- The Immune System
- Antibodies and Antigens
- Antibodies and Immunoglobulins
- Active Antibodies
- Passive Antibodies
- Beyond the Immune System
The immune system
Antibodies are an integral part of your body’s immune system. There are different kinds of antibodies, but all are necessary to the immune system to fight foreign bacteria and viruses.
Your immune system is composed of organs, cells, and chemicals that all work together to fight infections that threaten your body. In addition to antibodies, important parts of the immune system include white blood cells, the complement system and the lymphatic system, the spleen, the thymus, and bone marrow.
Your immune system is extremely effective. By creating certain targeted, tailor-made white blood cells, it adapts, altering in response to every bacteria and virus you encounter. These changes allow the immune system to quickly defeat infections if they make their way into your body again. A strong immune system will destroy foreign threats before they can multiply and make you ill.
There are certain infections that you’ll fight over and over again because there are so many different versions of the virus. Illnesses like the flu and common cold come in many "models," each vulnerable to its own unique antibodies. So, when you catch the flu you don’t gain immunity against all the other versions of the flu.
The immune system can be overactive or underactive. Overactivity might look like an allergic or autoimmune disease. Underactivity, also known as immunodeficiency, can have genetic causes, can result from treatments like medications or chemotherapy, or can occur after contracting another disease.
Antibodies, antigens, and the immune system
Antibodies are proteins made by your immune system to try and protect you. Antibodies are created when your immune system reacts to toxins, pollen, and infectious organisms. Your body is constantly making antibodies, so it has a constant supply ready to fight thousands of different threats.
In the immune system, antibodies work against antigens. These are infections and the poisonous substances that they may produce. Antibodies react to antigens either on the surface of infected cells or in the substances they produce. Antibodies leave a mark that flags these cells as foreign and dangerous—this lets other antibodies know a foreign cell needs to be destroyed. The immune system's antibodies wipe out the infection, as well as other health-threatening cells, proteins, and chemicals.
Antibodies and immunoglobulins
Immunoglobulins function similarly to antibodies, but they’re proteins found in your blood, tissues, and other fluids. There are five main classes of immunoglobulins that work together to carry out immune responses. An immunoglobulin deficiency can be the result of any kind of disorder that weakens the immune system. When this occurs the immunoglobulins that typically fight bacteria will either be completely missing or present in reduced numbers.
Immunoglobulin therapy is used to help you if you’re unable to make enough on your own or if your natural immunoglobulins don’t function correctly. Speak with your healthcare provider to learn more about immunoglobulin therapy if you have an immune condition that might benefit from specialized attention.
Active immunization occurs when foreign molecules are introduced into your body and your immune system reacts by creating unique tailored antibodies specifically for this target. Vaccines create active antibodies by inserting a concentration of infectious cells into your body. Usually, vaccines are treated with heat or chemicals to leave the cells unable to actually make you sick. A vaccine is a sort of trick for training your immune system to recognize a disease without having to get sick first; it creates active antibodies for an infection, but there’s no real danger from the "infectious" cells.
This method works because active immunization happens naturally. Vaccines use the body's own natural defenses. Normally when you come into contact with new bacteria and your body doesn’t have any passive antibodies ready to defend you, your immune system will do what it’s meant to do. It develops new customized antibodies tailored exactly to defeat the new attacker. These new antibodies will be ready to respond next time this bacteria makes its way into your body. Vaccines introduce safe "stand-ins" for the real disease cells, allowing your immune system to develop antibodies without risking the real illness. Essentially vaccines train your immune system with "stunt doubles."
Passive immunization happens when pre-made antibodies are given to you so that your body doesn’t need to make them. Passive antibodies are fast-acting, but they don’t last long. They are broken down quickly, and there is no natural way to produce more to replace them. These kinds of antibodies are helpful when your immune system needs antibodies quickly after exposure to infection.
More than the immune system
In addition to antibodies and your immune system, your body has other defenses against foreign infections:
- Your skin. It provides a waterproof shield and makes oil that kills bacteria.
- Your lungs. Mucus, also known as phlegm, collects unfamiliar substances. Tiny hairs, also known as cilia, help push the mucus up so you can cough it out.
- Your digestive tract. It has a mucus lining that houses antibodies. The stomach’s acid kills many bacteria and viruses.
My-MS: "Immune Antibodies."
News Medical: "What is an Antibody?"
Top How Are Antibodies Produced Role in Immune System Related Articles
Can a Weak Immune System Cause Cancer?Your immune system plays a vital role in maintaining your health. Although some cancers are caused by genetic mutations, some other factors like old age and a weakened immune system can also play a significant role in causing the disease.
Can Immunity Be Measured?There are tests that can tell you if your system is producing the correct types of immune cells and if you have enough of them.
Cold, Flu, & Cough: Symptoms of Immune System ProblemsYour immune system is your main line of defense against infection and illness. Learn the warning signs that yours isn’t working the way it should.
Do Recovered COVID-19 Patients Have Antibodies?While antibodies have been found in people who recover from COVID-19, it’s unclear how long the immune response lasts. It’s important to continue following public health guidelines to protect yourself from reinfection.
efgartigimod alfa-fcab (Vyvgart)Vyvgart efgartigimod alfa-fcab injection is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of the autoimmune neuromuscular disease Myasthenia gravis (gMG) in adults who test positive for the antiacetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody. Serious side effects of Vyvgart include hives, difficulty breathing, swelling of your face/lips/tongue/throat, severe dizziness, fever, and sore throat.
16 Immune Boosting FoodsHelp fight colds, flu, as well as viruses like coronavirus with foods that boost and improve your immune system. Reach for bright-colored antioxidant and vitamin-rich fruits and vegetables such berries, broccoli, garlic, ginger, tea and more for vibrant health.
Mono (Infectious Mononucleosis)Infectious mononucleosis is a virus infection in which there is an increase of white blood cells that are mononuclear (with a single nucleus) "Mono" and "kissing disease" are popular terms for this very common illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
Top 15 Immune System BoostersImmune system boosters include foods, supplements, and lifestyle habits to help you fight off infections. A healthy immune system benefits your body and boosts your defenses against viruses (coronavirus), bacteria, and other pathogens.
What Are the Different Autoimmune Disorders?An autoimmune disorder occurs when a person’s immune system mistakenly attacks their own body tissues such as the skin or joints considering them as foreign.
Cold and Flu: What Doctors Do to Boost Their Immune SystemsHow can you make your immune system stronger? Why not try what the pros try?