Apis mellifera, Buckwheat Honey, Chestnut Honey, Clarified Honey, Honig, Jellybush Honey, Langnese Honey, Madhu, Manuka Honey, Medihoney, Mel, Miel, Miel Blanc, Miel Clarifié, Miel de Châtaignier, Miel de Manuka, Miel de Sarrasin, Miel Filtré, Purified Honey, Strained Honey, Tualang Honey.
Honey is a substance produced by bees from the nectar of plants. It is commonly used as a sweetener in food. It may also be used as a medicine.
Honey can become contaminated with germs from plants, bees, and dust during production, collection, and processing. Fortunately, there are characteristics of honey that prevent these germs from remaining alive or reproducing. However, some bacteria that reproduce using spores, such as the type that causes botulism, can remain. This explains why botulism has been reported in infants given honey by mouth. To solve this problem, medical-grade honey (Medihoney, for example) is irradiated to inactive the bacterial spores. Medical-grade honey is also standardized to have consistent germ-fighting activity. Some experts also suggest that medical-grade honey should be collected from hives that are free from germs and not treated with antibiotics, and that the nectar should be from plants that have not been treated with pesticides.
Honey is used for cough, diabetes, high levels of cholesterol, asthma, and hay fever. It is also used for diarrhea, ulcers in the mouth caused by cancer treatment, and stomach ulcers caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria. Honey is also used as a source of carbohydrate during vigorous exercise or in people who are malnourished. It may also be used orally for wound healing following the removal of tonsils.
Some people apply honey directly to the skin for wound healing, burns, diabetic foot ulcers, gangrene, and treating cataracts or clouding of the cornea in people who were infected by herpes virus. It is also applied to the skin for sunburns, to prevent infections that occur following the use of catheters, and to prevent the spread of cancer cells when a tumor is being removed. Honey is applied inside the mouth and then swallowed to prevent and treat mouth ulcers that occur during cancer treatment and to prevent infections of the gums. It may also be applied to the skin to reduce itching, to treat skin lesions that occur after infection with an organism called Leishmania, for hemorrhoids, and for herpes infections.
Topical use of honey has a long history. In fact, it is considered one of the oldest known wound dressings. Honey was used by the ancient Greek physician Dioscorides in 50 A.D. for sunburn and infected wounds. Honey's healing properties are mentioned in the Bible, Koran, and Torah.
Honey is used as a nasal spray for hay fever.
Honey is applied into the vagina to improve fertility.
In foods, honey is used as a sweetening agent.
In manufacturing, honey is used as a fragrance and a moisturizer in soaps and cosmetics.
Don't confuse honey with bee pollen, bee venom, and royal jelly.
How does it work?
Some of the chemicals in honey may kill certain bacteria and fungus. When applied to the skin, honey may serve as a barrier to moisture and keep skin from sticking to dressings. Honey may also provide nutrients and other chemicals that speed wound healing.
Possibly Effective for...
- Burns. Applying honey preparations directly to burns seems to improve healing.
- Cough. Taking a small amount of honey at bedtime appears to reduce the number of coughing spells in children age 2 years and older. Honey appears to be at least as effective as the cough suppressant dextromethorphan in typical over-the-counter doses. Also, drinking water containing a small amount of a honey/coffee paste seems to reduce the frequency of coughing in adults that have a long-lasting cough after they have been ill.
- Mouth sores due to radiation or chemical treatment (mucositis). Rinsing the mouth and then slowly swallowing honey before and after radiation therapy sessions seems to reduce the risk of developing mouth sores. Also, applying honey to mouth sores or taking a honey/coffee paste seems to help heal mouth ulcers caused by chemotherapy.
- Wound healing. Applying honey preparations directly to wounds or using dressings containing honey seems to improve healing. Several small studies describe the use of honey or honey-soaked dressings for various types of wounds, including wounds after surgery, chronic leg ulcers, abscesses, burns, abrasions, cuts, and places where skin was taken for grafting. Honey seems to reduce odors and pus, help clean the wound, reduce infection, reduce pain, and decrease time to healing. In some reports, wounds healed with honey after other treatments failed to work.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Hay fever. It is not clear if honey can help with symptoms of hay fever. Some early research shows that taking one tablespoon of honey daily, in addition to standard treatment, doesn't improve allergy symptoms. However, other early research shows that taking honey, in addition to standard treatment, might slightly improve certain symptoms such as itching in the nose and sneezing.
- Athletic performance. Early research suggests that honey might improve blood levels following exercise and improve performance when given during exercise.
- Infections caused by catheters used for kidney dialysis. Early research suggests that applying manuka honey (Medihoney by Medihoney Pty Ltd) to the exit sites of certain types of implanted hemodialysis catheters prevents infections from developing as effectively as certain antibiotics or antiseptics. However, other research suggests applying Manuka honey (Medihoney Antibacterial Wound Gel by Comvita) at the exit site does not reduce the occurrence of these infections. In fact, it might increase the risk of infection in people with diabetes.
- Diabetes. Some early research shows that eating large doses of honey each day can decrease cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes. But it also seems to increase HbA1c, a measure of average blood sugar levels. Other early research shows that ingesting smaller amounts of honey each day can decrease fasting blood sugar and cholesterol levels in people with type 1 diabetes.
- Diabetic foot ulcers. Unreliable reports and some early research suggests that applying raw honey to the skin can speed healing of otherwise non-healing diabetic foot ulcers. Also, applying dressings containing honey to diabetic foot ulcers seems to reduce healing time and prevent the need for antibiotics. However, other early research suggests that applying honey to the skin does not speed healing of diabetic foot ulcers. But it does seem to reduce pain.
- Fournier's gangrene. Early research has shown unclear results about the effects of honey dressings, when used with antibiotics, as a treatment for Fournier's gangrene.
- Gingivitis. Early research suggests that chewing "leather" made from manuka honey slightly reduces plaque and gum bleeding compared to sugarless chewing gum in people with gingivitis.
- Hemorrhoids. Early research suggests that applying a spoonful of a mixture containing honey, olive oil, and beeswax reduces bleeding and itching caused by hemorrhoids.
- Cold sores (herpes simplex). Early research suggests that applying a dressing soaked with honey four times daily improves symptoms and healing time of cold sores but not genital herpes..
- High cholesterol. Some early research shows that taking 75 grams of honey per day for 14 days lowers low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol in women with high cholesterol. But other early research shows that taking 70 grams of honey per day for 30 days does not lower cholesterol levels in people with normal or high cholesterol levels.
- "Stomach flu". Some research shows that adding honey to a solution given to treat dehydration helps decrease vomiting and diarrhea, and can improve recovery in children and infants with stomach flu. However, another study shows that adding honey to a solution used to treat dehydration decreases diarrhea in only infants and children with stomach flu caused by bacteria but not those with stomach flu caused by a virus or other parasite.
- Infertility. Early research suggests that applying a combination of Egyptian bee honey and royal jelly in the vagina increases pregnancy rates for couples having difficulty getting pregnant due to male infertility.
- Skin infection caused by parasites (Leishmania lesions). Early research suggests that covering sores with honey-soaked dressings twice daily for 6 weeks in addition to medication injections results in slower healing than medications alone.
- Poor nutrition. Early research suggests that honey improves weight and other symptoms in infants and children with poor nutrition.
- Itching (pruritus). Early research shows that applying a honey cream (Medihoney Barrier Cream by Derma Sciences Inc.) on the skin for 21 days can reduce itchy skin more than a zinc oxide ointment in people with skin irritation caused by rubbing.
- Skin damage due to radiation. Applying honey gauze once daily to severe skin wounds caused by radiation therapy does not improve healing compared to applying paraffin gauze.
- Sinus infection caused by allergy to fungus. Early research shows that using a nasal spray containing honey in salt water does not reduce symptoms in people with sinus infection caused by allergy to fungus.
- Breaking up thick mucus secretions.
- Digestive tract ulcers.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Honey is LIKELY SAFE for most adults and children over one year old when taken by mouth or when appropriately applied to the skin by adults.
