoms may include:
When you have bacterial vaginosis, you might notice a thin discharge (fluid) from your vagina. This discharge may be white, green, or gray, and it may be very watery.
Discharge from bacterial vaginosis may have a strong “fishy” smell. This smell may be strongest after sex, or during your period.
Itching is another less common symptom of bacterial vaginosis. A sore vagina is also possible.
Causes of bacterial vaginosis
Doctors believe that bacterial vaginosis is most often caused by an overgrowth of the bacteria G. vaginalis. When this bacteria outnumbers lactobacilli, “good” bacteria in the vagina, the acidity level of your vagina changes and infection can occur.
More research is needed as doctors are not completely sure how bacterial vaginosis is caused. However, there are several factors that can cause an imbalance of bacteria that may lead to bacterial vaginosis.
Sexual activity may increase your risk of getting bacterial vaginosis. While the infection is not sexually transmitted, people who have sex frequently or who have sex with multiple partners contract BV more frequently.
Some studies have shown that using a condom every time you have sex may help protect against BV.
Douching is cleaning the vagina with water or soap by spraying upward into the vagina. Douching can upset the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina, which can cause bacterial vaginosis.
Similar to douching, the use of a scented soap on your genitals may upset the natural pH of your vagina, leading to possible infection
When to see the doctor for bacterial vaginosis
Severe cases of bacterial vaginosis can create complications if left untreated. Bacterial vaginosis may increase your chance of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). These STDs can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can make it difficult to have children in the future.
If you’re pregnant and contract bacterial vaginosis, a premature birth becomes more likely.
It’s easy to confuse bacterial vaginosis with other infections, because many vaginal infections have similar symptoms. BV presents most similarly to yeast infections and trichomoniasis (an STD). If you are unsure whether you have bacterial vaginosis or another infection, go see your doctor.
Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis
Your doctor can diagnose bacterial vaginosis using four methods.
- When you have bacterial vaginosis, the pH (acidity level) of your vagina increases. Your doctor can measure the pH of your vagina.
- Your doctor can look to see if you have discharge typical of bacterial vaginosis.
- Your doctor can examine a discharge sample under a microscope to look for bacteria attached to your skin cells.
- Your doctor can perform a “whiff test” in which your doctor adds a chemical to the discharge and smells it to see if it has the characteristic “fishy” odor.
Treatments for bacterial vaginosis
Mild cases of bacterial vaginosis may go away on their own. In more severe cases of bacterial vaginosis, your doctor may recommend taking antibiotics.
Taking probiotics, live bacteria found in some foods and supplements, might help prevent future infections. Studies show that eating yogurt or probiotic supplements may treat bacterial vaginosis by balancing vaginal bacteria.
Latest Women's Health News
Daily Health News
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine: "Douching: a problem for adolescent girls and young women."
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: "Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)."
Cleveland Clinic: "Bacterial Vaginosis."
Cleveland Clinic: "Itching Down There Isn't Always a Yeast Infection."
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health: "Probiotics for the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis: A Meta-Analysis."
Journal of Applied Microbiology: "The Etiology of Bacterial Vaginosis."
Mayo Clinic: "Bacterial Vaginosis."
Top How Do You Get Bacterial Vaginosis Related Articles
9 Home Remedies for Vaginal Yeast InfectionVaginal yeast infection is also called vaginal candidiasis. It is caused when there is an overgrowth of a germ called Candida albicans that is a normal resident of the vagina.
Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition with signs and symptoms of vaginal discharge, vaginal odor, and vaginal pain. Bacterial vaginosis results from an overgrowth of normal bacteria in the vagina. Although it may cause some disturbing symptoms (discharge and odor), it is not dangerous and cannot be passed by sex. Diagnosis becomes important to exclude serious infections like gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Many treatment options are available such as oral antibiotics and vaginal gels.
Can Bacterial Vaginosis Clear Up on Its Own?Learn what medical treatments can ease your bacterial vaginosis symptoms and help you manage this condition.
What Is the Difference Between Vaginitis and Vaginosis?Learn the differences between vaginitis and vaginosis and how they are diagnosed and treated.
UTI SlideshowUrinary tract infections (UTI), including bladder infections, affect women and men, causing UTI symptoms like kidney infection. Read about UTI symptoms, treatment, causes, and home remedies.
Douching (Vaginal Douche)Women douche for a variety of reasons, however, doctors and other healthcare professional do not recommend douching. Douching can change the vaginal flora, and make women more prone to vaginal infections. Health problems linked to douching include sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and vaginal irritation.
Vaginal Health Quiz: Test Your Medical IQTake this Vaginal Health Quiz to learn about about common problems that women experience, and when to see a doctor about problems down there.
What To Know About Vaginal Discharge?Any fluid that comes from the vagina is called a vaginal discharge. Generally, some discharge from the vagina is a part of body secretions. A normal vaginal discharge is without foul smell and not accompanied with itching.
Yeast Infection vs. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)Yeast infections and bacterial vaginosis (BV) both cause vaginal discharge. Yeast infection discharge is thick, white, and had a cottage cheese consistency. BV discharge is whitish-gray and is thinner. Vaginal odor, irritation, and pain may also be present. Treatment of yeast infections includes over-the-counter and prescription antifungals. BV treatment involves antibiotics.