A hot flash is a feeling of warmth spreading over the body that is often most strongly felt in the head and neck regions. Hot flashes may be accompanied by perspiration or flushing and usually last from 30 seconds to several minutes. Although hot flashes are a characteristic symptom of perimenopause, rare tumors, and other medical conditions may sometimes also cause hot flashes. Taking certain medications, eating spicy foods, and the consumption of alcohol have also been associated with the occurrence of hot flashes.
Although the exact cause of hot flashes is not fully understood, hot flashes that occur in the perimenopause are thought to be due to a combination of hormonal and biochemical fluctuations brought on by declining estrogen levels. Hot flashes can often begin before the menstrual irregularities characteristic of menopause are even noticed. Up to 40% of regularly menstruating women in their 40s report having hot flashes. About 80% of women will be finished having hot flashes after five years, but sometimes they may persist for a longer time period. Hot flashes can sometimes be accompanied by night sweats (episodes of drenching sweats occurring at nighttime).
Hot flashes can also occur in men. Most commonly, they arise as a result of a dramatic drop in testosterone levels in men who have their testes surgically removed (as part of the treatment for prostate cancer) or who are taking medications that counteract the effects of testosterone.
Other causes of hot flashes
- Consumption of Capsaicin-Containing Foods (As in Hot Chili Peppers)
- Hot Weather or Overheated Environment
- Infection (Such as Tuberculosis)
- Medications (for Example, Antiestrogens and Some Antihypertensive Medications)
- Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Consumption
- Occult Malignancy
Pictures, Images, Illustrations & Quizzes
Low Testosterone (Low T) Quiz: Test Your IQ of Men's Conditions
What are symptoms of low testosterone (low T)? Take this quiz to learn more about causes of low testosterone and how to treat it.
Low Testosterone (Low T) Treatments
What causes low testosterone (low T)? Learn about low testosterone symptoms in men. Discover low testosterone treatment and the...
Menopause & Perimenopause: Symptoms, Signs
What is menopause? What are the signs of menopause? What age does menopause start? Learn about menopause and perimenopause...
Menopause Quiz: Symptoms & Signs
The Menopause Quiz challenges your knowledge about the time in a woman’s life when menstruation ceases. Menopause can bring many...
Women's Health: 10 Tips to Ease Menopause Symptoms
What happens during menopause? At what age do menopause symptoms start? Women in their 40s or 50s may begin to have hot flashes,...
Causes of Hot Flashes
Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse
Alcoholism is a disease that includes alcohol craving and continued drinking despite repeated alcohol-related problems, such as losing a job or getting into trouble with the law. It can cause myriad health problems, including cirrhosis of the liver, birth defects, heart disease, stroke, psychological problems, and dementia. Counseling and a few medications can be effective for alcoholism treatment.
Carcinoid Syndrome (Tumor)
A carcinoid tumor is a tumor that develops from enterochromaffin cells. The important characteristic of carcinoid tumors that sets them apart from other gastrointestinal tract tumors, is their potential to cause the carcinoid syndrome. Local symptoms may include abdominal pain, intestinal bleeding, flushing., gastrointestinal bleeding, and diarrhea. Often, symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome can be more devastating than the local symptoms. There are many options for the treatment of carcinoid tumors and carcinoid syndrome.
Hyperthyroidism is an excess of thyroid hormone due to an overactive thyroid gland. Symptoms can include increased heart rate, weight loss, heart palpitations, frequent bowel movements, depression, fatigue, fine or brittle hair, sleep problems, thinning skin, and irregular vaginal bleeding. Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Many other health problems or taking excess thyroid hormone medication can cause an overactive thyroid gland. Treatment for the condition is with medication, radioactive iodine, thyroid surgery (rarely), or reducing the dose of thyroid hormone. No diet has been shown to treat hyperthyroidism or its symptoms and signs.
Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland. Pheochromocytomas are quite rare and the vast majority of them are entirely benign. Only very rarely is a pheochromocytoma malignant. People with pheochromocytoma usually show these three symptoms headache, sweating, and heart palpitations (a fast heart beat) in association with markedly elevated blood pressure (hypertension).
Premature menopause is when menopause occurs in a woman before the age of 40. Causes of premature menopause include premature ovarian failure, treatments for cancer and other conditions, surgical removal of the ovaries, or chronic diseases of the pituitary or thyroid gland, or psychiatric disorders. Treatment is directed at menopausal symptoms.
Stress is a normal part of life, but chronic or severe stress can be harmful to your health. Learn what happens in your body when you are stressed and how you can manage your response.
What Are the Side Effects of Black Cohosh?
People in the US and Europe have used the herb black cohosh since ancient times for a variety of illnesses ranging from cough and cold to infertility. Side effects of black cohosh may include gastrointestinal upset, skin rash, breast pain, brain enlargement, infection, vaginal bleeding/spotting, joint or muscle pain and infection.
What Happens During Menopause?
Menopause is the time in a woman's life when menstrual periods permanently stop, also called the "change of life." Menopause symptoms and signs include hot flashes, night sweats, irregular vaginal bleeding, vaginal dryness, painful intercourse, urinary incontinence, weight gain, and emotional symptoms such as mood swings. Treatment of menopausal symptoms varies and should be discussed with your physician.
Examples of Medications for Hot Flashes
- Bijuva (estradiol and progesterone)
- black cohosh - oral
- clonidine (Catapres, Catapres-TTS)
- conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate, Prempro, Premphase
- Conjugated Estrogens (Cenestin, Enjuvia, Estrace, and Others)
- ergotamine/belladonna/phenobarbital - oral, Bellergal-S
- estradiol, Alora, Climara, Delestrogen, Depo-Estradiol, Divigel, Elestrin, Estrace, and Others
- flibanserin (Addyi)
- gabapentin (Neurontin)
- paroxetine (Brisdelle)
- soy (glycine soya) - oral
- venlafaxine, Effexor XR (Effexor has been discontinued in the US)