Honey is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in infants and very young children. Do not use raw honey in infants and young children under 12 months of age due to the chance of botulism poisoning. This is not a danger for older children or adults.
Honey is LIKELY UNSAFE when it is produced from the nectar of Rhododendrons and taken by mouth. This type of honey contains a toxin that may cause heart problems, low blood pressure, chest pain, as well as other serious heart problems.
Diabetes: Using large amounts of honey might increase blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Also, applying honey at dialysis exit sites may increase the risk of infection in people with diabetes.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Honey might slow blood clotting. In theory, taking honey along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin; clopidogrel (Plavix); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others); dalteparin (Fragmin); enoxaparin (Lovenox); heparin; warfarin (Coumadin); and others.
Phenytoin (Dilantin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Honey might increase how much phenytoin (Dilantin) the body absorbs. Taking honey along with phenytoin (Dilantin) might increase the effects and side effects of phenytoin (Dilantin).
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Honey might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking honey along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of these medications. Before taking honey, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications changed by the liver include calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, nicardipine, verapamil), chemotherapeutic agents (etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine), antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole), glucocorticoids, cisapride (Propulsid), alfentanil (Alfenta), fentanyl (Sublimaze), losartan (Cozaar), fluoxetine (Prozac), midazolam (Versed), omeprazole (Prilosec), ondansetron (Zofran), propranolol (Inderal), fexofenadine (Allegra), and numerous others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For cough: 25 grams of a paste containing 20.8 grams of honey and 2.9 grams of coffee has been dissolved in 200 mL of warm water and drank every 8 hours.
- For the treatment of burns and wounds: Honey is applied directly or in a dressing or gauze. The dressings are usually changed every 24-48 hours, but are sometimes left in place for up to 25 days. The wound should be inspected every 2 days. When used directly, 15 mL to 30 mL of honey has been applied every 12-48 hours, and covered with sterile gauze and bandages or a polyurethane dressing.
- For sores in the mouth due to radiation or chemical treatment: Honey 20 mL has been rinsed around the mouth 15 minutes before radiation therapy, then 15 minutes and 6 hours after radiation or at bedtime, and then slowly swallowed or spit out. Honey has also been placed in the mouth in gauze and replaced daily. Also, a honey/coffee paste 10 mL or honey paste alone 10 mL, each containing 50% honey, has been rinsed around the mouth and swallowed every 3 hours.
- For cough: 2.5-10 mL (0.5-2 teaspoons) of honey at bedtime.
- For the treatment of wounds related to tonsil removal: 5 mL of honey taken every hour while awake for 14 days has been used in combination with antibiotics and acetaminophen.
- For sores in the mouth due to radiation or chemical treatment: Up to 15 grams of honey has been applied inside the mouth three times daily.
- For the treatment of abscess wounds: Honey soaked gauze has been packed into wounds twice daily until healing.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Abbey, E. L. and Rankin, J. W. Effect of ingesting a honey-sweetened beverage on soccer performance and exercise-induced cytokine response. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2009;19(6):659-672. View abstract.
Abenavoli, F. M. and Corelli, R. Honey therapy. Ann.Plast.Surg. 2004;52(6):627. View abstract.
Acton, C. Medihoney: a complete wound bed preparation product. Br J Nurs. 2008;17(11):S44, S46-S44, S48. View abstract.
Adesunkanmi, K. and Oyelami, O. A. The pattern and outcome of burn injuries at Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesha, Nigeria: a review of 156 cases. J Trop.Med Hyg. 1994;97(2):108-112. View abstract.
Ahmed, A. K., Hoekstra, M. J., Hage, J. J., and Karim, R. B. Honey-medicated dressing: transformation of an ancient remedy into modern therapy. Ann.Plast.Surg. 2003;50(2):143-147. View abstract.
Al Waili, N. Intrapulmonary administration of natural honey solution, hyperosmolar dextrose or hypoosmolar distill water to normal individuals and to patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension: their effects on blood glucose level, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure and peaked expiratory flow rate. Eur.J.Med.Res. 7-31-2003;8(7):295-303. View abstract.
Al Waili, N. S. and Saloom, K. Y. Effects of topical honey on post-operative wound infections due to gram positive and gram negative bacteria following caesarean sections and hysterectomies. Eur.J.Med.Res. 3-26-1999;4(3):126-130. View abstract.
Al Waili, N. S. Effects of daily consumption of honey solution on hematological indices and blood levels of minerals and enzymes in normal individuals. J.Med.Food 2003;6(2):135-140. View abstract.
Al Waili, N. S. Investigating the antimicrobial activity of natural honey and its effects on the pathogenic bacterial infections of surgical wounds and conjunctiva. J.Med.Food 2004;7(2):210-222. View abstract.
Al Waili, N. S. Therapeutic and prophylactic effects of crude honey on chronic seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff. Eur.J.Med.Res. 7-30-2001;6(7):306-308. View abstract.
Al-Waili, N. S. An alternative treatment for pityriasis versicolor, tinea cruris, tinea corporis and tinea faciei with topical application of honey, olive oil and beeswax mixture: an open pilot study. Complement Ther Med 2004;12(1):45-47. View abstract.
Al-Waili, N. S. Topical application of natural honey, beeswax and olive oil mixture for atopic dermatitis or psoriasis: partially controlled, single-blinded study. Complement Ther Med 2003;11(4):226-234. View abstract.
Al-Waili, N. S., Salom, K., Butler, G., and Al Ghamdi, A. A. Honey and microbial infections: a review supporting the use of honey for microbial control. J Med Food 2011;14(10):1079-1096. View abstract.
Al-Waili, N., Salom, K., and Al-Ghamdi, A. A. Honey for wound healing, ulcers, and burns; data supporting its use in clinical practice. ScientificWorldJournal. 2011;11:766-787. View abstract.
Aminu, S. R., Hassan, A. W., and Babayo, U. D. Another use of honey. Trop.Doct. 2000;30(4):250-251. View abstract.
Anderson, I. Honey dressings in wound care. Nurs.Times 5-30-2006;102(22):40-42. View abstract.
Anthimidou, E. and Mossialos, D. Antibacterial activity of Greek and Cypriot honeys against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in comparison to manuka honey. J Med Food 2013;16(1):42-47. View abstract.
Aparna, S., Srirangarajan, S., Malgi, V., Setlur, K. P., Shashidhar, R., Setty, S., and Thakur, S. A comparative evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of honey in vitro and antiplaque efficacy in a 4-day plaque regrowth model in vivo: preliminary results. J Periodontol. 2012;83(9):1116-1121. View abstract.
Armon, P. J. The use of honey in the treatment of infected wounds. Trop.Doct. 1980;10(2):91. View abstract.
Baghel, P. S., Shukla, S., Mathur, R. K., and Randa, R. A comparative study to evaluate the effect of honey dressing and silver sulfadiazene dressing on wound healing in burn patients. Indian J Plast.Surg. 2009;42(2):176-181. View abstract.
Banerjee, B. Topical honey application vs. acyclovir for the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex lesions. Med Sci Monit. 2006;12(9):LE18. View abstract.
Bangroo AK, Katri R, and Chauhan S. Honey dressing in pediatric burns. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2005;10:172-5.
Bardy, J., Slevin, N. J., Mais, K. L., and Molassiotis, A. A systematic review of honey uses and its potential value within oncology care. J Clin Nurs. 2008;17(19):2604-2623. View abstract.
Basualdo, C., Sgroy, V., Finola, M. S., and Marioli, J. M. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of honey from different provenance against bacteria usually isolated from skin wounds. Vet.Microbiol. 10-6-2007;124(3-4):375-381. View abstract.
Belcher, J. A review of medical-grade honey in wound care. Br J Nurs. 8-9-2012;21(15):S4, S6, S8-S4, S6, S9. View abstract.
Bell, S. G. The therapeutic use of honey. Neonatal Netw. 2007;26(4):247-251. View abstract.
Bergman, A., Yanai, J., Weiss, J., Bell, D., and David, M. P. Acceleration of wound healing by topical application of honey. An animal model. Am.J Surg. 1983;145(3):374-376. View abstract.
Biberoglu, K., Biberoglu, S., and Komsuoglu, B. Transient Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome during honey intoxication. Isr.J.Med.Sci. 1988;24(4-5):253-254. View abstract.
Biberoglu, S., Biberoglu, K., and Komsuoglu, B. Mad honey. JAMA 4-1-1988;259(13):1943. View abstract.
Biglari, B., vd Linden, P. H., Simon, A., Aytac, S., Gerner, H. J., and Moghaddam, A. Use of Medihoney as a non-surgical therapy for chronic pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2012;50(2):165-169. View abstract.
Bittmann, S., Luchter, E., Thiel, M., Kameda, G., Hanano, R., and Langler, A. Does honey have a role in paediatric wound management? Br J Nurs. 8-12-2010;19(15):S19-20, S22, S24. View abstract.
Bogdanov, S., Jurendic, T., Sieber, R., and Gallmann, P. Honey for nutrition and health: a review. J Am Coll Nutr 2008;27(6):677-689. View abstract.
Boukraa, L. and Sulaiman, S. A. Honey use in burn management: potentials and limitations. Forsch.Komplementmed. 2010;17(2):74-80. View abstract.
Cavanagh, D., Beazley, J., and Ostapowicz, F. Radical operation for carcinoma of the vulva. A new approach to wound healing. J Obstet.Gynaecol.Br Commonw. 1970;77(11):1037-1040. View abstract.
Ceyhan, N. and Ugur, A. Investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of honey. Riv.Biol. 2001;94(2):363-371. View abstract.
Chambers, J. Topical manuka honey for MRSA-contaminated skin ulcers. Palliat.Med 2006;20(5):557. View abstract.
Chang, J. and Cuellar, N. G. The use of honey for wound care management: a traditional remedy revisited. Home.Healthc.Nurse 2009;27(5):308-316. View abstract.
Cooper, J. Wound management following orbital exenteration surgery. Br J Nurs. 3-26-2009;18(6):S4, S6, S8, passim. View abstract.
Cooper, R. A., Molan, P. C., and Harding, K. G. The sensitivity to honey of Gram-positive cocci of clinical significance isolated from wounds. J.Appl.Microbiol. 2002;93(5):857-863. View abstract.
Cooper, R. Using honey to inhibit wound pathogens. Nurs.Times 1-22-2008;104(3):46, 48-46, 49. View abstract.
Cutting, K. F. Honey and contemporary wound care: an overview. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 2007;53(11):49-54. View abstract.
Davis, S. C. and Perez, R. Cosmeceuticals and natural products: wound healing. Clin Dermatol 2009;27(5):502-506. View abstract.
Deibert, P., Konig, D., Kloock, B., Groenefeld, M., and Berg, A. Glycaemic and insulinaemic properties of some German honey varieties. Eur.J Clin Nutr 2010;64(7):762-764. View abstract.
Dunford, C. E. and Hanano, R. Acceptability to patients of a honey dressing for non-healing venous leg ulcers. J.Wound.Care 2004;13(5):193-197. View abstract.
Eddy, J. J., Gideonsen, M. D., and Mack, G. P. Practical considerations of using topical honey for neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers: a review. WMJ. 2008;107(4):187-190. View abstract.
Elbagoury, E. F. and Rasmy, S. Antibacterial action of natural honey on anaerobic bacteroides. Egypt.Dent.J. 1993;39(1):381-386. View abstract.
Erejuwa, O. O., Sulaiman, S. A., and Wahab, M. S. Fructose might contribute to the hypoglycemic effect of honey. Molecules. 2012;17(2):1900-1915. View abstract.
Erejuwa, O. O., Sulaiman, S. A., and Wahab, M. S. Honey--a novel antidiabetic agent. Int J Biol.Sci 2012;8(6):913-934. View abstract.
Erejuwa, O. O., Sulaiman, S. A., and Wahab, M. S. Oligosaccharides might contribute to the antidiabetic effect of honey: a review of the literature. Molecules. 2011;17(1):248-266. View abstract.
Evans, H., Tuleu, C., and Sutcliffe, A. Is honey a well-evidenced alternative to over-the-counter cough medicines? J R.Soc Med 2010;103(5):164-165. View abstract.
Farouk A, Hassan T Kassif H Khalidi SA Mutawali I & Wadi M. Studies on sudanese bee honey: laboratory and clinical evaluation. 26, 161-168. International Journal of Crude Drug Research 1998;26:161-168.
Ganacias-Acuna, E. F. Active Leptospermum honey and negative pressure wound therapy for nonhealing postsurgical wounds. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 3-1-2010;56(3):10-12. View abstract.
Gethin, G. T., Cowman, S., and Conroy, R. M. The impact of Manuka honey dressings on the surface pH of chronic wounds. Int Wound.J 2008;5(2):185-194. View abstract.
Gray, M. and Weir, D. Prevention and treatment of moisture-associated skin damage (maceration) in the periwound skin. J Wound.Ostomy.Continence.Nurs. 2007;34(2):153-157. View abstract.
Gunduz, A., Turedi, S., Uzun, H., and Topbas, M. Mad honey poisoning. Am J Emerg.Med 2006;24(5):595-598. View abstract.
Hampton, S., Coulborn, A., Tadej, M., and Bree-Aslan, C. Using a superabsorbent dressing and antimicrobial for a venous ulcer. Br J Nurs. 8-11-2011;20(15):S38, S40-S38, S43. View abstract.
Heppermann, B. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: Best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Bet 3. Honey for the symptomatic relief of cough in children with upper respiratory tract infections. Emerg.Med J 2009;26(7):522-523. View abstract.
Ischayek, J. I. and Kern, M. US honeys varying in glucose and fructose content elicit similar glycemic indexes. J Am Diet.Assoc. 2006;106(8):1260-1262. View abstract.
Jaganathan, S. K. and Mandal, M. Antiproliferative effects of honey and of its polyphenols: a review. J Biomed.Biotechnol. 2009;2009:830616. View abstract.
Johnson, D. W., Clark, C., Isbel, N. M., Hawley, C. M., Beller, E., Cass, A., de, Zoysa J., McTaggart, S., Playford, G., Rosser, B., Thompson, C., and Snelling, P. The honeypot study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exit-site application of medihoney antibacterial wound gel for the prevention of catheter-associated infections in peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit.Dial.Int 2009;29(3):303-309. View abstract.
Jull, A. B., Rodgers, A., and Walker, N. Honey as a topical treatment for wounds. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(4):CD005083. View abstract.
Kajiwara, S., Gandhi, H., and Ustunol, Z. Effect of honey on the growth of and acid production by human intestinal Bifidobacterium spp.: an in vitro comparison with commercial oligosaccharides and inulin. J.Food Prot. 2002;65(1):214-218. View abstract.
Keast-Butler, J. Honey for necrotic malignant breast ulcers. Lancet 10-11-1980;2(8198):809. View abstract.
Kempf, M., Reinhard, A., and Beuerle, T. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey and pollen-legal regulation of PA levels in food and animal feed required. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2010;54(1):158-168. View abstract.
Khalil, M. I. and Sulaiman, S. A. The potential role of honey and its polyphenols in preventing heart diseases: a review. Afr.J Tradit.Complement Altern Med 2010;7(4):315-321. View abstract.
Knipping, S., Grunewald, B., and Hirt, R. [Medical honey in the treatment of wound-healing disorders in the head and neck area]. HNO 2012;60(9):830-836. View abstract.
Langemo, D. K., Hanson, D., Anderson, J., Thompson, P., and Hunter, S. Use of honey for wound healing. Adv.Skin Wound.Care 2009;22(3):113-118. View abstract.
Lay-flurrie, K. Honey in wound care: effects, clinical application and patient benefit. Br J Nurs. 2008;17(11):S30, S32-S30, S36. View abstract.
Lee, D. S., Sinno, S., and Khachemoune, A. Honey and wound healing: an overview. Am J Clin Dermatol 6-1-2011;12(3):181-190. View abstract.
Lee, G., Anand, S. C., and Rajendran, S. Are biopolymers potential deodourising agents in wound management? J Wound.Care 2009;18(7):290, 292-290, 295. View abstract.
Lloyd-Jones, M. Case study: treating an infected wound of unknown aetiology. Br J Community Nurs. 2012;Suppl:S25-S29. View abstract.
Lotfy, M., Badra, G., Burham, W., and Alenzi, F. Q. Combined use of honey, bee propolis and myrrh in healing a deep, infected wound in a patient with diabetes mellitus. Br J Biomed.Sci 2006;63(4):171-173. View abstract.
Lund-Nielsen, B., Adamsen, L., Gottrup, F., Rorth, M., Tolver, A., and Kolmos, H. J. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds--a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 2011;57(7):28-36. View abstract.
Majtan, J. and Majtan, V. Is manuka honey the best type of honey for wound care? J Hosp.Infect. 2010;74(3):305-306. View abstract.
Marshall C, Queen J & Manjooran J. Honey vs povidone iodine following toenail surgery. Wound UK Journal 2005;1:10-18.
Mashhood, AA Khan TA Sami AN. Honey compared with 1% silver sulfadiazine cream in the treatment of superficial and partial thickness burns. Journal of Pakistan Association of Dermatologists 2006;16(1):14-19.
McInerney, R. J. Honey--a remedy rediscovered. J.R.Soc.Med. 1990;83(2):127. View abstract.
Memon AR, Tahir SM Khushk IA Ali Memon G. Therapeutic effects of honey vs. silver sulfadiazine in the management of burn injuries. Journal of Liaquat University Medicine and Health Sciences 2005;4(3):100-104.
Moghazy, A. M., Shams, M. E., Adly, O. A., Abbas, A. H., El-Badawy, M. A., Elsakka, D. M., Hassan, S. A., Abdelmohsen, W. S., Ali, O. S., and Mohamed, B. A. The clinical and cost effectiveness of bee honey dressing in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;89(3):276-281. View abstract.
Molan, P. C. Re-introducing honey in the management of wounds and ulcers - theory and practice. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 2002;48(11):28-40. View abstract.
Mphande, A. N., Killowe, C., Phalira, S., Jones, H. W., and Harrison, W. J. Effects of honey and sugar dressings on wound healing. J Wound.Care 2007;16(7):317-319. View abstract.
Mulholland, S. and Chang, A. B. Honey and lozenges for children with non-specific cough. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;(2):CD007523. View abstract.
Mutjaba Quadri KH. Manuka honey for central vein catheter exit site care. SeminDial 1999;12(5):397-398.
Nagra ZM, Fayyaz GQ Asim M. Honey dressings; Experience at Department of Plastic Surgery and burns Allied Hospital Faisalabad. Prof Med J 2002;9(3):246-251.
Ndayisaba, G., Bazira, L., Habonimana, E., and Muteganya, D. [Clinical and bacteriological outcome of wounds treated with honey. An analysis of a series of 40 cases]. Rev.Chir Orthop.Reparatrice Appar.Mot. 1993;79(2):111-113. View abstract.
Oryan, A. and Zaker, S. R. Effects of topical application of honey on cutaneous wound healing in rabbits. Zentralbl.Veterinarmed.A 1998;45(3):181-188. View abstract.
Othman, Z., Shafin, N., Zakaria, R., Hussain, N. H., and Mohammad, W. M. Improvement in immediate memory after 16 weeks of tualang honey (Agro Mas) supplement in healthy postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2011;18(11):1219-1224. View abstract.
Patel, B. and Cox-Hayley, D. Managing wound odor #218. J Palliat.Med 2010;13(10):1286-1287. View abstract.
Patil, A. R. and Keswani, M. H. Bandages of boiled potato peels. Burns Incl.Therm.Inj. 1985;11(6):444-445. View abstract.
Paul, I. M. Therapeutic options for acute cough due to upper respiratory infections in children. Lung 2012;190(1):41-44. View abstract.
Phuapradit, W. and Saropala, N. Topical application of honey in treatment of abdominal wound disruption. Aust.N.Z.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1992;32(4):381-384. View abstract.
Pieper, B. Honey-based dressings and wound care: an option for care in the United States. J Wound.Ostomy.Continence.Nurs. 2009;36(1):60-66. View abstract.
Quadri, KHM. Manuka honey for central vein catheter site exit care. Seminars in Dialysis 1999;12:397-398.
Ratcliffe, N. A., Mello, C. B., Garcia, E. S., Butt, T. M., and Azambuja, P. Insect natural products and processes: new treatments for human disease. Insect Biochem.Mol.Biol. 2011;41(10):747-769. View abstract.
Robbins, J., Gensler, G., Hind, J., Logemann, J. A., Lindblad, A. S., Brandt, D., Baum, H., Lilienfeld, D., Kosek, S., Lundy, D., Dikeman, K., Kazandjian, M., Gramigna, G. D., McGarvey-Toler, S., and Miller Gardner, P. J. Comparison of 2 interventions for liquid aspiration on pneumonia incidence: a randomized trial. Ann.Intern.Med 4-1-2008;148(7):509-518. View abstract.
Robson, V., Dodd, S., and Thomas, S. Standardized antibacterial honey (Medihoney) with standard therapy in wound care: randomized clinical trial. J Adv.Nurs. 2009;65(3):565-575. View abstract.
Rudzka-Nowak, A., Luczywek, P., Gajos, M. J., and Piechota, M. Application of manuka honey and GENADYNE A4 negative pressure wound therapy system in a 55-year-old woman with extensive phlegmonous and necrotic lesions in the abdominal integuments and lumbar region after traumatic rupture of the colon. Med Sci Monit. 2010;16(11):CS138-CS142. View abstract.
Sare, J. L. Leg ulcer management with topical medical honey. Br J Community Nurs. 2008;13(9):S22, S24, S26. View abstract.
Schumacher, H. H. Use of medical honey in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers after split-skin grafting. J.Wound.Care 2004;13(10):451-452. View abstract.
Sela, M. O., Shapira, L., Grizim, I., Lewinstein, I., Steinberg, D., Gedalia, I., and Grobler, S. R. Effects of honey consumption on enamel microhardness in normal versus xerostomic patients. J.Oral Rehabil. 1998;25(8):630-634. View abstract.
Sela, M., Maroz, D., and Gedalia, I. Streptococcus mutans in saliva of normal subjects and neck and head irradiated cancer subjects after consumption of honey. J.Oral Rehabil. 2000;27(3):269-270. View abstract.
Shaaban, S. Y., Nassar, M. F., Ezz El-Arab, S., and Henein, H. H. Effect of honey supplementation on the phagocytic function during nutritional rehabilitation of protein energy malnutrition patients. J Trop.Pediatr. 2012;58(2):159-160. View abstract.
Sharp, A. Beneficial effects of honey dressings in wound management. Nurs.Stand. 10-21-2009;24(7):66-8, 70, 72. View abstract.
SILNESS, J. and Loee.H. Periodontal disease in pregnancy.II. Correlation between oral hygeine and periodontal condition. Acta Odontol.Scand. 1964;22:121-135. View abstract.
Staunton, C. J., Halliday, L. C., and Garcia, K. D. The use of honey as a topical dressing to treat a large, devitalized wound in a stumptail macaque (Macaca arctoides). Contemp.Top Lab Anim Sci. 2005;44(4):43-45. View abstract.
Subrahmanyam N. Addition of antioxidants and polyethylene glycol 4000 enhances the healing property of honey in burns. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 1996;9(2):93-95.
Subrahmanyam, M Sahapure AG Nagane NS et al. Effects of topical application of honey on burn wound healing. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2001;XIV(3)
Subrahmanyam, M. Honey as a surgical dressing for burns and ulcers. Indian Journal of Surgery 1993;55(9):468-473.
Sutlupinar, N., Mat, A., and Satganoglu, Y. Poisoning by toxic honey in Turkey. Arch.Toxicol. 1993;67(2):148-150. View abstract.
Swellam, T., Miyanaga, N., Onozawa, M., Hattori, K., Kawai, K., Shimazui, T., and Akaza, H. Antineoplastic activity of honey in an experimental bladder cancer implantation model: in vivo and in vitro studies. Int.J.Urol. 2003;10(4):213-219. View abstract.
Tavernelli, K., Reif, S., and Larsen, T. Managing venous leg ulcers in the home. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 2-1-2010;56(2):10-12. View abstract.
Tonks, A. J., Cooper, R. A., Jones, K. P., Blair, S., Parton, J., and Tonks, A. Honey stimulates inflammatory cytokine production from monocytes. Cytokine 3-7-2003;21(5):242-247. View abstract.
Tonks, A., Cooper, R. A., Price, A. J., Molan, P. C., and Jones, K. P. Stimulation of TNF-alpha release in monocytes by honey. Cytokine 5-21-2001;14(4):240-242. View abstract.
van den Berg, A. J., van den Worm, E., van Ufford, H. C., Halkes, S. B., Hoekstra, M. J., and Beukelman, C. J. An in vitro examination of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of buckwheat honey. J Wound.Care 2008;17(4):172-178. View abstract.
van der Vorst, M. M., Jamal, W., Rotimi, V. O., and Moosa, A. Infant botulism due to consumption of contaminated commercially prepared honey. First report from the Arabian Gulf States. Med Princ.Pract. 2006;15(6):456-458. View abstract.
Van der Weyden, E. A. The use of honey for the treatment of two patients with pressure ulcers. Br.J.Community Nurs. 2003;8(12):S14-S20. View abstract.
Vandeputte J & Van Waeyenberge PH. Clinical evaluation of L-Mesitran(R), a honey based wound ointment. European Wound Management Association Journal 2003;3:8-11.
Vardi, A., Barzilay, Z., Linder, N., Cohen, H. A., Paret, G., and Barzilai, A. Local application of honey for treatment of neonatal postoperative wound infection. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87(4):429-432. View abstract.
Visavadia, B. G., Honeysett, J., and Danford, M. H. Manuka honey dressing: An effective treatment for chronic wound infections. Br J Oral Maxillofac.Surg. 2008;46(1):55-56. View abstract.
Vitetta, L. and Sali, A. Treatments for damaged skin. Aust.Fam.Physician 2006;35(7):501-502. View abstract.
von Malottki, K. and Wiechmann, H. W. [Acute life-threatening bradycardia: food poisoning by Turkish wild honey]. Dtsch.Med.Wochenschr. 7-26-1996;121(30):936-938. View abstract.
Wagner, J. B. and Pine, H. S. Chronic cough in children. Pediatr.Clin North Am 2013;60(4):951-967. View abstract.
Weheida SM, Nagubib HH El-Banna HM Marzouk S. Comparing the effects of two dressing techniques\ on healing of low grade pressure ulcers. Journal of the Medical Research Institute 1991;12(2):259-278.
Werner, A. and Laccourreye, O. Honey in otorhinolaryngology: when, why and how? Eur.Ann.Otorhinolaryngol.Head Neck Dis 2011;128(3):133-137. View abstract.
White, R. J., Cutting, K., and Kingsley, A. Topical antimicrobials in the control of wound bioburden. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 2006;52(8):26-58. View abstract.
Wood, B., Rademaker, M., and Molan, P. Manuka honey, a low cost leg ulcer dressing. N.Z.Med.J. 3-28-1997;110(1040):107. View abstract.
Yarlioglues, M., Akpek, M., Ardic, I., Elcik, D., Sahin, O., and Kaya, M. G. Mad-honey sexual activity and acute inferior myocardial infarctions in a married couple. Tex.Heart Inst.J 2011;38(5):577-580. View abstract.
Zeina, B., Zohra, B. I., and al assad, S. The effects of honey on Leishmania parasites: an in vitro study. Trop.Doct. 1997;27 Suppl 1:36-38. View abstract.
Zidan, J., Shetver, L., Gershuny, A., Abzah, A., Tamam, S., Stein, M., and Friedman, E. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia by special honey intake. Med Oncol 2006;23(4):549-552. View abstract.
Abdelhafiz, A. T. and Muhamad, J. A. Midcycle pericoital intravaginal bee honey and royal jelly for male factor infertility. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2008;101(2):146-149. View abstract.
Abdulla CO, Ayubi A, Zulfiquer F, Santhanam G, Ahmed MA, Deeb J. Infant botulism following honey ingestion. BMJ Case Rep. 2012 Sep 7;2012. View abstract.
Abdulrhman M., El Barbary N. S., Ahmed Amin D., and Saeid Ebrahim R. Honey and a mixture of honey, beeswax, and olive oil-propolis extract in treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomized controlled pilot study. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2012;29(3):285-292. View abstract.
Abdulrhman, M. A., Mekawy, M. A., Awadalla, M. M., and Mohamed, A. H. Bee honey added to the oral rehydration solution in treatment of gastroenteritis in infants and children. J Med Food 2010;13(3):605-609. View abstract.
Abdulrhman, M. A., Nassar, M. F., Mostafa, H. W., El-Khayat, Z. A., and Abu El Naga, M. W. Effect of honey on 50% complement hemolytic activity in infants with protein energy malnutrition: a randomized controlled pilot study. J Med Food 2011;14(5):551-555. View abstract.
Abdulrhman, M. M., El-Hefnawy, M. H., Aly, R. H., Shatla, R. H., Mamdouh, R. M., Mahmoud, D. M., and Mohamed, W. S. Metabolic effects of honey in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover pilot study. J Med Food 2013;16(1):66-72. View abstract.
Abdulrhman, M., El-Hefnawy, M., Hussein, R., and El-Goud, A. A. The glycemic and peak incremental indices of honey, sucrose and glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: effects on C-peptide level-a pilot study. Acta Diabetol 2011;48(2):89-94. View abstract.
Akinci, S., Arslan, U., Karakurt, K., and Cengel, A. An unusual presentation of mad honey poisoning: acute myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol 2008;129(2):e56-e58. View abstract.
Al-Waili, N. S. Natural honey lowers plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and blood lipids in healthy, diabetic, and hyperlipidemic subjects: comparison with dextrose and sucrose. J Med Food 2004;7(1):100-107. View abstract.
Al-Waili, N. S. Topical honey application vs. acyclovir for the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex lesions. Med Sci Monit 2004;10(8):MT94-MT98. View abstract.
Al-Waili, N. S., Saloom, K. S., Al-Waili, T. N., and Al-Waili, A. N. The safety and efficacy of a mixture of honey, olive oil, and beeswax for the management of hemorrhoids and anal fissure: a pilot study. ScientificWorldJournal 2006;6:1998-2005. View abstract.
Alcaraz A, Kelly J. Treatment of an infected venous leg ulcer with honey dressings. Br J Nurs 2002;11:859-60, 862, 864-6. View abstract.
Aliyev, F., Türkoglu, C., and Celiker, C. Nodal rhythm and ventricular parasystole: an unusual electrocardiographic presentation of mad honey poisoning. Clin Cardiol 2009;32(11):E52-E54. View abstract.
Alvarez-Suarez JM, Giampieri F, Battino M. Honey as a source of dietary antioxidants: structures, bioavailability and evidence of protective effects against human chronic diseases. Curr Med Chem. 2013;20(5):621-38. View abstract.
Alvarez-Suarez JM, Tulipani S, Romandini S, Bertoli E, Battino M. Contribution of honey in nutrition and human health: a review. Mediterr J Nutr Metab 2010;3:15-23.
Asha'ari ZA, Ahmad MZ, Jihan WS, Che CM, Leman I. Ingestion of honey improves the symptoms of allergic rhinitis: evidence from a randomized placebo-controlled trial in the East coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Ann Saudi Med. 2013 Sep-Oct;33(5):469-75. View abstract.
Bahrami, M., Ataie-Jafari, A., Hosseini, S., Foruzanfar, M. H., Rahmani, M., and Pajouhi, M. Effects of natural honey consumption in diabetic patients: an 8-week randomized clinical trial. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009;60(7):618-626. View abstract.
Bardy, J., Molassiotis, A., Ryder, W. D., Mais, K., Sykes, A., Yap, B., Lee, L., Kaczmarski, E., and Slevin, N. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of active manuka honey and standard oral care for radiation-induced oral mucositis. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012;50(3):221-226. View abstract.
Bayram, N. A., Keles, T., Durmaz, T., Dogan, S., and Bozkurt, E. A rare cause of atrial fibrillation: mad honey intoxication. J Emerg Med 2012;43(6):e389-e391. View abstract.
Biswal BM, Zakaria A, Ahmad NM. Topical application of honey in the management of radiation mucositis. A preliminary study. Support Care Cancer 2003;11:242-8. View abstract.
Bose B. Honey or sugar in treatment of infected wounds? Lancet 1982;1:963.
Cakar, M. A., Can, Y., Vatan, M. B., Demirtas, S., Gunduz, H., and Akdemir, R. Atrial fibrillation induced by mad honey intoxication in a patient with Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2011;49(5):438-439. View abstract.
Centers for Disease Control. Botulism in the Unites Sates, 1899-1996. Handbook for epidemiologists, clinicians, and laboratory workers, 1998. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/botulism.PDF.
Cernak, M., Majtanova, N., Cernak, A., and Majtan, J. Honey prophylaxis reduces the risk of endophthalmitis during perioperative period of eye surgery. Phytother Res 2012;26(4):613-616. View abstract.
Choo, Y. K., Kang, H. Y., and Lim, S. H. Cardiac problems in mad-honey intoxication. Circ J 2008;72(7):1210-1211. View abstract.
Cohen, H. A., Rozen, J., Kristal, H., Laks, Y., Berkovitch, M., Uziel, Y., Kozer, E., Pomeranz, A., and Efrat, H. Effect of honey on nocturnal cough and sleep quality: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Pediatrics 2012;130(3):465-471. View abstract.
Cooper RA, Molan PC, Harding KG. Antibacterial activity of honey against strains of Staphylococcus aureus from infected wounds. J R Soc Med 1999;92:283-5. View abstract.
Cooper RA, Molan PC, Krishnamoorthy L, Harding KG. Manuka honey used to heal a recalcitrant surgical wound. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2001;20:758-9. View abstract.
Dubey, L., Maskey, A., and Regmi, S. Bradycardia and severe hypotension caused by wild honey poisoning. Hellenic J Cardiol 2009;50(5):426-428. View abstract.
Dursunoglu, D., Gur, S., and Semiz, E. A case with complete atrioventricular block related to mad honey intoxication. Ann Emerg Med 2007;50(4):484-485. View abstract.
Eccles R. Mechanisms of the placebo effect of sweet cough syrups. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2006;152:340-8. View abstract.
Eddy JJ, Gideonsen MD. Topical honey for diabetic foot ulcers. J Fam Pract 2005;54:533-5. View abstract.
Efem SE. Clinical observations on the wound healing properties of honey. Br J Surg 1988;75:679-81. View abstract.
Efem, S. E. Recent advances in the management of Fournier's gangrene: preliminary observations. Surgery 1993;113(2):200-204. View abstract.
Emsen, I. M. A different and safe method of split thickness skin graft fixation: medical honey application. Burns 2007;33(6):782-787. View abstract.
English, H. K., Pack, A. R., and Molan, P. C. The effects of manuka honey on plaque and gingivitis: a pilot study. J Int Acad Periodontol 2004;6(2):63-67. View abstract.
Fenicia, L., Ferrini, A. M., Aureli, P., and Pocecco, M. A case of infant botulism associated with honey feeding in Italy. Eur J Epidemiol 1993;9(6):671-673. View abstract.
Fetzner, L., Burhenne, J., Weiss, J., Völker, M., Unger, M., Mikus, G., and Haefeli, W. E. Daily honey consumption does not change CYP3A activity in humans. J Clin Pharmacol 2011;51(8):1223-1232. View abstract.
Food and Drug Administration. 510(k) Summary for Derma Sciences Medihoney Primary Dressing with Active Manuka Honey. October 18, 2007. www.fda.gov/cdrh/pdf7/K072956.pdf (Accessed 23 June 2008).
George NM, Cutting KF. Antibacterial honey (Medihoney): in-vitro activity against clinical isolates of MRSA, VRE, and other multiresistant Gram-negative organsisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wounds 2007;19:231-6.
Gethin G, Cowman S. Case series of use of Manuka honey in leg ulceration. Int Wound J 2005;2:10-15. View abstract.
Gethin, G. and Cowman, S. Bacteriological changes in sloughy venous leg ulcers treated with manuka honey or hydrogel: an RCT. J Wound Care 2008;17(6):241-4, 246-7. View abstract.
Gethin, G. and Cowman, S. Manuka honey vs. hydrogel--a prospective, open label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial to compare desloughing efficacy and healing outcomes in venous ulcers. J Clin Nurs 2009;18(3):466-474. View abstract.
Gheldof N, Wang XH, Engeseth NJ. Buckwheat honey increases serum antioxidant capacity in humans. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:1500-5. View abstract.
Gheldof N, Wang XH, Engeseth NJ. Identification and quantification of antioxidant components of honeys from various floral sources. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:5870-7. View abstract.
Gossinger, H., Hruby, K., Haubenstock, A., Pohl, A., and Davogg, S. Cardiac arrhythmias in a patient with grayanotoxin-honey poisoning. Vet Hum Toxicol 1983;25(5):328-329. View abstract.
Gössinger, H., Hruby, K., Pohl, A., Davogg, S., Sutterlütti, G., and Mathis, G. [Poisoning with andromedotoxin-containing honey]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1983;108(41):1555-1558. View abstract.
Gunduz, A., Durmus, I., Turedi, S., Nuhoglu, I., and Ozturk, S. Mad honey poisoning-related asystole. Emerg Med J 2007;24(8):592-593. View abstract.
Gunduz, A., Meriçé, E. S., Baydin, A., Topbas, M., Uzun, H., Türedi, S., and Kalkan, A. Does mad honey poisoning require hospital admission? Am J Emerg Med 2009;27(4):424-427. View abstract.
Gunduz, A., Turedi, S., Russell, R. M., and Ayaz, F. A. Clinical review of grayanotoxin/mad honey poisoning past and present. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2008;46(5):437-442. View abstract.
Haffejee, I. E. and Moosa, A. Honey in the treatment of infantile gastroenteritis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985;290(6485):1866-1867. View abstract.
Hamzaoglu I, Saribeyoglu K, Durak H, et al. Protective covering of surgical wounds with honey impedes tumor implantation. Arch Surg 2000;135:1414-7. View abstract.
Hawley P, Hovan A, McGahan CE, Saunders D. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of manuka honey for radiation-induced oral mucositis. Support Care Cancer. 2014 Mar;22(3):751-61. View abstract.
Hejase, M. J., Simonin, J. E., Bihrle, R., and Coogan, C. L. Genital Fournier's gangrene: experience with 38 patients. Urology 1996;47(5):734-739. View abstract.
Henriques A, Jackson S, Cooper R, Burton N. Free radical production and quenching in honeys with wound healing potential. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006;58:773-7. View abstract.
Ingle R, Levin J, Polinder K. Wound healing with honey - a randomised controlled trial. S Afr Med J 2006;96:831-5. View abstract.
Johnson DW, Badve SV, Pascoe EM, Beller E, Cass A, Clark C, de Zoysa J, Isbel NM, McTaggart S, Morrish AT, Playford EG, Scaria A, Snelling P, Vergara LA, Hawley CM; HONEYPOT Study Collaborative Group. Antibacterial honey for the prevention of peritoneal-dialysis-related infections (HONEYPOT): a randomised trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Jan;14(1):23-30. View abstract.
