There are two ways a surrogate mother gets pregnant. In the first form, the surrogate mother’s egg cell is used to conceive the child. The sperm is donated by the male of the couple who opts for surrogacy.
In the other form, the surrogate mother only hosts the embryo. The embryo is created in the laboratory from the couple’s sperm and eggs.
This is a pregnancy where the surrogate is genetically related to the baby and becomes pregnant through artificial insemination. The sperms belong to the male of the couple.
When in vitro fertilization (IVF) is used either with the eggs of the intended mother or with donor eggs, the surrogate mother does not use her eggs and is genetically unrelated to the baby.
There are three stages to host surrogacy:
- Egg donation: The female intended parent or an egg donor undergoes special procedures to extract a few eggs.
- Fertilization: The eggs are fertilized with sperm in the laboratory, resulting in embryos.
- Embryo transfer: The embryo is transferred into the womb of the surrogate mother. It can be transferred to the surrogate either fresh or after having been de-frosted from storage.
- For a fresh embryo transfer, the cycles of the surrogate and the egg donor must be synchronized, and this is done using hormone medications.
- In cases where embryos have been frozen already and the de-frosted embryos are being transferred, the surrogate mother is provided with hormone medications to “ready” her womb lining.
A surrogate mother must meet all the clinical requirements to maximize her chances to get pregnant through in vitro fertilization (IVF) in as few attempts as possible, as well as have a healthy, uneventful pregnancy and undergo an uncomplicated delivery. Surrogates can be a person with a relationship to the intended parent(s), such as a close family member or friend. The surrogate should:
- Be a woman between the ages of 21 and 41 years.
- Have had at least one uncomplicated pregnancy and live birth.
- Have a positive outlook about being pregnant and is in an environment supportive of a surrogate pregnancy.
- Be of a reasonable weight and have healthy personal habits (non-smoker, non-drug user, healthy diet, and regular exercise).
What is surrogacy?
Surrogacy is an assisted reproductive treatment (ART) in which a woman (surrogate) carries a child in her uterus for another person. This is done when one is unable to carry a pregnancy themselves. For some women, using a surrogate is the only way of having a child. The reasons for choosing surrogacy could be:
- The female partner is unable or unwilling to deliver a baby safely.
- Any illness or a problem with the uterus.
- Surrogacy has become increasingly popular.
Surrogacy is usually recommended for patients who cannot carry the pregnancy to term due to:
- Advanced age
- Hysterectomy or uterus removed for any reason
- Small or abnormal uterus
- Repeated implantation failure or miscarriage
- Repeated IVF failure
- Any risk to life associated with pregnancy (heart disease, severe endometriosis, etc.)
- Surrogacy allows an individual or couple to have a biological child even if the female partner is unable to carry a pregnancy to term.
- Surrogacy also allows the intended parents to be involved in their child’s life from conception, unlike adoption.
- Many states recognize surrogacy contracts and establish parentage to the individuals who intended to create the pregnancy (the intended parents).
Risks of surrogacy:
- The process of IVF can result in multiple pregnancies (twins, triplets) if more than one embryo is transferred. The Loma Linda University Center for Fertility strongly recommends that patients going through IVF (including surrogates) do a single embryo transfer.
- Both the intended parents and the surrogate must be on the same page regarding multiple pregnancies. These are high-risk pregnancies and can have a negative effect on the surrogate’s daily life and income.
- Different states have different laws regarding legal and natural parentage in a surrogacy situation. Hiring legal counsel familiar with surrogacy contracts can help all parties navigate the legalities and ensure that all bases are covered.
- Another risk of surrogacy is that the surrogate may become attached to the pregnancy as if it is her own and desire to keep the baby. This is rarely ever a problem if the surrogate is found through an agency because proper legal procedures and contracts are integral parts of that process. If a carrier is a family member or friend, it is important to still follow proper legal protocol regarding surrogacy contracts.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Top How Do Surrogate Mothers Get Pregnant? Related Articles
What Are the Chances of Getting Pregnant at 45 or Older?Your chances of getting pregnant reduce as you progress in age. Find out the probability of conceiving after the age of 45.