Johnson DW, van Eps C, Mudge DW, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of topical exit-site application of honey (Medihoney) versus mupirocin for the prevention of catheter-associated infections in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005;16:1456-62. View abstract.
Jull AB, Cullum N, Dumville JC, Westby MJ, Deshpande S, Walker N. Honey as a topical treatment for wounds. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Mar 6;3:CD005083. View abstract.
Jull, A. B., Walker, N., and Deshpande, S. Honey as a topical treatment for wounds. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;2:CD005083. View abstract.
Jull, A., Walker, N., Parag, V., Molan, P., and Rodgers, A. Randomized clinical trial of honey-impregnated dressings for venous leg ulcers. Br J Surg 2008;95(2):175-182. View abstract.
Jung, A. and Ottosson, J. [Infantile botulism caused by honey]. Ugeskr Laeger 2001;163(2):169. View abstract.
Kamaratos AV, Tzirogiannis KN, Iraklianou SA, Panoutsopoulos GI, Kanellos IE, Melidonis AI. Manuka honey-impregnated dressings in the treatment of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers. Int Wound J. 2014 Jun;11(3):259-63. View abstract.
Karpelowsky J, Allsopp M. Wound healing with honey - a randomized controlled trial (letter). S Afr Med J 2007;97:314. View abstract.
Kas'ianenko, V. I., Komisarenko, I. A., and Dubtsova, E. A. [Correction of atherogenic dyslipidemia with honey, pollen and bee bread in patients with different body mass]. Ter Arkh 2011;83(8):58-62. View abstract.
Khanal, B., Baliga, M., and Uppal, N. Effect of topical honey on limitation of radiation-induced oral mucositis: an intervention study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010;39(12):1181-1185. View abstract.
Koca, I. and Koca, A. F. Poisoning by mad honey: a brief review. Food Chem Toxicol 2007;45(8):1315-1318. View abstract.
Kwakman PHS, Van den Akker JPC, Guclu A, et al. Medical-grade honey kills antibiotic-resistant bacteria in vitro and eradicates skin colonization. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:1677-82. View abstract.
Lancaster S, Krieder RB, Rasmussen C, et al. Effects of honey on glucose, insulin and endurance cycling performance. Abstract presented 4/4/01 at Experimental Biology 2001, Orlando, FL.
Lennerz, C., Jilek, C., Semmler, V., Deisenhofer, I., and Kolb, C. Sinus arrest from mad honey disease. Ann Intern Med 2012;157(10):755-756. View abstract.
Lund-Nielsen, B., Adamsen, L., Kolmos, H. J., Rørth, M., Tolver, A., and Gottrup, F. The effect of honey-coated bandages compared with silver-coated bandages on treatment of malignant wounds-a randomized study. Wound Repair Regen 2011;19(6):664-670. View abstract.
Maiti, P. K., Ray, A., Mitra, T. N., Jana, U., Bhattacharya, J., and Ganguly, S. The effect of honey on mucositis induced by chemoradiation in head and neck cancer. J Indian Med Assoc 2012;110(7):453-456. View abstract.
Malik, K. I., Malik, M. A., and Aslam, A. Honey compared with silver sulphadiazine in the treatment of superficial partial-thickness burns. Int Wound J 2010;7(5):413-417. View abstract.
Matos D, Serrano P, Menezes Brandão F. A case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by propolis-enriched honey. Contact Dermatitis. 2015 Jan;72(1):59-60. View abstract.
McIntosh, C. D. and Thomson, C. E. Honey dressing versus paraffin tulle gras following toenail surgery. J Wound Care 2006;15(3):133-136. View abstract.
Misirlioglu A, Eroglu S, Karacaoglan N, et al. Use of honey as an adjunct in the healing of split-thickness skin graft donor site. Dermatol Surg 2003;29:168-72. View abstract.
Molan PC. The evidence supporting the use of honey as a wound dressing. Int J Lower Extrem Wounds 2006;5:40-54. View abstract.
Moolenaar, M., Poorter, R. L., van der Toorn, P. P., Lenderink, A. W., Poortmans, P., and Egberts, A. C. The effect of honey compared to conventional treatment on healing of radiotherapy-induced skin toxicity in breast cancer patients. Acta Oncol 2006;45(5):623-624. View abstract.
Moore OA, Smith LA, Campbell F, et al. Systematic review of the use of honey as a wound dressing. BMC Complement Altern Med 2001;1:2. View abstract.
Motallebnejad, M., Akram, S., Moghadamnia, A., Moulana, Z., and Omidi, S. The effect of topical application of pure honey on radiation-induced mucositis: a randomized clinical trial. J Contemp Dent Pract 2008;9(3):40-47. View abstract.
Mujtaba Quadri KH, Huraib SO. Manuka honey for central vein catheter exit site care. Semin Dial 1999;12:397-8.
Münstedt, K., Hoffmann, S., Hauenschild, A., Bülte, M., von Georgi R., and Hackethal, A. Effect of honey on serum cholesterol and lipid values. J Med Food 2009;12(3):624-628. View abstract.
Natarajan S, Williamson D, Grey J, et al. Healing of an MRSA-colonized, hydroxyurea-induced leg ulcer with honey. J Dermatolog Treat 2001;12:33-6. View abstract.
Nijhuis, W. A., Houwing, R. H., Van der Zwet, W. C., and Jansman, F. G. A randomised trial of honey barrier cream versus zinc oxide ointment. Br J Nurs 2012;21(20):9-3. View abstract.
Nilforoushzadeh, M. A., Jaffary, F., Moradi, S., Derakhshan, R., and Haftbaradaran, E. Effect of topical honey application along with intralesional injection of glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. BMC Complement Altern Med 2007;7:13. View abstract.
Oduwole O, Meremikwu MM, Oyo-Ita A, Udoh EE. Honey for acute cough in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Dec 23;12:CD007094. View abstract.
Oduwole, O., Meremikwu, M. M., Oyo-Ita, A., and Udoh, E. E. Honey for acute cough in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;3:CD007094. View abstract.
Oguzturk, H., Ciftci, O., Turtay, M. G., and Yumrutepe, S. Complete atrioventricular block caused by mad honey intoxication. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012;16(12):1748-1750. View abstract.
Okeniyi JA, Olubanjo OO, Ogunlesi TA, Oyelami OA. Comparison of healing of incised abscess wounds with honey and EUSOL dressing. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11:511-3. View abstract.
Olaitan PB, Adeleke OE, Ola IO. Honey: a reservoir for microorganisms and an inhibitory agent for microbes. Afr Health Sci 2007;7:159-65. View abstract.
Oluwatosin, O. M., Olabanji, J. K., Oluwatosin, O. A., Tijani, L. A., and Onyechi, H. U. A comparison of topical honey and phenytoin in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers. Afr J Med Med Sci 2000;29(1):31-34. View abstract.
Onat, F. Y., Yegen, B. C., Lawrence, R., Oktay, A., and Oktay, S. Mad honey poisoning in man and rat. Rev Environ Health 1991;9(1):3-9. View abstract.
Osato MS, Reddy SG, Graham DY. Osmotic effect of honey on growth and viability of Helicobacter pylori. Dig Dis Sci 1999;44:462-4. View abstract.
Ozhan H, Akdemir R, Yazici M, et al. Cardiac emergencies caused by honey ingestion: a single centre experience. Emerg Med J 2004;21:742-4. View abstract.
Ozlugedik, S., Genc, S., Unal, A., Elhan, A. H., Tezer, M., and Titiz, A. Can postoperative pains following tonsillectomy be relieved by honey? A prospective, randomized, placebo controlled preliminary study. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2006;70(11):1929-1934. View abstract.
Paul IM, Beiler J, McMonagle A, et al. Effect of honey, dextromethorphan, and no treatment on nocturnal cough and sleep quality for coughing children and their parents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2007;161:1140-6. View abstract.
Postmes T, van den Bogaard AE, Hazen M. Honey for wounds, ulcers, and skin graft preservation. Lancet 1993;341:756-7.
Raeessi MA, Aslani J, Raeessi N, Gharaie H, Karimi Zarchi AA, Raeessi F. Honey plus coffee versus systemic steroid in the treatment of persistent post-infectious cough: a randomised controlled trial. Prim Care Respir J. 2013 Sep;22(3):325-30. View abstract
Raeessi MA, Raeessi N, Panahi Y, Gharaie H, Davoudi SM, Saadat A, Karimi Zarchi AA, Raeessi F, Ahmadi SM, Jalalian H. "Coffee plus honey" versus "topical steroid" in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Aug 8;14:293. View abstract.
Rajan TV, Tennen H, Lindquist RL, et al. Effect of ingestion of honey on symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002;88:198-203. View abstract.
Rashad, U. M., Al-Gezawy, S. M., El-Gezawy, E., and Azzaz, A. N. Honey as topical prophylaxis against radiochemotherapy-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer. J Laryngol Otol 2009;123(2):223-228. View abstract.
Robson, V., Yorke, J., Sen, R. A., Lowe, D., and Rogers, S. N. Randomised controlled feasibility trial on the use of medical grade honey following microvascular free tissue transfer to reduce the incidence of wound infection. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012;50(4):321-327. View abstract.
Saritas, A., Kandis, H., Baltaci, D., and Erdem, I. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and intermittent left bundle branch block: an unusual electrocardiographic presentation of mad honey poisoning. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2011;66(9):1651-1653. View abstract.
Sayin, M. R., Karabag, T., Dogan, S. M., Akpinar, I., and Aydin, M. Transient ST segment elevation and left bundle branch block caused by mad-honey poisoning. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2012;124(7-8):278-281. View abstract.
Schramm DD, Karim M, Schrader HR, et al. Honey with high levels of antioxidants can provide protection to healthy human subjects. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:1732-5. View abstract.
Shaaban, S. Y., Abdulrhman, M. A., Nassar, M. F., and Fathy, R. A. Effect of honey on gastric emptying of infants with protein energy malnutrition. Eur J Clin Invest 2010;40(5):383-387. View abstract.
Shadkam MN, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Mozayan MR. A comparison of the effect of honey, dextromethorphan, and diphenhydramine on nightly cough and sleep quality in children and their parents. J Altern Complement Med 2010:16:787-93. View abstract.
Shoma, A., Eldars, W., Noman, N., Saad, M., Elzahaf, E., Abdalla, M., Eldin, D. S., Zayed, D., Shalaby, A., and Malek, H. A. Pentoxifylline and local honey for radiation-induced burn following breast conservative surgery. Curr Clin Pharmacol 2010;5(4):251-256. View abstract.
Shrestha, P., Vaidya, R., and Sherpa, K. Mad honey poisoning: a rare case report of seven cases. Nepal Med Coll J 2009;11(3):212-213. View abstract.
Shukrimi, A., Sulaiman, A. R., Halim, A. Y., and Azril, A. A comparative study between honey and povidone iodine as dressing solution for Wagner type II diabetic foot ulcers. Med J Malaysia 2008;63(1):44-46. View abstract.
Shukrimi, A., Sulaiman, A. R., Halim, A. Y., and Azril, A. A comparative study between honey and povidone iodine as dressing solution for Wagner type II diabetic foot ulcers. Med J Malaysia 2008;63(1):44-46. View abstract.
Simon A, Sofka K, Wiszniewsky G, et al. Wound care with antibacterial honey (Medihoney) in pediatric hematology-oncology. Support Care Cancer 2006;14:91-7. View abstract.
Simon A, Traynor K, Santos K, et al. Medical honey for wound care - still the 'latest resort'? Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2009;6:165-73. View abstract.
Song, J. J., Twumasi-Ankrah, P., and Salcido, R. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of honey to protect from the effects of radiation-induced oral mucositis. Adv Skin Wound Care 2012;25(1):23-28. View abstract.
Stephen-Haynes J. Evaluation of a honey-impregnated tulle dressing in primary care. Br J Community Nurs 2004;Suppl:S21-7. View abstract.
Subrahmanyam M, Ugane SP. Honey dressing beneficial in treatment of Fournier's gangrene. Indian Journal of Surgery 2004;66(2):75-77.
Subrahmanyam M. A prospective randomized, clinical and histological study of superficial burn wound healing with honey and silver sulfadiazine. Burns 1998;24:157-61. View abstract.
Subrahmanyam M. Honey dressing vs boiled potato peel in the treatment of burns: a prospective randomized study. Burns 1996;22:491-3. View abstract.
Subrahmanyam M. Honey impregnated gauze versus polyurethane film (OpSite) in the treatment of burns- a prospective randomized study. Br J Plast Surg 1993;46:322-3. View abstract.
Subrahmanyam M. Honey impregnated gauze vs amniotic membrane in the treatment of burns. Burns 1994;20:331-3. View abstract.
Subrahmanyam M. Topical application of honey in treatment of burns. Br J Surg 1991;78:497-8. View abstract.
Subrahmanyam M. Early tangential excision and skin grafting of moderate burns is superior to honey dressing: a prospective randomised trial. Burns 1999;25:729-31. View abstract.
Sukriti and Garg, S. K. Influence of honey on the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin in rabbits. Ind J Pharmacol 2002;34(147).
Sumerkan, M. C., Agirbasli, M., Altundag, E., and Bulur, S. Mad-honey intoxication confirmed by pollen analysis. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2011;49(9):872-873. View abstract.
Tahmaz, L., Erdemir, F., Kibar, Y., Cosar, A., and Yalcýn, O. Fournier's gangrene: report of thirty-three cases and a review of the literature. Int J Urol 2006;13(7):960-967. View abstract.
Thamboo, A., Thamboo, A., Philpott, C., Javer, A., and Clark, A. Single-blind study of manuka honey in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2011;40(3):238-243. View abstract.
Tonks AJ, Dudley E, Porter NG, et al. A 5.8-kDa component of manuka honey stimulates immune cells via TLR4. J Leukoc Biol 2007;82:1147-55.. View abstract.
Tushar, T., Vinod, T., Rajan, S., Shashindran, C., and Adithan, C. Effect of honey on CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 enzyme activity in healthy human volunteers. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007;100(4):269-272. View abstract.
Vezir E, Kaya A, Toyran M, Azkur D, Dibek Misirlioglu E, Kocabas CN. Anaphylaxis/angioedema caused by honey ingestion. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2014 Jan-Feb;35(1):71-4. View abstract.
Weiss, T. W., Smetana, P., Nurnberg, M., and Huber, K. The honey man--second degree heart block after honey intoxication. Int J Cardiol 2010;142(1):e6-e7. View abstract.
Wijesinghe, M., Weatherall, M., Perrin, K., and Beasley, R. Honey in the treatment of burns: a systematic review and meta-analysis of its efficacy. N Z Med J 2009;122(1295):47-60. View abstract.
Yaghoobi, N., Al-Waili, N., Ghayour-Mobarhan, M., Parizadeh, S. M., Abasalti, Z., Yaghoobi, Z., Yaghoobi, F., Esmaeili, H., Kazemi-Bajestani, S. M., Aghasizadeh, R., Saloom, K. Y., and Ferns, G. A. Natural honey and cardiovascular risk factors; effects on blood glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerole, CRP, and body weight compared with sucrose. ScientificWorldJournal 2008;8:463-469. View abstract.
Yapucu Günes U, Eser I. Effectiveness of a honey dressing for healing pressure ulcers. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2007;34(2):184-190. View abstract.
Yildirim, N., Aydin, M., Cam, F., and Celik, O. Clinical presentation of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the course of intoxication with mad honey. Am J Emerg Med 2008;26(1):108.e-2. View abstract.
Yorgun, H., Ülgen, A., and Aytemir, K. A rare cause of junctional rhythm causing syncope; mad honey intoxication. J Emerg Med 2010;39(5):656-658. View abstract.
Zaid SS, Sulaiman SA, Sirajudeen KN, Othman NH. The effects of Tualang honey on female reproductive organs, tibia bone and hormonal profile in ovariectomised rats--animal model for menopause. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Dec 31;10:82. View abstract.