Common Medical Abbreviations & Terms
Doctors, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals use abbreviations, acronyms, and other terminology for instructions and information in regard to a patient's health condition, prescription drugs they are to take, or medical procedures that have been ordered. There is no approved this list of common medical abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology used by doctors and other health- care professionals. You can use this list of medical abbreviations and acronyms written by our doctors the next time you can't understand what is on your prescription package, blood test results, or medical procedure orders. Examples include:
- ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease.
- ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure
- cap: Capsule.
- CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. A treatment for sleep apnea.
- DJD: Degenerative joint disease. Another term for osteoarthritis.
- DM: Diabetes mellitus. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
- HA: Headache
- IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
- JT: Joint
- N/V: Nausea or vomiting.
- p.o.: By mouth. From the Latin terminology per os.
- q.i.d.: Four times daily. As in taking a medicine four times daily.
- RA: Rheumatoid arthritis
- SOB: Shortness of breath.
- T: Temperature. Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
Ectopic Pregnancy (Tubal Pregnancy)
An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy located outside the inner lining of the uterus. The majority of ectopic pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tube. Signs and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy may include abdominal pain, lack of menstrual period (amenorrhea), vaginal bleeding, fainting, dizziness, and low blood pressure.
Treatment options for an ectopic pregnancy include observation, medication, or surgery.
How Can I Increase My Chances of Getting Pregnant with Twins?Do not leave having twins to chance. Increase the chances of getting pregnant with twins by getting pregnant in your 30s or later; finding a partner with a family history of twins; increasing your weight; breastfeeding regularly; consuming dairy products; and getting pregnant repeatedly.
magnesium sulfateMagnesium sulfate is a salt of magnesium, a naturally occurring mineral, used to prevent and treat convulsions (seizures) from preeclampsia and eclampsia (toxemia) in pregnant women. Magnesium sulfate is also used to treat certain heart rhythm disorders, magnesium deficiency, and acute kidney inflammation (nephritis) in children. Side effects include flushing, increased sweating, low blood pressure (hypotension), depressed/poor reflexes, flaccid paralysis, low core body temperature (hypothermia), circulatory collapse, depressed cardiac function, central nervous system (CNS) depression, respiratory paralysis, excess fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), extreme drowsiness, and others.
What Is the Oldest Age a Woman Can Get Pregnant Naturally?Fertility declines with age. Most women are not able to get pregnant between 5 and 10 years before menopause. Find out more about the many tests you can take to learn about your own fertility. Learn about what they are and how they are tested.
oxytocinOxytocin is a synthetic form of the natural human hormone oxytocin used to induce or improve uterine contractions during delivery and to prevent uncontrolled bleeding (hemorrhage) after the delivery. Common side effects of oxytocin include serious allergic reaction (anaphylactic reaction), premature ventricular contractions, postpartum hemorrhage, pelvic hematoma, irregular heart rhythms (cardiac arrhythmia), bleeding in the space between the brain and its membrane (subarachnoid hemorrhage), fatal afibrinogenemia, hypertensive episodes, nausea, vomiting, and rupture of the uterus. Oxytocin should not be used otherwise during pregnancy or when breastfeeding.
Pregnancy Planning (Tips)Pregnancy planning is an important step in preparation for starting or expanding a family. Planning for a pregnancy includes taking prenatal vitamins, eating healthy for you and your baby, disease prevention (for both parents and baby) to prevent birth defects and infections, avoiding certain medications that may be harmful to your baby, how much weight gain is healthy exercise safety and pregnancy, travel during pregnancy.
Stages of Pregnancy: Week by WeekSee pictures on the various stages of pregnancy. See and learn what changes a woman's body goes through and view fetal images of how her baby grows during the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters.